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named Drouet, either in wantonness or me, that thou seest in God, that I beinsult, came up to her, and, under the lieve it." pretence of searching for arms, thrust 97. Convito, III. 14: “The first agent, his hand into her bosom. The girl that is, God, sends his influence into fainted in her bridegroom's arms. He some things by means of direct rays, and uttered in his agony the fatal cry, 'Death | into others by means of reflected splen. to the French ! A youth rushed for dour. Hence into the Intelligences the ward, stabbed Drouet to thc heart with divine light rays out immediately ; in his own sword, was himself struck down. others it is reflected from these IntelliThe cry, the shriek, ran through the gences first illuminated. But as mention crowd, 'Death to the French !' Many is here made of light and splendour, in Sicilians fell, but, of two hundred on the order to a perfect understanding, I will spot, not one Frenchman escaped. The show the difference of these words, cry spread to the city: Mastrangelo according to Avicenna. I say, the cus took the lead ; every house was stormed, tom of the philosophers is to call the every hole and corner searched ; their Heaven light, in reference to its existence dress, their speech, their persons, their in its fountain head ; to call it ray, in manners, denounced the French. The reference to its passing from the fountain. palace was forced ; the Justiciary, being head to the first body, in which it is luckily wounded in the face, and rolled arrested ; to call it splendour, in referin the dust, and so undetected, mounted ence to its reflection upon some other a horse, and Aed with two followers. part illuminated.” Two thousand French were slain. They 116. If men lived isolated from each denied them decent burial, heaped them other, and not in communities. together in a great pit. The horrors of 120. Aristotle, whom Dante in the the scene were indescribable ; the insur. Convito, III. 5, calls “that glorious gents broke into the convents, the philosopher to whom Nature most laid churches, The friars, especial objects open her secrets ;

” and in Inf. IV. 131, of hatred, were massacred; they slew “the master of those who know." the French monks, the French priests. 124. The Jurist, the Warrior, the Neither old age, nor sex, nor infancy Priest and the Artisan are here typified was spared.”

in Solon, Xerxes, Melchisedes, and 76. Robert, Duke of Calabria, third Dædalus. son of Charles II. and younger brother 129. Nature, like death, makes no of Charles Martel. He was King of distinction between palace and hovel. Sicily from 1309 to 1343. He brought Her gentlemen are born alike in each, with him from Catalonia a band of and so her churls. needy adventurers, whom he put into 130. Esau and Jacob, though twin high offices of state, "and like so many brothers, differed in character, Esau leeches,” says Biagioli, “they filled being warlike and Jacob peaceable. themselves with the blood of that poor Genesis xxv. 27 : “ And the boys grew : people, not dropping off so long as there and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man remained a drop to suck."

of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, 80. Sicily already heavily laden with dwelling in tents. taxes of all kinds.

131. Romulus, called Quirinus, be. 82. Born of generous ancestors, he cause he always carried a spear (quins), was himself avaricious.

was of such obscure birth, tha the 84. Namely, ministers and officials Romans, to dignify their origin, preten. who were not greedy of gain.

ded he was born of Mars. 87. In God, where all things are 141. Conto, III. 3:

“ Animate reflected as in a mirror, Rev. xxi. 6: plants have a very manifest affection for “I am Alpha and Omega ; the begin- certain places, according to their cha ning and the end.” Buti interprets racter ; and therefore we see certain thus : “ Because I believe that ihou plants rooting themselves by the waterseest my joy in God, even as I see it, I side, and others upon mountainous am plensed ; and this also is dear to places, and others on the slopes and at

the foot of the mountains, which, if they did before the birth of Paris, Altuza are transplanted, either wholly perisli

, before the birth of Meleager, and the or live a kind of melancholy life, as mother of St. Dominic before the birth of things separated from what is friendly to

" The amorous paramour them."

or Christian Faith, the athlete consecrate, 145. Another allusion to King Robert Kind to his own and cruel to his (uen." of Sicily. Villani, XII. 9, says of him: “ This king Robert was the wisest king

32. Cunizza was the sister of Azzolino that had been known among Christians di Romano. Her story is told by Rofor five hundred years, both in natural landino, Liber Chronicorum, in Muratori, ability and in knowledge, being a very that she was first married to Richard of

Rer. Ital. Script., VIII, 173. He says great master in theology, and a consummate philosopher.” And the Postillatore St. Boniface; and soon after had an of the Monte Cassino Codex: “This intrigue with Sordello, as already menKing Robert delighted in preaching and tioned, Purg. VI. Note 74. Afterwards studying, and would have made a better she wandered about the world with a monk than king."

soldier of Treviso, named Bonius, “tak. ing much solace,” says the old chronicler,

"and spending much money,"--multa CANTO IX.

habendo solatia, et maximas faciendo ex

pensas. After the death of Bonius, she 1. The Heaven of Venus is continued was married to a nobleman of Braganzo ; in this canto. The beautiful Clemence and finally and for a third time to a here addressed is the daughter of the gentleman of Verona. Emperor Rudclph, and wife of Charles The Ottimo alone among the commenMartel. Some commentators say it is tators takes up the defence of Cunizza, his daughter, but for what reason is not and says : “ This lady lived lovingly in apparent, as the form of address would dress, song, and sport ; but consented rather indicate the wise than the not to any impropriety or unlawful act; daughter; and moreover, at the date of and she passed her life in enjoyment, as the poem, 1300, the daughter was only Solomon says in Ecclesiastes," —alluding six or seven years old. So great was the probably to the first verse of the second affection of this beautiful Clemence” chapter, “ I said in my heart, Go to now, for her husband, that she is said to have I will prove thee with mirth ; therefore fallen dead on hearing the news of his enjoy pleasure ; and, behold, this is also death.

vanity.” 3. Charles the Lame, dying in 1309, 33. Of the influences of the planet gave the kingdom of Naples and Sicily Venus, quoting Albumasar, as before, to his third son, Robert, Duke of Ca- Buti says: “Venus is cold and moist, and labria, thus dispossessing Carlo Roberto of phlegmatic temperament, and signifies (or Caroberto) son of Charles Martel beauty, liberality, patience, sweetness, and Clemence, and rightful heir to the dignity of manners, love of dress anil throne.

ornaments of gold and silver, humiliiy 22. Unknown to me by name. towards friends, pride and adjunction,

25. The region here described is the delectation and delight in singing and use Marca Trivigiana, lying between Venice of ornaments, joy and gladness, dancing, (here indicated by one of its principal song with pipe and lute, bridals, ornawards, the Rialto) and the Alps, dividing ments and precious ointments, cunning Italy from Germany.

in the composition of songs, skill in the 28. The hill on which stands the Cas- gaine of chess, indolence, drunkenness, tello di Romano, the birthplace of the lust, adultery, gesticulations, and lasci. tyrant Ezzelino, or Azzolino, whom, for viousness of courtesans, abundance o. his cruelties, Dante punished in the river perjuries, of lies and all kinds of wanton. of boiling blood, Inj. XII. 110. Before ness, love of children, delight in men, his birth his mother is said to have strength of body, weakness of mind, dreamed of a lighted torch, as Hecuba abundance of foo l and corporal delights,

Lethe.'”

observance of faith and justice, traffic in stained with blood is the Bacchiglione, odoriferous merchandise ; and as was said on which Vicenza stands. of the Moon, all are not found in one 49. In Treviso, where the Sile and nan, but a part in one, and a part in Cagnano unite. another, according to Divine Providence; 50. Riccardo da Camino, who was and the wise man adheres to the good, assassinated while playing at chess.

He and overcomes the others."

was a son of the “good Gherardo," and 34. Since God has pardoned me, I am brother of the beautiful Gaja, mentioned no longer troubled for my past errors, Purg. XVI. 40. He succeeded his on account of which I attain no higher father as lord of Treviso; but carried on glory in Paradise. She had tasted of his love adventures so openly and with the waters of Lethe, and all the ills and so high a hand, that he was finally assaserrors of the past were forgotten. Purg. sinated by an outraged husband. The XXXIII. 94 :

story of his assassination is told in the “* And if thou art not able to remember,'

Hist. Cartusivrum in Muratori, XII. Smiling she answered, 'recollect thee now 784. How thou this very day hast drunk of 53. A certain bishop of the town of

Feltro in the Marca Trivigiana, whose Hugo of St. Victor, in a passage name is doubtful, but who was both lord quoted by Philalethes in the notes to his spiritual and temporal of the town, broke translation of the Divina Commedia, says : faith with certain gentlemen of Ferrara, “ In that city : there will be Free guilty of political crimes, who sought Will, einancipated from all evil, and refuge and protection in his diocese. filled with all good, enjoying without in- They were delivered up, and executed in terruption the delight of eternal joys, Ferrara. Afterward the Bishop himself oblivious of sins, oblivious of punish- came to a violent end, being beaten to ments ; yet not so oblivious of its libera- death with bags of sand. tion as to be ungrateful to its liberator. 54. Malta was a prison on the shores So far, therefore, as regards intellectual of Lake Bolsena, where.priests were inknowledge, it will be mindful of its carcerated for their crimes. There Pope past evils; but wholly unmindsul, as Boniface VIII. imprisoned the Abbot of regards any feeling of what it has passed Monte Cassino for letting the sugitive through.

Celestine V. escape from his convent. 37. The spirit of Folco, or Folchetto, 58. This “courteous priest” was of Marseilles, as mentioned later in this Guelph, and showed his zeal for his party canto; the famous Troubadour whose in the persecution of the Ghibellines. renown was not to perish for five cen 60. The treachery and cruelty of this turies, but is small enough now, save in man will be in conformity to the customs the literary histories of Millot and the of the country: Benedictines of St. Maur.

61. Above in the Crystalline Heaven, 44. The Marca Trivigiana is again or Primum Mobile, is the Order of Angels alluded to, lying between the Adige, that called Thrones. These are mirrors empties into the Adriatic south of Venice, reflecting the justice and judgments of and the Tagliamento to the north-east, God. towards Trieste. This region embraces 69. The Balascio (in French rub the cities of Padua and Vicenza in the balais) is supposed to take its name south, Treviso in the centre, and Feltro from the place in the East where it was in the north.

found. 46. The rout of the Paduans near Chaucer, Court of Love, 78:Vicenza, in those endless quarrels that No saphire of Inde, no rube riche of price, run through Italian history like the roll There lacked then, nor emeraude so gene, of a drum. Three times the Paduan Balais Turkis, ne thing to my devise

That may the castel maken for to shene." Guelphs were defeated by the Ghibellines, -in 1311, in 1314, and in 1318, The mystic virtues of this stone are when Can Grande della Scala was chief thus enumerated by Mr. King, Antique of the Ghibelline league. The river Gems, r 419 :

6. The Balais Ruby

a

represses vain and lascivious thoughts, 93. The allusion here is to the siege appeases quarrels between friends, and of Marseilles by a portion of Cæsar's gives health of body. Its powder taken army under Tribonius, and the fleet under in water cures diseases of the eyes, and Brutus. Purg. XVIII. 101 : pains in the liver. If you touch with this gem the four corners of a house, orchard,

“And Cæsar, that he might subdue Ilerda,

Thrust at Marseilles, and then ran into or vineyard, they will be safe from light

Spain." ning, storms, and blight.” 70. Joy is shown in heaven by greater

Lucan, who describes the siege and light, as here on earth by smiles, and as sea-fight in the third book of his Phar. in the infernal regions the grief of souls salia, says :in torment is by greater darkness. “Meanwhile, impatient of the lingering war,

73. In Him thy sight is; in the original, The chieftain to Iberia bends afar, tuo veder sinluia, thy sight in-Hims.

And gives the leaguer to Tribonius' care." itself.

94. Folco, or Folchetto, of Marseilles 76. There is a similar passage in one (Folquet de Marseilles) was a noted Trou. of the Troubadours, who, in an Elegy, badour, who flourished at the end of the commends his departed friend to the twelfth century. He was the son of a Virgin as a good singer. “He sang so rich merchant of Marseilles, and after well, that the nightingales grew silent his father's death, giving up business for with admiration, and listened to him. pleasure and poetry, became a frequenter Therefore God took him for his own of courtsand favourite of lords and princes. service.. If the Virgin Mary is Among his patrons are mentioned King fond of genteel young men, I advise her Richard of England, King Alfonso of to take him.”

Aragon, Count Raymond of Toulouse, 77. The Seraphim, clothed with six and the Sire Barral of Marseilles. The wings, as seen in the vision of the Prophet old Provençal chronicler in Raynouard, Isaiah vi. 2: “Above it stood the sera. V. 150, says: “He was a good Trouba. phims : each one had six wings ; with dour, and very attractive in person. He iwain he covered his face, and with twain paid court to the wife of his lord, Sire he covered his feet, and with twain he | Barral, and besought her love, and made did fly.”

songs

about her. But neither for prayers 81. In the original, Sio m' intuassi nor songs could he find favour with her come he t'immii ; if I in-theed myself as thou in-meest thyself. Dantesque words, which he was always complaining in his

so as to procure any mark of love, of like inluia, Note 73.

songs." 82. The Mediterranean, the greatest

Nevertheless this Lady Alazais listened of seas, except the ocean, surrounding with pleasure to his songs and praises ; the earth.

and was finally moved to jealousy, is not Bryant, Thanatopsis :

to love. The Troubadour was at the And poured round all

same time paying his homage to the two Old Ocean's gray and melancholy waste."

sisters of the Sire Barral, Lady Laura

and Lady Mabel, both beautiful and de 85. Extending eastward between Eu. gran valor, and being accused thereof, rope and Africa. Dante gives the length fell into disfavour and banishment, the of the Mediterranean as ninety degrees. Lady Alazais wishing to hear no more Modern geographers make it less than his prayers nor his songs. In his despair fifty.

he took refuge at the court of William, 69. Marseilles, about equidistant from Lord of Montpellier, whose wise, daughthe Ebro, in Spain, and the Magra, which ter of the Emperor Manuel, “comforted divides the Genoese and Tuscan terri- him a little, and besought him not to be tories. Being a small river, it has but a downcast and despairing, but for love of short journey to make.

her to sing and make songs.' 92. Buggia is a city in Africa, on nearly And now a great change came over the same parallel of longitude as Mar. him. The old chronicler goes on to say: seilles.

“And it came to pass that the Lady

** The

Ottimo says:

Alazais died; and the Sire Barral, her 120. The first soul redeemed when husband and his lord, died ; and died Christ descended into Limbo. the good King Richard, and the good first shall be last, and the last first." Count Raymond of Toulouse, and King 123. The Crucifixion. If any one is Alfonso of Aragon : whereat, in grief for disposed to criticise the play upon worde his lady and for the princes who were in this beautiful passage, let him rememdead, he abandoned the world, and re- ber the Tu es Petrus et super hanc petram tired to a Cistercian convent, with his edificabo ecclesiam meam. wife and two sons. And he became 124. Hebrews xi. 31 : “ By faith the Abbot of a rich abbey in Provence, harlot Rahab perished not with them that called Torondet, and afterwar is Bishop believed not, when she had received the of Toulouse, and there he died.”

spies with peace. It was in 1200 that ).e became a Cis 125. Forgetful that it was in the hands tercian, and he died in 1233. It would of the Saracens. be pleasant to know that he atoned for 127. The heathen Gods were looked his youthful follies by an old age of vir- upon by the Christians as demons. Hence tues. But unfortunately for his fame, the Florence was the city of Satan to Dante old nightingale became a bird of prey. in his dark hours, when he thought of He was deeply implicated in the persecu. Mars; but in his better moments, when tions of the Albigenses, and the blood of he remembered John the Baptist, it was those “slaughtered saints” makes a “ the fairest and most renowned daughter ghastly rubric in his breviary.

of Rome." 97. Dido, queen of Carthage. The 130. The Lily on the golden florin of

He seems to mean, that Florence. Folco loved indifferently married women, 133. To gain the golden florin the virgins, and widows, gentle and simple.” study of the Gospels and the Fathers was

100. Phillis of Thrace, called Rodopeia abandoned, and the Decretals, or books from Mount Rodope near which she of Ecclesiastical Law, sodiligently conned, lived, was deserted by her Athenian lover that their margins were worn and soiled Demophoon, of whom Chaucer, Legende with thumb-marks. The first five books of Good Women, 2442, gives this por- of the Decretals were compiled by Gregory trait :

IX., and the sixth by Boniface VIII. “Men knewe him well and didden hym honour, face VIII. in 1303, and the removal of

138. A prophecy of the death of BoniFor at Athenis duke and lorde was he, As Theseus his father hath ibe,

the Holy See to Avignon in 1305.
That in his tyme was of grete renown,
No man so grete in all his regioun,
And like his father of face and of stature;
And false of love, it came hym of nature :

CANTO X.
As docth the foxe, Renarde the foxes sonne,
Of kinde, he coulde his olde father wonne,
Withouten lore; as can a drake swimue,

1. The Heaven of the Sun, “a good When it is caught and caried to the brimme." planet and imperial,

says Brunetto

Latini. Dante makes it the symbol of 101. Hercules was so subdued by love

Arithmetic. for lole, that he sat among her maidens Heaven of the Sun may be compared

Convito, II. 14: “ The spinning with a distaff.

to Arithmetic on account of two proper103. See Note 34 of this carto.

ties; the first is, that with its light all 106. The ways of Providence,

the other stars are informed; the second From seeming evil still educing good."

is, that the eye cannot behold it. And

these two properties are in Arithnetic, 116. Rahab, who concealed the spies for with its light all the sciences are of Joshua among the flax-stalks on the illuminated, since their subjects are all roof of her house. Joshua, ii. 6. considered under some number, and in

118. Milton, Par. Lost, IV. 776 the consideration thereof we always pro"Now had night measured with her shadowy the subject is the movable body, which

ceed with numbers; as in natural science Hall-way up hil! this vast sublunar vault." movable body has in it ratio of con.

cone

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