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be one twenty-eighth part of the diameter be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the of the Earth, which is six thousand and doors of my house to meet me, when I fifty-two miles. The other property is, return in peace from the children of that it is more veiled by the rays of the Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and Sun than any other star. And these two I will offer it up for a burnt-offering. properties are in Dialectics ; for Dialec- And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his tics are less in body than any Science ; house, and, behold, his daughter came since in them is perfectly compiled and out to meet him with timbrels and with bounded as much doctrine as is found in dances; and she was his only child : be. ancient and modern Art; and it is more sides her he had neither son nor daughter." veiled than any Science, inasmuch as it 69. Agamemnon. proceeds by more sophistic and probable 70. Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris, I. arguments than any other.”

1, Buckley's Tr. :For the influences of Mercury, see “O thou who rulest over this Grecian Canto VI. Note 114.

expedition, Agamemnon, thou wilt not 10. Burns, The Vision :

lead forth thy ships from the ports of this

land, before Diana shall receive thy " I saw thy pulse's maddening play Wild send thee pleasure's devious way,

daughter Iphigenia as a victim ; for thou Misled by fancy's meteor ray,

didst vow to sacrifice to the light-bearing By passion driven ;

Goddess whatsoever the year should bring And yet the light that led astray

forth most beautiful. Now your wife Was light from heaven."

Clytæmnestra has brought forth a daugh24. Milton, Par. Lost, V. 235 : ter in your house, referring to me the

title of the most beautiful, whom thou “Happiness in his power left free to will, must needs sacrifice. And so, by the

Left to his own free will, his will though free, arts of Ulysses, they drew me from my. Yet mutable."

mother under pretence of being wedded 33. In illustration of this line, Venturi to Achilles. But I wretched coming to quotes the following epigram :

Aulis, being seized and raised aloft above

the pyre, would have been slain by the “This hospital a pious person built,

sword ; but Diana, giving to the Greeks But first he made the poor wherewith to fill't."

a stag in my stead, stole me away, and, And Biagioli this :

sending me through the clear ether, she

settled me in this land of the Tauri, C'est un homme d'honneur, de piété profonde, where barbarian Thoas rules the land.” Et qui veut rendre à Dieu ce qu'il ait au

80. Dante, Convito, I. II: “These monde."

should be called sheep, and not men ; 52. That which is sacrificed, or of for if one sheep should throw itself down which an offering is made.

a precipice of a thousand feet, all the 57. Without the permission of Holy others would follow, and if one sheep, in Church, symbolized by the two keys; passing along the road, leaps from any the silver key of Knowledge, and the cause, all the others leap, though seeing golden key of Authority. See Purg. no cause for it. And I once saw several IX. 118:

leap into a well, on account of one that

had leaped in, thinking perhaps it was "One was of gold, and the other was of silver ; leaping over a wall; notwithstanding More precious one is, but the other nccds

that the shepherd, weeping and wailing, More art and intellect ere it unlock,

opposed them with arms and breast." For it is that which doth the knot unloose." 82. Lucretius, Nature of Things, Il.

324, Good's Tr. :60. The thing substituted must be greater than the thing relinquished.

“The fleecy flocks, o'er yonder hill that browce, 66. Judges xi. 30: " And Jephthah From glebe to glebe, where'er, impearled with vowed a vow unto the Lord and said, If dew, thou shalt without fail deliver the children

The jocund clover call them, and the lambs

That round them gambol, saturate with milk, of Ammon into my hands, then it shall Proving their frontlets in the mimic fray."

87. Towards the Sun, where the heaven 4. From 324, when the seat of empire 3 brightest.

was transferred to Constantinople by 95. The Heaven of Mercury. Constantine, to 527, when the reign of

97. Brunetto Latini, Tresor, I., Ch. Justinian began. 3, says, the planet Mercury “is easily 5. The mountains of Asia, between moved according to the goodness or Constantinople and the site of Troy. malice of the planets to which it is 10. Cæsar, or Kaiser, the general joined.” Dante here represents himself title of all the Roman Emperors. as being of a peculiarly mercurial tem The character of Justinian is thus perament.

sketched by Gibbon, Decline and Fall, 108. The joy of spirits in Paradise is Ch. XLIII. :shown by greater brightness.

“The Emperor was easy of access, 121. The spirit of Justinian.

patient of hearing, courteous and affable 129. Mercury is the planet nearest the in discourse, and a master of the angry Sun, and being thus " veiled with alien passions, which rage with such destrucrays,” is only visible to the naked eye at tive violence in the breast of a despot. the time of its greatest elongation, and Procopius praises his temper to reproach then but for a few minutes,

him with calm and deliberate cruelty • Dante, Convito, II. 14, says, that Mer. but in the conspiracies which attacked cury “is more veiled by the rays of the his authority and person, a more candid Sun than any other star.' And yet it judge will approve the justice or admire will be observed that in his planetary the clemency of Justinian. He excelled system he places Venus between Mercury in the private virtues of chastity and tem. and the Sun.

perance ; but the impartial love of 133. Milton, Par. Lost, III. 380 : beauty would have been less mischievous " Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear,

than his conjugal tenderness for Theo

dora ; and his abstemious diet was regix Yet dazzle heaven.'

lated, not by the prudence of a philoAnd again, V. 598:

sopher, but the superstition of a monk.

His repasts were short and frugal ; on "A flaming mount, whose top solemn fasts he contented himself with Brightness had made invisible.”

water and vegetables ; and such was his strength as well as fervour, that he fre

quently passed two days, and as many CANTO VI.

nights, without tasting any food. The

measure of his sleep was not less rigo1. The Heaven of Mercury continued. rous; after the repose of a single hour the

In the year 330, Constantine, after his body was awakened by the soul, and, to conversion and baptism by Sylvester (Inf. the astonishment of his chamberlain, Jus. XXVII. Note 94), removed the seat of tinian walked or studied till the morning empire from Rome to Byzantium, which light. Such restless application proreceived from him its more modern name longed his time for the acquisition of of Constantinople. He called it also knowledge and the despatch of business ; New Rome; and, having promised to and he might seriously deserve the rethe Senators and their families that they proach of confounding, by minute and should soon tread again on Roman soil, preposterous diligence, the general order he had the streets of Constantinople of his administration. The Emperor strewn with earth which he had brought prosessed himself a musician and archifrom Rome in ships.

tect, a poet and philosopher, a lawyer The transfer of the empire from west and theologian ; and if he failed in the to east was turning the imperial eagle enterprise of reconciling the Christiat against the course of heaven, which it sects, the review of the Roman jurispru. had followed in coming from Troy to dence is a noble monument of his spirit Italy with Æneas, who married Lavinia, and industry. In the government of the daughter of King Latinus, and was the empire he was less wise or less success founder of the Roman Empire. | ful : the age was unfortunate ; the peopl

was oppressed and discontented ; Theo With the Bishop of Trebizond,' replied cora abused her power ; a succession of the unawed ecclesiastic, when he las bad ministers disgraced his judgment; and returned to his diocese, and accepted the Justinian was neither beloved in his life, Council of Chalcedon and the letters of hor regretted at his death. The love of Leo.' The Emperor in a louder voice fime was deeply implanted in :is breast, commanded him to acknowledge the but he condescended to the poor ambition Bishop of Constantinople on pain of of titles, honours, and contemporary immediate exile. 'I came hither in my praise ; and while he laboured to fix the old age to see, as I supposed, a religious a miration, he forfeited the esteem and and a Christian Emperor ; I find a new allection of the Romans."

Diocletian. But I fear not kings' me. 12. Of the reform of the Roman Laws, naces, I am ready to lay down my life by which they were reduced from two for the truth.' The feeble mind of Jus. thousand volumes to fifty, Gibbon, De- tinian passed at once from the height of cline and Fall, Ch. XLIV., says : “The arrogance to admiration and respect ; he vain titles of the victories of Justinian are listened to the charges advanced by Agacrumbled into dust ; but the name of the petus against the orthodoxy of Anthimus. legislator is inscribed on a fair and ever- | In his turn the Bishop of Constantinople lasting monument. Under his reign, was summoned to render an account of and by his care, the civil jurisprudence his theology before the Emperor, con. was digested in the immortal works of victed of Eutychianism, and degraded the Code, the PANDECT, and the Insti- from the see.” TUTES ; the public reason of the Romans 25. Belisarius, the famous general, to has been silently or studiously transfused whom Justinian gave the leadership of into the domestic institutions of Europe, his armies in Africa and Italy. In his and the laws of Justinian still command old age he was suspected of conspiring the respect or obedience of independent against the Emperor's life ; but the accusnations. Wise or fortunate is the prince ation was not proved. Gibbon, Berline who connects his own reputation with and Fall, Ch. XLI., speaks of him thus : he honour and interest of a perpetual “The Africanus of new Rome was born, Order of men.”

and perhaps educated, among the ThraThis is what Dante alludes to, l'urg. cian peasants, without any of those advan. VI. 89:

tages which had formed the virtues of the “What boots it, that for thee Justinian

elder and the younger Scipio,-a noble The bridle mend, is empty be the saddle?"

origin, liberal studies, and the emulation

of a free state. The silence of a loqua14. The heresy of Eutyches, who main- cious secretary may be admitted, to prove tained that only the Divine nature existed that the youth of Belisarius could not in Christ, not the human ; and conse- afford any subject of praise : he served, quently that the Christ crucified was not most assuredly with valour and reputation he real Christ, but a phantom. among the private guards of Justinian ;

16. Agapetus was Pope, or Bishop of and when his patron became Emperor, Rome, in the year 515, and was compelled the domestic was promoted to military diy King Theodotus the Ostrogoth, to go command.” ipon an embassy to the Emperor Jus And of his last years as follows, Ch. tinian at Constantinople, where he re- XLIII. : “Capricious pardon and arbi fused to hold any communication with trary punishment embittered the irksome. Anthimus, Bishop of Trebizond, who, ness and discontent of a long reign ; a against the canon of the Church, had been conspiracy was formed in the palace, and, transferred from his own see to that of unless we are deceived by the names of Constantinople. Milman, Hist. Latin Marcellus and Sergius, the most virtuous Christ., I. 460, says : Agapetus, in a and the most profligate of the courtiers conference, condescended to satisfy the were associated in the same designs, Emperor as to his own unimpeachable They had fixed the time of the execution ; orthodoxy. Justinian sternly commanded their rank gave them access to the royal him to accomunicate with Anthimus. banquet, and their black slaves were

stationed in the vestibule and porticoes obtained credit, or rather favour, as a to announce the death of the tyrant, and strange example of the vicissitudes of to excite a sedition in the capital. But fortune." the indiscretion of an accomplice saved 36. The son of Evander, sent to assist the poor remnant of the days of Justinian. Æneas, and slain by Turnus. Virgil,

The conspirators were detected and seized, Æneid, X., Davidson's Tr. : “Turnus, with daggers hidden under their gar- long poising a javelin tipped with sharpments ; Marcellus died by his own hand, ened steel, darts it at Pallas, and thus and Sergius was dragged from the sanc- speaks : See whether ours be 'not the tuary. Pressed by remorse, or tempted more penetrating dart. He said ; and by the hopes of safety, he accused two with a quivering stroke the point pierces officers of the household of Belisarius ; through the mid-shield, through so many and torture forced them to declare that plates of iron, so many of brass, while they had acted according to the secret the bull's hide so many times encompasses instructions of their patron. Posterity it, and through the corslet's cumbrous will not hastily believe that a hero who, folds transtixes his breast with a hideous in the vigour of life, had disdained the gash. He in vain wrenches out the reek. fairest offers of ambition and revenge, ing weapon from the wound ; at one and should stoop to the murder of his prince, the same passage the blood and soul issue whom he could not long expect to sur- forth. Down on his wound he falls : vive. His followers were impatient to over him his armour gave a clang; and fly ; but flight must have been supported in death with bloody jaws he bites the by rebellion, and he had lived enough hostile ground.” for nature and for glory. Belisarius ap 37. In Alba Longa, built by Ascanius, peared before the council with less fear son of Æneas, on the borders of the than indignation ; after forty years' ser. Alban Lake. The period of three hundred vice, the Emperor had prejudged his years is traditionary, not historic. guilt; and injustice was sanctified by the 39. The Horatii and Curatii. presence and authority of the patriarch. 40. From the rape of the Sabine The life of Belisarius was graciously women, in the days of Romulus, the spared; but his fortunes were sequestered, first of the seven kings of Rome, down and from December to July he was to the violence done to Lucretia by Targuarded as a prisoner in his own palace. quinius Superbus, the last of them. At length his innocence was acknow 44. Brennus was the king of the Gauls, ledged; his freedom and honours were who, entering Rome unopposed, found restored ; and death, which might be the city deserted, and the Senators scated hastened by resentment and grief, rc- in their ivory chairs in the Forum, so moved him from the world about eight silent and motionless that his soldiers months after his deliverance. The name took them for the statues of gods. He of Belisarius can never die ; but instead burned the city and laid siege to the of the funeral, the monuments, the sta. Capitol, whither the people had Aed for tues, so justly due to his memory, I only safety, and which was preserved from read that his treasures, the spoils of the surprise by the cackling of the sacred Goths and Vandals, were immediately geese in the Temple of Juno. Finally confiscated for the Emperor. Some de Brennus and his arıny were routed by cent portion was reserved, however, for Camillus, and tradition says that not one the use of his widow; and as Antonina escaped. had much to repent, she devoted the last Pyrrhus was a king of Epirus, who remains of her life and fortune to the boasted his descent from Achilles, and foundation of a convent. Such is the whom Hannibal called “the greatest of simple and genuine narrative of the fall commanders.” lle was nevertheless of Belisarius and the ingratitude of Jus-driven out of Italy by Curius, his army tinian. That he was deprived of his eyes, of eighty thousand being routed by thirty and reduced by envy to beg his bread, - thousand Romans; whereupon he said "Give a penny to Belisarius the general!' that, “if he had soldiers like the Romans, – is a fiction of later times, which has or if he Romans had him for a genera.,

he would leave no corner of the earth when Cæsar took from him the kingdom unseen, and no nation unconquered.' of Egypt, and gave it to Cleopatra.

46. Titus Manlius, surnamed Tor 70. Juba, king of Numidia, who proquatus, from the collar (torques) which he tected Pompey, Cato, and Scipio after took from a fallen foe; and Quinctius, the battle of Pharsalia. Being conquered surnamed Cincinnatus, or “the curly by Cæsar, his realm became a Roman haired."

province, of which Sallust the historian 47. Three of the Decii, father, son, was the first governor. and grandson, sacrificed their lives in Milton, Sams. Agon., 1695:battle at different times for their country.

“But as an eagle The Fabii also rendered signal services

His cloudless thunder bolted on their heads. * to the state, but are chiefly known in history through one of their number, 71. Towards Spain, where some rem. Quinctius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator, nants of Pompey's army still remained or the Delayer, from whom we have “the under his two sons. When these were Fabian policy."

subdued the civil war was at an end. 53. The hill of Fiesole, overlooking 73. Octavius Augustus, nephew of Florence, where Dante was born. Fie. Julius Cæsar. At the battle of Philippi sole was destroyed by the Romans for he defeated Brutus and Cassius, and giving refuge to Catiline and his fellow established the Empire. conspirators.

75. On account of the great slaughter 55. The birth of Christ.

Milton, made by Augustus in his battles with Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Na- Mark Antony and his brother Lucius, in tivity, 3, 4:

the neighbourhood of these cities.

81. Augustus closed the gates of the " But he, her fears to cease, Sent down the meek-eyed Peace :

temple of Janus as a sign of universal She, crowned with olive-green, came softly peace, in the year of Christ's birth. sliding

86. Tiberius Cæsar. Down through the turning sphere,

90. The crucihxion of Christ, in which His ready harbinge, With turtic wing the amorous clouds di- the Romans took part in the person of viding :

Pontius Pilate. And, waving wide her myrtle wand,

92. The destruction of Jerusalem under She strikes å universal peace through sea and Titus, which avenged the crucifixion.

94. When the Church was assailed by “No war or battle's sound

the Lombards, who were subdued by Was heard the world around : The idle spear and shield were high up

Charlemagne. hung;

98. Referring back to line 31 :The hooked chariot stood Unstained with hostile blood;

"In order that thou see with how great reason The trumpet spake not to the armed throng;

Men move against the standard sacrosanct, And kings sat still with awful eye,

Both who appropriate and who oppose it." As if they surely knew their sovran Lord was by."

100. The Golden Lily, or Fleur-de-lis 65. Durazzo in Macedonia, and Phar. French, opposed the Ghibellines, who

of France. The Guelfs, uniting with the salia in Thessaly.

had appropriated the imperial standard 66. Gower, Conf. Amant., II. —

to their own party purposes. " That one slecth, and that other sterveth,

106. Charles II. of Apulia, son of But aboven all his prise deserveth

Charles of Anjou. This knightly Romain; where he rode

II. Change the imperial eagle for the His dedly swerd no man abode, Ayen the which was no desence :

lilies of France. Egipte fledde in his presence.'

112. Mercury is the smallest of the

planets, with the exception of the Aste 67. Antandros, a city, and Simois, a roids, being sixteen times smaller than river, near Troy, whence came the Roman the Earth. eagle with Æneas into Italy.

114. Speaking of the planet Mercury. 69. It was an evil hour for Ptolemy, Buti says: “We are now to consider thie


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