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sun, to which, for the fear of hell, I had and St. Jerome took reluge in a strong voluntarily condemned myself, having tower or fortified castle. no other company but scorpions and afterwards he died, and was buried in the wild beasts, I many times found my ruins of his monastery. imagination filled with lively represen 40. This truth of the simultanerrus tations of dances in the company of creation of mind and matter, as stated in Roman ladies, as if I had been in the line 29. midst of them.

I often joined 41. The opinion of St. Jerome and whole nights to the days, crying, sigh- other Fathers of the Church, that the ing, and beating my breast till the de. Angels were created long ages before sired calm returned. I feared the very the rest of the universe, is refuted by cell in which I lived, because it was Thomas Aquinas, Sum. Thwl., 1. Quas. witness to the foul suggestions of my LXI. enemy; and being angry and armed with 45. That the Intelligences or Motors severity against myself, I went alone into of the heavens should be so long without the most secret parts of the wilderness, any heavens to move. and if I discovered anywhere a deep 51. The subject of the elements is the valley, or a craggy rock, that was the earth, so called as being the lowest, or place of my prayer, there I threw this underlying the others, fire, air, and water. miserable sack of my body. The same 56. The pride of Lucifer, who lies at Lord is my witness, that after so many the centre of the earth, towards which sobs and tears, after having in so much all things gravitate, and sorrow looked long up to heaven, I felt

Down which thrust all the other rocks * most delightful comforts and interior sweetness; and these so great, that, Milton, Par. Lost, V. 856, makes the transported and absorpt, I seemed to rebel angels deny that they were created myself to be amidst the choirs of angels; by God :and glad and joyful I sung to God : After Thec, O Lord, we will run in the when this creation was? Rememberest thou

Thy making, while the Maker gave thee being! fragraniy of thy celestial ointments."

We know no time when we were not as now ; In another letter, cited by Montalem- Know none before us; self-begot, self-raised bert, Monks of the West, Auth. Tr., I. By our own quickening power, when fatal course 404, he exclaims: “() desert, enamelled Had circled his full orb, the birth mature

Of this our native heaven, ethereal sons." with the flowers Christ! () solitude, where those stones are born of which, 65. The merit consists in being willing in the Apocalypse, is built the city of to receive this grace. the Great King! O retreat, which re 95. St. Chrysostom, who in his preachjoicest in the friendship of God! What ing so carried away his audiences that doest thou in the world, my brother, they beat the pavement with their swords with thy soul greater than the world? and called him the “Thirteenth Apostle," How long wilt thou remain in the shadow in one of his Homilies thus upbraids the of roofs, and in the smoky dungeons of custom of applauding the preacher : cities?

I see here more of “What do your praises advantage me, the light.”

when I see not your progress in virtue! At the end of five years he was driven Or what harm shall I receive from the from his solitude by the ecutio of silence of my auditors, when I behold the Eastern monks, and lived succes- the increase of their piety? The praise sively in Jerusalem, Antioch, Constanti- of the speaker is not the acclamation of nople, Rome, and Alexandria. Finally, his hearers, but their zeal for piety and in 385, he returned to the Holy Land, religion; not their making a great stir in and built a monastery at Bethlehem. the times of hearing, but their showing Here he wrote his translation of the diligence at all other times. Applause, Scriptures, and his Lives of the Fathers as soon as it is out of the mouth, is dis. of the Desert; but in 416 this monastery, persed into the air, and vanishes, but and others that had risen up in its neigh- when the hearers grow better, this brings bourhood, were burned by the Pelagians, | an incorruptible and immortal reward

Believe me,

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straw:

both to the speaker and the hearer. The the symbol of St. Anthony, as the cherub praise of your acclamation may render is of St. Matthew, the lion of St. Mark, the orator more illustrious here, but the and the eagle of St. John. There is an piety of your souls will give him greater old tradition that St. Anthony was once confidence before the tribunal of Christ. a swineherd. Brand, Pop. Antiquities, Therefore, if any one love the preacher, I., 358, says :or if any preacher love his people, let “In the World of Wonders is the fol. him not be enamoured with applause, lowing translation of an epigram but with the benefit of the hearers.”

Once fed'st thou, Anthony, an heard of swine, 103. Lapo is the abbreviation of

And now an heard of monkes thou scedest Jacopo, and Bindi of Aldobrandi, both

still : familiar names in Florence.

For wit and gut, alike both charges bin : 107. Milton, Lycidas, 113:

Both loven filth alike; both like to fill

Their greedy paunch alike. Nor was that kind • How well could I have spared for thee, young

More beastly, sottish, s'inish than this last. swain,

All else agrees : one fauit I onely find, Enow of such as for their bellies' sake

Thou feedest not thy monkes with oken

mast.' Creep, and intrude, and climb into the fold! Of other care they little reckoning make,

“The author mentions before, perThan how to scramble at the shearers' feast, And shove away the worthy bidden guest !

sons who runne up and downe the Blind mouths! that scarce themselves know country, crying, Have you anything

how to hold A sheep-hook, or have learned aught else the

to bestow upon my lord S. Anthonie's Icast

swine?'" That to the faithful herdman's art belongs ! Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and legendary What recks it them? What need they ?" They Art, II., 380, remarks : have read

are sped; And, when they list, their lean and flashy somewhere that the hog is given to St.

Anthony, because he had been a swine. Grate on their scrannel pipes of wretched herd, and cured the diseases of swine. The hungry sheep look up, and are not fed ;

This is quite a mistake. The hog was But woln with wind, and the rank mist they the representative of the demon of sendraw,

suality and gluttony, which Anthony is Rot inwardly, and soul contagion spread : Besides what the grim wolf with privy paw

supposed to have vanquished by the Daily devours apace, and nothing said:

exercises of piety and by divine aid. But that two-handed engine at the door The ancient custom of placing in all his Sinds ready to smite once, and smite no effigies a black pig at his feet, or under

his feet, gave rise to the superstition 115. Cowper, Task, II.:

that this unclean animal was especially

dedicated to him, and under his pro. “ He that negotiates between God and man,

tection. As God's ambassador, the grand concerns

The monks of the Order of Of judgment and of mercy, should beware St. Anthony kept herds of consecrated Orlightness in his speech. 'Tis pitiful

pigs, which were allowed to feed at To court a grin, when you should woo a soul; To brcak a jest, when pity would inspire

the public charge, and which it was a Pathetic exhortation ; and i' address

profanation to steal or kill : hence the The skittish fancy with facetious tales,

proverb about the fatness of a 'Tantony When sent with God's commission to the heart !"

Halliwell, Dict. of Arch. and Prov. For a specimen of the style of popular Words, has the following definition : preachers in the Middle Ages, see the “ANTHONY-Pig. The favourite or story of Frate Cipolla, in the Decame smallest pig of the litter. A Kentish rone, Gior. VI. Nov. 10. See also expression, according to Grose. 'To Scheible's Kloster, and Menin's Prédica- follow like a tantony pig,' i. e. to follow toriana.

close at one's heels. Some derive this 118. The Devil, who is often repre- saying from a privilege enjoyed by the sented in early Christian ait under the friars of certain convents in England and shape of a coal-black bird. See Didron, France, sons of St. Anthony, whose Christ. Jones, I.

swine were permitted to fced in the 124. In carly painting the swine is streets. These swine would follow any

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one having greens or other provisions, High throned above all highth, bent down his eye till they obtained some of them ; and it | His own works and their works at once to vrs was in those days considered an act of Stood thick as stars, and from his sight roceived charity and religion to feed them. St. Beatitude past utterance." Anthony was invoked for the pig."

2. The sixth hour is noon, and when Mr. Howell's Venttian Life, p. 341, noon is some six thousand miles away alludes to the same custom as once pre from us, the dawn is approaching, the valent in Italy : Among other privi- shadow of the exith lies almost on a leges of the Church, abolished in Venice plane with it, and gradually the stars long ago, was that ancient right of the

disappear. monks of St. Anthony Abbot, by which 10. The nine circles of Angels, detheir herds of swine were made free of scribed in Canto XXVIII. the whole city. These animals, en 38. From the Crystalline Heaven to veloped in an odour of sanctity, wan. the Empyrean. Dante, Convite, II. 15, dered here and there, and were piously makes the Empyrean the symbol of fed by devout people, until the year 1409, Theology, the Divine Science: “The when, being found dangerous to children, Empyrean Heaven, by its peace, te and inconvenient to everybody, they were sembles the Divine Science, which is made the subject of a special decree, full of all peace; and which suffers 19 which deprived them of their freedom of strife of opinions or sophistical argy movement. The Republic was always ments, because of the exceeding certi. opposing and limiting the privileges of|tude of its subject, which is God. An the Church !"

of this he says to his disciples, My 126. Giving false indulgences, without

peace I give unto you; my peace I leave the true stamp upon them, in return for you ;' giving and leaving them his docthe alms received.

trine, which is this science of which I 130. The nature of the Angels.

speak. Of this Solomon says : 'There 134. Daniel vii.

" Thousand

are threescore queens, and fourscore conthousands ministered unto him, and ten cubines, and virgins without number ; thousand times ten thousand stood before my dove, my undefiled, is but one. All him."

sciences he calls queens and paramours 136. That irradiates this angelic na- and virgins ; and this he calls a dove, ture.

because it is without blemish of strife; 138. The splendours are the reflected and this he calls perfect, because it lights, or the Angels.

makes us perfectly to see the truth in 140. The fervour of the Angels is pro- which our soul has rest." portioned to their capacity of receiving

42. Philippians iv. 7: “The peace the divine light.

of God, which passeth all understanding.'

43. The Angels and the souls of the CANTO XXX.

saints.

45. The Angels will be seen in the 1. The ascent to the Empyrean, the same aspect after the last judgment as tenth and last Heaven. Of this Heaven, before ; but the souls of the saints will Dante, Convito, II. 4, says : “ This is wear “the twofold garments,” spoken the sovereign edifice of the world, in of in Canto XXV. 92, the spiritual which the whole world is included, and body, and the glorified earthly body. outside of which nothing is. And it is 61. Daniel vii. 10: “A fiery stream not in space, but was formed solely in issued and came forth from before him." the primal Mind, which the Greeks call And Revelation xxii. 1: “And he Protonoe. This is that magnificence of showed me a pure river of water of life, which the Psalmist spake, when he says clear as crystai, proceeding out of the to God, Thy magnificence is exalted throne of God and of the Lamb." above the heavens.

64. The sparks are Angels, and the Milton, Par. Lost, III. 56:

flowers the souls of the blessed. “ Now had the Almighty Father from above,

66. For the mystic virtues of thic ruby, From the pure empyrean where he sits see Canto IX. Note 69.

76. For the mystic virtues of the tianity, it is difficult to account for his topaz, see Canto XV. Note 85.

becoming, as he is called by Beausobre, 90. “By the length,” says Venturi, the hero of the Romance of Heresy. If

was represented the outpouring of Simon was the same with that magician, God upon his creatures ; by the round a Cypriot by birth, who was employed ness, the return of this outpouring to God, by Felix as agent in his intrigue to as to its first source and ultimate end." detach Drusilla from her husband, this

99. Dante repeats the word vidi, i part of his character accords with the saw, three times, as a rhyme, to express charge of licentiousness advanced both the intenseness of his vision.

against his life and his doctrines by his 100. Buti thinks that this light is the Christian opponents. This is by no Holy Ghost ; Philalethes, that it is the means improbable; and, indeed, even if Logos, or second person of the Trinity; he was not a person thus politically proTommaseo, that it is Illuminating Grace. minent and influential, the early writers

124. Didron, Christ. Iconog., I. 234, of Christianity would scarcely have consays: “It was in the centre, at the curred in representing him as a formidvery heart of this luminous eternity, that able and dangerous antagonist of the the Deity shone forth. Dante no doubt Faith, as a kind of personal rival of St. wished to describe one of those roses Peter, without some other groundwork with a thousand petals, which light the for the fiction besides the collision reporches of our noblest cathedrals,—the corded in the Acts. The doctrines rose-windows, which were contempora- which are ascribed to him and to his neous with the Florentine poet, and followers, who continued to exist for which he had no doubt seen in his tra- several centuries, harmonise with the vels in France. There, in fact, in the glimpse of his character and tenets in very depth of the chalice of that rose of the writings of St. Luke. Simon procolourel glass, the Divine Majesty shines bably was one of that class of adven. out resplendently.”

turers which abounded at this period, 129. The word convent is here used or like Apollonius of Tyana, and others in its original meaning of a coming to at a later time, with whom the oppo. gether, or assembly.

nents of Christianity attempted to con. 136. The name of Augustus is equiva- found Jesus and his Apostles. His doclent to Kaiser, Cæsar, or Emperor. In trine was Oriental in its language and in Canto XXXII. 119, the Virgin Mary is its pretensions. He was the first Æon called Augusta, the Queen of the King or emanation, or rather perhaps the first dom of Heaven, the Empress of “the manifestation of the primal Deity. He most just and merciful of empires." assumed not merely the title of the Great

137. This is Henry of Luxemburg, to Power or Virtue of God, but all the whom in 1300 Dante was looking as the other Appellations,—the Word, the Perregenerator of Italy. He became Em- fection, the Paraclete, the Almighty, the peror in 1308, and died in 1311, ten whole combined attributes of the Deity. years before Dante.

See Purg. VI. He had a companion, Helena, according Note 97, and XXXIII. Note 43. to the statement of his enemies, a beau

142. At the Curia Romana, or Papal tiful prostitute, whom he found at Tyre, court.

who became in like manner the first 143. Pope Clement V. (1305—1314). conception (the Ennoa) of the Deity; See Inf. XIX. Note 83. The allusion but who, by her conjunction with mat. here is to his double dealing with Henry ter, had been enslaved to its malignant of Luxemburg. See Canto XVII. Note influence, and, having fallen under the 82.

power of evil angels, had been in a con147. Among the Simoniacs in the stant state of transmigration, and, among third round of Malebolge. Of Simon other mortal bodies, had occupied that Magus, Milman, Hist. Christ., II. 97, of the famous Helen of Troy. Beau• writes thus : “Unless Simon was in sobre, who elevates Simon into a Plafact a personage of considerable import- tonic philosopher, explains the Helena ance during the early history of Chris. I as a sublime allegory. She was the

Psyche of his philosophic romance. The at Avignon with urgent appeals that tt soul, by evil influences, had become im- disgrace should no longer be permitted prisoned in matter. By her the Deity -but the Popes gave no heed to his had created the angels: the angels, words ; for the ruin of Roman churches, enamoured of her, had inextricably en or of Rome itself, was a matter of little tangled her in that polluting bondage, in concern to these Transalpine prelates." order to prevent her return to heaven. 73. From the highest regions of the To fly from their embraces she had air to the lowest depth of the sea. passed from body to body. Connecting 102. St. Bernard, the great Ablot of this fiction with the Grecian mythology, Clairvaux, the Doctor Melliflus of the she was Minerva, or impersonated Wis- Church, and preacher of the disastrous dom; perhaps, also, Ilelena, or em- Second Crusade, was born of noble pa. bodied Beauty.”

rents in the village of Fontaine, near 148. Pope Boniface VIII., a native of Dijon, in Burgundy, in the year 1190. Alagna, now Anagni. See Inf. XIX. After studying at Paris, at the age of Note 53, and Purg. XX. Note 87. twenty he entered the Benedictine mon

Dante has already his punishment astery of Citeaux; and when, five years prepared. He is to be thrust head | later, this monastery had become overdownward into a narrow hole in the crowded with monks, he was sent out rock of Malebolge, and to be driven to found a new one. down still lower when Clement V. shall Mrs. Jameson, Legends of the Monastic follow him.

Orders, p. 149, says: “The manner of

going forth on these occasions was strikCANTO XXXI.

ingly characteristic of the age; - the

abbot chose twelve monks, representing 1. The White Rose of Paradise. the twelve Apostles, and placed at their

7. liad, II. 86, Anon. Tr. : “And head a leader, representing Jesus Christ, the troops thronged together, as swarms who, with a cross in his hand, went of crowding bees, which come ever in before them. The gates of the convent fresh numbers from the hollow rock, opened, - then closed behind them,and fly in clusters over the vernal flowers, and they wandered into the wide world, and thickly some Ny in this direction, trusting in God to show them their des and some in that."

tined abode. 32. The nymph Callisto, or Helice, “ Bernard led his followers to a wil was changed by Jupiter into the con- derness, called the Valley of Wormwood, stellation of the Great Bear, and her son and there, at his biding, arose the since into that of the Little Bear. See Purg. renowned abbey of Clairvaux. They XXV., Note 131.

felled the trees, built themselves huts, 34. Rome and her superb edifices, tilled and sowed the ground, and changed before the removal of the Papal See to the whole face of the country round; he Avignon.

till that which had been a dismal soli. th 35. Speaking of Petrarch's visit to tude, the resort of wolves and robbers, Rome, Mr. Norton, Travel and Study in became a land of vines and corn, rich, yo Italy, p. 288, says: “ The great church populous, and prosperous."

cle of St. John Lateran, 'the mother and This incident forms the subject of one head of all the churches of the city and of Murillo's most famous paintings, and the world,'mater urbis et orbis, —had is suggestive of the saint's intense devo. wh been almost destroyed by fire, with its tion to the Virgin, which Dante ex• adjoining palace, and the houses of the presses in this line. canons, on the Eve of St. John, in 1308. Mr. Vaughan, Hours with the Mysties, The palace and the canons' houses were I. 1.45, gives the following sketch of St rebuilt not long after; but at the time of Bernard : Petrarch's latest visit to Rome, and for “ With Bernard the monastic life is years afterward, the church was without the one thing needful. He began life a roof, and its walls were ruinous. The by drawing after him into the convent poet addressed three at least of the Popes all his kindred; sweeping them one by

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