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ne from the high seas of the world with above all others. Brother Godfrey, sent he irresistible vortex of his own religious out to be first Abbot of Fontenay,ervour. His incessant cry for Europe soon as he has set all things in order s, Better monasteries, and more of them. there, returns, only too gladly, from that Ler these ecclesiastical castles multiply; rich and lovely region, to re-enter his old let them cover and command the land, cell, to walk around, delightedly revisitwell garrisoned with men of God, and ing the well-remembered spots among then, despite all heresy and schism, the trees or by the water-side, marking theocracy will nourishi, the earth shall how the fields and gardens have come yield her increase, and all people praise on, and relating to the eager brethren the Lord. Who so wise as Bernard to (for even Bernard's monks have curiowin souls for Christ, that is to say, re- sity) all that befell him in his work. cruits for the cloister? With what elo. He would sooner be third Prior at Clairquence he paints the raptures of con- vaux, than Abbot of Fontenay. So, too, templation, ihe vanity and sin of earthly with Brother Humbert, commissioned ambition or of earthly love! Wherever in like manner to regulate Igny Abbey in his travels Bernard may have preached, (fourth daughter of Clairvaux). He soon there, presently, exultant monks must comes back, weary of the labour and sick open wide their doors to admit new for home, to look on the Aube once converts. Wherever he goes, he be- more, to hear the old mills go drumreaves mothers of their children, the ming and droning, with that monotony aged of their last solace and last sup- of muftled sound-the associate of his port ; praising those the most wlio leave | pious reveries--often heard in his dreams most misery behind them. Ilow sternly when far away; to set his feet on the does he rebuke those Rachels who mourn very same lagstone in the choir where and will not be comforted for children he used to stand, and to be happy. But dead to them for ever! What vitriol Bernard, though away in Italy, toiling does he pour into the wounds when he in the matter of the schism, gets to hear asks if they will drag their son down to of his return, and finds time to send him perdition with themselves by resisting across the Alps a letter of rebuke for the vocation of Heaven ; whether it was this criminal self-pleasing, whose terrible not enough that they brought him forth sharpness must have darkened the poor sinful to a world of sin, and will they man's meditations for many a day. now, in their insane affection, cast him “Bernard had further the satisfaction into the fires of hell ? Yet Bernard is of improving and extending monasticism not hard-hearted by nature. He can to the utmost; of sewing together, with pity this disgraceful weakness of the tolerable success, the rended vesture of Aesh. He makes such amends as super. the Papacy; of suppressing a more po. stition may. I will be a father to him, pular and more Scriptural Christianity,

Alas! cold comfort. You, for the benefit of his despotic order; of their hearts will answer, whose flocks quenching for a time, by the extinctior. are countless, would nothing content of Abelard, the spirit of free inquiry; you but our ewe lamb ? Perhaps some and of seeing his ascetic and superhuman cloister will be, for them too, the last ideal of religion everywhere accepted as resource of their desolation. They will the genuine type Christian virtue." fly for ease in their pain to the system 104. The Veronica is the portrait of which caused it. Bernard hopes so. So our Saviour impressed upon a veil or inhuman is the humanity of asceticism; kerchief, preserved with great care in cruel its tender mercies ; thus does it the church of the Santi Apostoli at depopulate the world of its best in order Rome. Collin de Plancy, Legendes des to improve it.

Saintes Images, p. 11, gives the follow“ Bernard had his wish. He made ing account of it :Clairvaux the cynosure of all contem Properly speaking, the Veronica plative eyes. For any one'who could (vera icon) is the true likeness of Our exist at all as a monk, with any satis. Lord; and the same name has been given saction to himself, that was the place to the holy woman who obtained it, he

he says.

cause the name of this holy woman was 12. “Have mercy upon me, are the uncertain. According to some, she was first words of Psalm li., “a Psalm of a pious Jewess, called Seraphia ; accord. David, when Nathan the prophet caine ing to others, she was Berenice, niece of unto him.” llerod. It is impossible to decide be 24. The saints of the Old Testa tween the different traditions, some of ment. which make her a virgin, and others the 27. The saints of the New Testament. wife of Zaccheus.

31. John the Baptist, seated at the “However this may be, the happy point of the mystic Rose, opposite to woman who obtained ihe venerable im- ihe Virgin Mary. He died two years print of the holy face lived not far from before Christ's resurrection, and during ihe palace of Pilate. Her house is still these two years was in the Limbo of the shown to pilgrims at Jerusalem ; and a Fathers. Canon of Mayence, who went to the 40. The row of seats which divides Holy Land in 1483, reported that he had the Rose horizontally, and crosses the visited the house of the Veronica. two vertical lines of division, made by

" When she saw Our Lord pass, bear the seat of the Virgin Mary and those ing his cross, covered with blood, spittle, of the other Hebrew women on one sweat, and dust, she ran to meet him, side, and on the other the seats of John and, presenting her kerchief, tried to the Baptist and of the other saints of wipe his adorable face. Our Lord, the New Testament beneath him, leaving for an instant the burden of the 43. That is to say, by the faith of cross 1o Simon the Cyrenean, took the their parents, by circumcision, and by kerchief, applied it to his face, and gave baptism, as explained line 76 et seq. it back to the pious woman, marked with 58. Festinata gente, dying in infancy, the exact imprint of his august counte. and thus hurried into the life etemal. nance."

Shakespeare, King Lear, III. 7: AdOf the Veronica there are four copies vise the Duke, where you are going to a in existence, each claiming to be the ori- most festinate preparation.' ginal ; one at Rome, another at Paris, a 68. Jacob and Esau. Genesis xxv. third at Laon, and a fourth at Xaen in 22 : And the children struggled toAndalusia. The traveller who has crossed gether within her.” And komans ix. the Sierra Morena cannot easily forget 11: “For the children being not yet the stone column, surmounted by an iron born, neither having done any good or cross, which marks the boundary between evil, that the purpose of God, according La Mancha and Andalusia, with the me to election, might stand, not of works, lancholy stone face upon it, and the in- but of him that calleth.” scription, El verdadero Retrato de la 70. Buti comments thus : ** As it Santa Cara del Dios de Xain."

pleased God to give black hair to one, 116. The Virgin Mary, Regina Cæli. and to the other red, so it pleased him 125. The chariot of the sun.

to give more grace to one ihan to the

other.' And the Ottimo says: “One CANTO XXXII.

was red, the other black; which colours

denote the temperaments of men, and 1. St. Bernard, absorbed in contem- accordingly the inclination of their plation of the Virgin.

minds." St. Augustine, Serm. 18 De sanctis, says :

75. The keenness of vision with which Nla percussit, isla

they are originally endowed. sanavit."

76. From Adam to Abraham. 8. Rachel is an emblem of Divine Contemplation. Inf. II. 101, Beatrice xvil. 10: “This is my covenant, which

79. From Abraham to Christ. Genesis says :

ye shall keep, between me and you, and "And came unto the place Where I was sitting with the ancient Rachel." ihy seed after thee : Every man-child

among you shall be circumcised." 11. Ruth the Moabitess, ancesiress of 85. The face of the Virgin Mary. King David.

| Didror, in his Christ Icould., I. 243,

5. Eve.

devotes a chapter to the “History of colour of wine, and from the top of the the Portraits of God the Son." Be- head to the ears straight and without sides the Veronica and the Santo Volto, radiance, but it descends from the ears attributed to Nicodemus, he mentions to the shoulders in shining curls. From others which tradition traces back to the shoulders the hair flows down the Pilate and St. Luke, and a statue back, divided into two portions, after erected to Christ by the woman who the manner of the Nazarenes ; his forewas cured of the bloody flux. In the head is clear and without wrinkle, his following extract several others are. re- face free from blemish, and slightly ferred to :

tinged with red, his physiognomy noble Abgarus, king of Edessa, having and gracious. The nose and mouth learnt, says Damascenus, the wonderful faultless. His beard is abundant, the things related of our Saviour, became same colour as the hair, and forked. His inflamed with Divine love ; he sent eyes blue and very brilliant. In reprove ambassadors to the Son of God, in- ing or censuring he is awe-inspiring ; in viting him to come and visit him, and exhorting and teaching, his speech is should the Saviour refuse to grant his gentle and caressing. His countenance request, he charged his ambassadors to is marvellous in seriousness and grace. employ some artist to make a portrait He has never once been seen to laugh ; of our Lord. Jesus, from whom nothing but many have seen him weep. He is is hidden, and to whom nothing is slender in person, his hands are straight impossible, being aware of the inten- and long, his arms beautiful. Grave tion of Abgarus, took a piece of linen, and solemn in his discourse, his lanapplied it to his face, and depicted guage is simple and quiet. He is in thereon his own image. This very por. appearance the most beautiful of the trait, continues Damascenus, is in ex- children of men.' istence at the present day, and in perfect The Emperor Constantine caused preservation.

pictures of the Son of God to be painted “At the same epoch, a minute ver- from this ancient description. bal description of the appearance of “In the eighth century, at the period Christ was in circulation. The fol- in which Saint John Damascenus wrote, lowing description, which is of great the lineaments of this remarkable figure importance, was sent to the Roman continued to be the same as they are to Senate by Publius Lentulus, Proconsul this day. of Judæa, before Herod. Lentulus had “The hair and the beard, the colour of seen the Saviour, and had made him sit which is somewhat undetermined in the to him, as it were, that he might give letter of Lentulus, for wine may be pale, a written description of his features and golden, red, or violet colour, is distinctly physiognomy. His portrait, apocryphal noted by Damascenus, who also adds ihough it be, is at least one of the first the tint of the complexion ; moreover, upon record; it dates from the earliest the opinion of Damascenus, like that of period of the Church, and has been Lentulus, is decidedly in favour of the mentioned by the most ancient fathers. beauty of Christ, and the former severely Lentulus writes to the Senate as follows: censures the Manicliaans, who enter* At this time appeared a man who is tained a contrary opinion. Thus, then, still living and endowed with mighty Christ, in taking upon him the form of power ; his name is Jesus Christ. His Adam, assumed features exactly resem disciples call him the Son of God; others bling those of tire Virgin Mary. . regard him as a powerful prophet. He In the West, a century later than raises the dead to life, and heals the the time of Damascenus, Christ was sick of every description of infirmity and always thus depicted. S. Anschaire, disease. This man is of lofty státure, Archbishop of Hamburg and Bremen, and well-proportioned ; his countenance who beheld Christ [in a vision), de. severe and virtuous, so that he inspires scribed him as “tall, clad in the manner beholders with feelings both of fear and of the Jews, and beautiful in face, the love. The hair of his head is of the splendour of Divinity darted like a Name

from the eyes of the Redeemer, but his That no desdaine the maker had of kinde voice was full of sweetness."

His son in blood and flesh to clothe and winde 94. The Angel Gabriel. Luke i, 28: “Within the cloystre blisful of thy sides,

And the angel came in unto her, and Toke mannes shape the eternal love and pees, sail, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, That of the trine compas Lord and gide is. the Lord is with thee : blessed art thou Ay herien ; and thou, virgine wemmeles,

Whom erthe, and see, and heven out of relees among women.

Bare of thy body (and dweltest maiden purel 99. The countenance of each saint be. The creatour of every creature, came brighter.

Assembled is in thee magnificence 107. The word in the original is ab. With mercy, goodnesse, and with swiche pitee, belliva, which Dante here uses in the That thou, that art the sonne of excellence, sense of the Provençal, abellis, of Purg. Not only helpest hem that praien thee,

But ostentime of thy benignitee XXVI. 140. He uses the word in the Ful freely, or that men thin helpe beseche,, same sense in Conwito, II. 7: “In all | Thou goest beforne, and art hir lives leche.” speech the speaker is chiefly bent on persuasion, that is, on pleasing the au See also his Ballade of Our Ladie, and dience, all' abbellire dell'audienza, La Priere de Nostre Dame. which is the source of all other per. 36. As St. Macarius said to his soul : suasions."

“ Having taken up thine abode in TOS. The star of morning delighting heaven, where thou hast God and his in the sun, is from Canto VIII. 12, holy angels to converse with, see that where Dante speaks of Venus as

thou descend not thence; regard not "The star

earthly things.” That wooes the sun, now following, now in

48. Finished the ardour of desire in front."

its accomplishment. 119. The Virgin Mary, the Queen of

66. Æncid, III. 442, Davidson's Ti. : this empire.

When, wasted thither, you reach the 121. Adam.

city Cumæ, the hallowed lakes, and 124. St. Peter.

Avernus resounding through the woouls, 127. St. John, who lived till the evil you will see the raving prophetess, who, days and persecutions of the Church, beneath a deep rock, reveals the fates, the bride of Christ, won by the cruci? and commits to the leaves of trees her fixion,

characters and words. Whatever verses 131. Moses.

the virgin has inscribed on the leaves, she 132. Exodus xxxii. 9: “ And the ranges in harmonious order, and leaves Lord said unto Moses, I have seen this in the cave enclosed by themselves: un. people, and, behold, it is a stiff-necked covered they remain in their position,

nor recede from their order. But when, people.”

133. Anna, mother of the Virgin upon turning the hinge, a small breath Mary.

of wind has blown upon them, and the 137. Santa Lucia, virgin and martyr.

door (by opening) hath discomposed the Dante, Inf. II. 100, makes her, as the tender leaves, she never afterward cares emblem of illuminating grace, intercede to catch the verses as they are fluttering with Beatrice for his salvation.

in the hollow cave, nor to recover their 146. Trusting only to thine

situation, or join them together.” efforts.

*78. Luke ix. 62 : “No man having put his hand to the plough, and looking

back, is fit for the kingdoin of God." CANTO XXXIII.

86. Thomas Aquinas, Sum. Theol., 1.

Quæst. iv. 2: "If therefore God be 1. Chaucer, Second Nonnes Tale:

the first efficient cause of things, the “Tīcu maide and inother, doughter of thy perfections of all things must pre-exist

pre-eminently in God.” And Buti: Thou well of mercy, sinful soules cure,

"In God are all things that are made, as In whom that God of bountec chees to won; Thou humble and high over every creature,

in the First Cause, that foresees every: Thou nobledest so for forth our nature,





90. Of all the commentaries which "Think, Reader, if within myself I marvelled, I have consuited, that of Buti alone

When I beheld the thing itself stand still,

And in its image it transformed itself.' siistains this rendering of the line. The rest interpret it, “What I say is but a simple or feeble glimmer of what I

115. Thomas Aquinas, Sum. Theol..

I. Quæst. xxix. 2 : “What exists by 94.. There are almost as many inter- itself, and not in another, is called subpretations of this passage as there are

sistence." commentators. The most intelligible is,

116. The three Persons of the Trithat Dante forgot in a single moment

nity. more of the glory he had seen, than

128. The second circle, or second the world had forgotten in five-and- | Person of the Trinity. twenty centuries of the Argonautic ex

131. The human nature of Christ; thie pedition, when Neptune wondered at the incarnation of the Word. shadow of the first ship that ever crossed

141. In this new light of God's grace, the sea.

the mystery of the union of the Divine 103. Aristotle, Ethics, I., 1, Gillies's and human nature in Christ is revealed Tr. : “Since every art (and every kind to Dante. of knowledge, as well as all the actions

144. Wordsworth, Resolution and love and all the deliberations of men, con

dependence ::tantly aim at something which they call

As a cloud good, good in general may b“ justly de. That heareth not the loud winds when they call, fined, ihat which all desire.”

And moveth all together, if it move at all." 114. In the same manner the reflection of the Griffin in Beatrice's eyes, 145. 1 John iv. 16: “God is love; Purg. XXXI. 124, is described as chang: and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in ing, while the object itsell remained un- God, and God in him.” changed :

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