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tinuity, and this has in it ratio of infinite “ Some say, he bid his angels turn askance number. And the chief consideration of
The poles of earth, twice ten degrees and natural science is to consider the prin From the sun's axle; they with labour pushed ciples of natural things, which are three, Oblique the centric globe: some say, the sun namely, matter, species, and form ; in Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road
Like-distant breadth to Taurus with the seven which this number is visible, not only in
Atlantic Sisters, and the Spartan twins, ail together, but, if we consider well, in
Up to the tropic Crab : thence down amain each one separately. Therefore Pytha By Leo, and the Virgin, and the Scales, goras, according to Aristotle in the first As deep as Capricorn; to bring in change
Or seasons to each clime : else had the spring book of his Physics, gives the odd and
Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers, even as the principles of natural things, Equal in days and nights, except to those considering all things to be number. The Beyond the polar circles ; to them day other property of the Sun is also seen in
Had unbenighted shone; while the low sun,
To recompense his distance, in their sight number, to which Arithmetic belongs, for Had rounded still the horizon, and not known the eye of the intellect cannot behold it, Or east or west ; which had forbid the snow for number considered in itself is infinite;
From cold Estotiland, and south as far
Beneath Magellan." and this we cannot comprehend.”
In this Heaven of the Sun are seen the 28. The Sun. spirits of theologians and Fathers of the
31. The Sun in Aries, as indicated in Church ; and its influences, according to line 9; that being the sign in which the Albumasar, cited by Buti, are as follows: Sun is at the vernal equinox. “The Sun signifies the vital soul, light 32. Such is the apparent motion of the and splendour, reason and intellect, Sun round the earth, as he rises earlier science and the measure of life; it sig- and earlier in Spring. nifies kings, princes and leaders, nobles 48. No eye has ever seen any light and magnates and congregations of men, greater than that of the Sun, nor can we strength and victory, voluptuousness, conceive of any greater. beauty and grandeur, subtleness of mind, 51. How the Sou is begotten of the pride and praise, good desire of kingdom Father, and how from these two is and of subjects, and great love of gold, breathed forth the Holy Ghost. The and affluence of speech, and delight in Heaven of the Sun being the Fourth neatness and beauty. It signifies faith Heaven, the spirits seen in it are called and the worship of God, judges and wise the fourth family of the Father; and to men, fathers and brothers and mediators; these theologians is revealed the mystery it joins itself to men and mingles among of the Trinity. them, it gives what is asked for, and is
67. The moon with a halo about her. strong in vengeance, that is to say, it 82. The spirit of Thomas Aquinas. punishes rebels and malefactors.”
87. The stairway of Jacob's dream, 2. Adam of St. Victor, Hymn to the with its angels ascending and descending: Holy Ghost :
89. Whoever should refuse to gratify “Veni, Creator Spiritus,
thy desire for knowledge, would no more Spiritus recreator,
follow his natural inclination than water l'u dans, tu datus cælitus,
which did not how downward. Tu donum, tu donator ;
98. Albertus Magnus, at whose twentyI'u lex, tu digitus, Alens et alitus,
one ponderous folios one gazes with awe Spirans et spiritus,
and amazement, was born of a noble Spiratus et spirator."
Swabian family at the beginning of the
thirteenth century. In his youth he 9. Where the Zodiac crosses the Equa- studied at Paris and at Padua ; became tor, and the motion of the planets, which a Dominican monk, and, retiring to a is parallel to the former, comes into convent in Cologne, taught in the schools apparent collision with that of the fixed of that city. He became Provincial of stars, which is parallel to the latter, his Order in Germany ; and was after
14. The Zodiac, which cuts the Equa. ward made Grand-Master of the Palace ļor obliquely.
at Rome, and then Bishop of Ratisbon. 16. Milton, Par. Lost, X. 668 : Resigning his bishopric in 1262, he ro.
turned to his convent in Cologne, where Norman kings ; his brothers, Reginald he died in 1280, leaving behind him great and Landolph, held high rank in the fame for his learning and his labour. Imperial armies. His family was con
Milman, Hist. Latin Christ., VIII. 259, nected by marriage with the Hohen. says of him: “Albert the Great at once staufens ; they had Swatian blood in awed by his immense erudition and ap- their veins, and so the great schoolman palled his age. His name, the Universal was of the race of Frederick II. MonastiDoctor, was the homage to his all-em- cism seized on Thomas in his early youth; bracing knowledge. He quotes, as equally he became an inmate of Monte Casino; iamiliar, Latin, Greek, Arabic, Jewish at sixteen years of age he caught the philosophers. He was the first School. more fiery and vigorous enthusiasm of man who lectured on Aristotle himself, the Dominicans. By them he was sent on Aristotle from Græco-Latin or Arabo- —no unwilling proselyte and pupil—to Latin copies. The whole range of the France. He was seized by his worldly Stagirite's physical and metaphysical brothers, and sent back to Naples; he philosophy was within the scope of Al- was imprisoned in one of the family bert's teaching. In later days he was castles, but resisted even the fond encalled the Ape of Aristotle; he had dared treaties of his mother and his sisters. He to introduce Aristotle into the Sanctuary persisted in his pious disobedience, his itself. One of his Treatises is a refuta- holy hardness of heart; he was released tion of the Arabian Averrhoes. Nor is after two years' imprisonment-it might it Aristotle and Averrhoes alone that seem strange—at the command of the come within the pale of Albert's erudi- Emperor Frederick II.
The godless tion ; the commentators and glossators Emperor, as he was called, gave Thomas of Aristotle, the whole circle of the Arab- to the Church. Aquinas took the irreians, are quoted ; their opinions, their vocable vow of a Friar Preacher.
He reasonings, even their words, with the became a scholar of Albert the Great at utmost familiarity. But with Albert, Cologne and at Paris. He was dark, Theology was still the master-science. silent, unapproachable even by his breThe Bishop of Ratisbon was of unim- thren, perpetually wrapt in profound mepeached orthodoxy ; the vulgar only, in ditation. He was called, in mockery, the his wonderful knowledge of the secrets great dumb ox of Sicily. Albert ques. of Nature, in his studies of Natural His- tioned the mute disciple on the most tory, could not but see something of the deep and knotty points of theology; he magician. Albert had the ambition of found, as he confessed, his equal, his reconciling Plato and Aristotle, and of superior. "That dumb ox will make the reconciling this harmonized Aristotelian world resound with his doctrines.' With and Platonic philosophy with Christian Albert the faithful disciple returned to Divinity. He thus, in some degree, Cologne. Again he went back to Paris, misrepresented or misconceived both the received his academic degrees, and taught Greeks ; he hardened Plato into Aris. with universal wonder. Under Alex totelism, expanded Aristotelism into Pla- ander IV. he stood up in Rome in detonism
i and his Christianity, though fence of his Order against the eloquent Albert was a devout man, while it con- William de St. Amour; he repudiated stantly subordinates, in strong and fervent for his Order, and condemned by his language, knowledge to faith and love, authority, the prophesies of the Abbot became less a religion than a philosophy." Joachim. He taught at Cologne with
99. Thomas Aquinas, the Angelic Doc- Albert the Great ; also at Paris, at Rome, or of the Schools. Milman, Hist. Latin at Orvieto, at Viterbo, at Perugia. Where Christ., VIII. 265, gives the following he taught, the world listened in respectful sketch of him :
silence. He was acknowledged by two “Of all the schoolmen Thomas Aquinas Popes, Urban IV. and Clement IV., as has left the greatest name.
He was a the first theologian of the age. He reson of the Count of Aquino, a rich fief in fused the Archbishopric of Naples. He the kingdom of Naples. His mother, was expected at the Council of Lyons, ar Thendora, was of the lire of the old the authority before whom all Christen.
in might be expected to bow down. atheist, as he is a divine and theologian. - died ere he had passed the borders of Secure, as it should seem, in impenei ples, at the Abbey of Rossa Nuova, trable armour, he has not only no apprear Terracina, at the age of forty-eight. hension, but seems not to suppose the unk tales were told of his death ; only possibility of danger ; he has nothing of e wickedness of man could deprive the the boastfulness of self-confidence, but, orld so early of such a wonder. The in calm assurance of victory, gives every niversity of Paris claimed, but in vain, advantage to his adversary. On both e treasure of his mortal remains. He sides of every question he casts the as canonized by John XXII.
argument into one of his clear, distinct «• Thomas Aquinas is throughout, syllogisms, and calmly places himself as bove all, the Theologian. God and Arbiter, and passes judgment in one or le soul of man are the only objects a series of still more unanswerable uly, worthy of his philosophic inves- syllogisms. He has assigned its 1111gation. This is the function of the assailable province to Church authority, Ingelic Doctor, the mission of the to tradition or the Fathers, faith and ngel of the Schools. In his works, works; but beyond, within the proper
rather in his one great work, is sphere of philosophy, he asserts full he final result of all which has been freedom. There is no Father, even St. ecided by Pope or Council, taught by Augustine, who may not be examined he Fathers, accepted by tradition, by the fearless intellect." -rgued in the schools, inculcated in the 104. Gratian was a Franciscan friar, confessional. The Sum of Theology and teacher in the school of the convent s the authentic, authoritative, acknow- of St. Felix in Bologna. He wrote the edged code of Latin Christianity. We Decretum Gratiani, or “Concord of the cannot but contrast this vast work with Discordant Canons,” in which he he original Gospel : to this bulk has brought into agreement the laws of the grown the New Testament, or rather courts secular and ecclesiastical.
he doctrinal and moral part of the New 107. Peter Lombard, the “Master of Testament. But Aquinas is an intellec. Sentences," so called from his Libri tual theologian : he approaches more Sententiarum. In the dedication of this nearly than most philosophers, certainly work to the Church he says that he than most divines, to pure embodied wishes to contribute, like the poor intellect. He is perfectly passionless ; widow, his mite to the treasury of the he has no polemic indignation, nothing Lord. The following account of him of the Churchman's jealousy and sus, and his doctrines is from Milman, Hist. picion; he has no fear of the result of Latin Christ., VIII. 238 : “ Peter the any mivestigation; he hates nothing, Lombard was born near Novara, the hardly heresy ; loves nothing, unless native place of Lanfranc and of Anselm. perhaps naked, abstract truth. In his He was Bishop of Paris in 1159. llis Serene confidence that all must end in famous Book of the Sentences was in. good, he moves the most startling and tended to be, and became to a great even perilous questions, as if they were extent, the Manual of the Schools. the most indifferent, the very Being of Peter knew not, or disdainfully threw God. God must be revealed by syllo- aside, the philosophical cultivation of gistic process. Himself inwardly con- his day. He adhered rigidly to all scious of the absolute harmony of his which passed for Scripture, and was own intellectual and moral being, he the authorized interpretation of the places sin not so much in the will as in Scripture, to all which had become the the understanding. The perfection of creed in the traditions, and law in the man is the perfection of his intelligence. decretals, of the Church. He seems to He examines with the same perfect self- have no apprehension of doubt in his command, it might almost be said apa. stern dogmatism ; he will not recognize thy, the converse as well as the proof of any of the difficulties suggested by philo. the most vital religious truths. He is sophy; he cannot, or will not, perceive nearly as consummate a sceptic, almost I the weak voints of his own system. lle
has the great merit that, opposed as he was Dionysius the Areopagite." was to the prevailing Platonism, through book attributed to him, on the “Ceout the Sentences the ethical principle lestial Hierarchy," was translated into predominates ; his excellence is per. Latin by Johannes Erigena, and became spicuity, simplicity, definiteness of moral in the Middle Ages the text-book of purpose. His distinctions are endless, angelic lore. “The author of those subtile, idle ; but he wrote from conflict extraordinary treatises,” says Milman, ing authorities to reconcile writers at Hist. Latin Christ., VIII. 189, *which, war with each other, at war with them from their obscure and doubtsul parentselves. Their quarrels had been wrought age, now perhaps hardly maintain their to intentional or unintentional antago fame for imaginative richness, for the nism in the ‘Sic et Non' of Abelard. occasional beauty of their language, and That philosopher, whether Pyrrhonist or their deep piety, -those treatises which, more than Pyrrhonist, had left them all widely popular in the West, almost in the confusion of strife ; he had set created the angel-worship of the popular Fathers against Fathers, each Father creed, and were also the parents of against himself, the Church against the Mystic Theology and of the higher Church, tradition against tradition, law Scholasticism, this Poet - Theologian against law. The Lombard announced was a Greek. The writings which bear nimself and was accepted as the me. the venerable name of Dionysius the diator, the final arbiter in this endless Areopagite, the proselyte of St. Paul, litigation ; he would sternly fix the first appear under a suspicious and suspositive, proscribe the negative or scep- pected form, as authorities cited by the tical view in all these questions. The heterodox Severians in a conference at litigation might still go on, but within Constantinople. The orthodox stoo! the limits which he had rigidly estab- aghast : how was it that writings of the isied; he had determined those ulti- holy convert of St. Paul had never been mate results against which there was no heard of before ? that Cyril of Alexan. appeal. The mode of proof might be dria, that Athanasius himself, interminably contested in the schools ; | ignorant of their existence? But these the conclusion was already irrefragably writings were in themselves of too great fixed. On the sacramental system Peter power, too captivating, too congenial to the Lombard is loftily, severely hier- the monastic mind, not to find bold archical. Yet he is moderate on the defenders. Bearing this venerable name power of the keys; he holds only a in their front, and leaving behind them, declaratory power of binding and loosing, in the East, if at first a doubtful, a -of showing how the souls of men were growing faith in their authenticity, they to be bound and loosed."
appeared in the West as a precious gift Peter Lombard was born at the be- from the Byzantine Emperor to the ginning of the twelfth century, when the Emperor Louis the Pious. France in Novarese territory, his birthplace, was a that age was not likely to throw cold part of Lombardy, and hence his name. and jealous doubts on writings which He studied at the University of Paris, bore the hallowed name of that great under Abelard ; was afterwards made Saint, whom she had already boasted to Professor of Theology in the University, have left his primal Bishopric of Athens and then Bishop of Paris. He died to convert her forefathers, whom Paris in 1164.
already held to be her tutelar patron, 109. Solomon, whose Song of Songs the rich and powerful Abbey of St. breathes such impassioned love.
Denys to be her founder. There was 11. To know if he were saved or living in the West, by happy coinci. not, a grave question having been raised dence, the one man who at that period, upon that point by theologians.
by his knowledge of Greek, by the con. 115. Dionysius the Areopagite, who genial speculativeness of his mind, by was converted by St. Paul. Acts xvii. the vigour and richness of his imagina. 34: “Howbeit, certain men clave unto tion, was qualified to translate into Latin him, and relieved ; among the which' the mysterious doctrines of the Areopa.
poth as to the angelic world and pulsed the Gauls from the Capitol, and .ubtile theolgy. John Erigena sacrificed their sons to the discipline of ied to make known in the West the Republic. In the youth of Boethius, Celestial Hierarchy,' the treatise the studies of Rome were not totally the Name of God, and the brief abandoned ; a Virgil is now extant, ers on the Mystic Philosophy.' corrected by the hand of a consul ; and 7. Paul Orosius. He was a Spanish the professors of grammar, rhetoric, and vyter, born at Tarragona near the jurisprudence were maintained in their
of the fourth century. In his youth privileges and pensions by the liberality isited St. Augustine in Africa, who of the Goths. But the erudition of the ne of his books describes him thus : Latin language was insufficient to satiate nere came to me a young monk, in his ardent curiosity; and Boethius is catholic peace our brother, in age said so have employed eighteen laborious son, in honour our fellow-presbyter, years in the schools of Athens, which sius, alert in intellect, ready of were supported by the zeal, the learning, 2ch, eager in study, desiring to be a and the diligence of Proclus and his dissul vessel in the house of the Lord ciples. The reason and piety of their the refutation of false and pernicious Roman pupil were fortunately saved trines, which have slain the souls of from the contagion of mystery and
Spaniards much more unhappily magic, which polluted the groves of the in the sword of the barbarians their Academy ; but he imbibed the spirit,
and imitated the method of his dead and On leaving St. Augustine, he went to living masters, who attenipted to recon. lestine to complete his studies under cile the strong and subtle sense of Aris.
Jerome at Bethlehem, and while totle with the devout contemplation and ere arraigned Palagius for heresy be sublime fancy of Plato. After his rere the Bishop of Jerusalem. The turn to Rome, and his marriage with ork by which he is chiefly known is the daughter of his friend, the patrician
“ Seven Books of Histories ; a Symmachus, Boethius still continued in orld-chronicle from the creation to his a palace of ivory and marble to prosewn time. Of this work St. Augustine cute the same studies. The Church was vailed himself in writing his “City of edified by his profound defence of the jod ;” and it had also the honour of orthodox creed against the Arian, the veing translated into Anglo-Saxon by Eutychian, and the Nestorian heresies ; King Alfred. Dante calls Orosius "the and the Catholic unity was explained or -dvocate of the Christian centuries,” exposed in a formal treatise by the because this work was written to refute indifference of three distinct, though con. the misbelievers who asserted that Chris- substantial persons. For the benefit of tianity had done more harm to the his Latin readers, his genius submitted world than good.
to teach the first elements of the arts 125. Severinus Boethius, the Roman and sciences of Greece. The geometry Senator and philosopher in the days of of Euclid, the music of Pythagoras, the Theodoric the Goth, born in 475, and arithmetic of Nicomachus, the mechanics put to death in 524. His portrait is of Archimedes, the astronomy of Ptothus drawn by Gibbon, Decline and lemy, the theology of Plato, and the Fall, Ch. XXXIX. : “The Senator logic of Aristotle, with the commentary Boethius is the last of the Romans of Porphyry, were translated and illus, whom Cato or Tully could have ac- trated by the indefatigable pen of the knowledged for their countryman. As Roman Senator. And he alone was a wealthy orphan, he inherited the esteemed capable of describing the wonpatrimony and honours of the Anician ders of art, a sun-dial, a water-clock, or family, a name ambitiously assumed by a sphere which represented the motions the kings and emperors of the age ; and of the planets. From these abstruse the appellation of Manlius asserted his speculations Boethius stooped, or, to genuine or fabulous descent from a race speak more truly, he rose to the social of consuls and dictators, who had reduling of nublic and private life : the