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"Ilc drinketh ipocras, clarre, and vernage mentioned who should make Lucca Of spices hot, tu encreasen his corege.'

pleasant to him, seems to confirm the And Redi, Bacchus in Tuscany, Leigh former interpretation. Iluat's Tr., p. 39, sings of it thus : 38. In the throat of the speaker, "If anybody doesn't like Vernaccia,

where he felt the hunger and thirst of I mean that sort that's made in Pietrafitta, his punishment. hun fly My violent cye;

50. Chaucer, Complaint çf the Blacke i curse him, clean, through all the Alpha- Knight, 194:Leta."

“ But even like as doth a skrivenere, 28. Ovid, vet. VII., says of Erisich. That can no more tell what that he shal write,

But as his maister beside dothe indite." thon, that he

51. A canzone of the Vila Nuova, "Diludes his throat with visionary fare, Feasts on the wind and banquets on the air."

beginning, in Rossetti's version, Early

Italian l'oets, p. 255:29. Ubaldin dalla Pila was a brother

Ladies that have intelligence in love, of the Cardinal Ottaviano degli Ubal

Of mine own lady I would speak with you ; dini, mentioned Inf. X. 120, and fa Not that I hope to count her praises through, ther of the Archbishop Ruggieri, Inf.

But, teiling what I may, to ease my mind." XXXIII. 14. According to Sacchetti,

56. Jacopo da Lentino, Nov. 205, he passed most of his time at Notary," was Sicilian poet who his castle, and turned his gardener into nourished about 1250, in the later days a priest ; “and Messer Ubaldino,” con of the Emperor Frederick the Second. tinues the novelist, "put him into his Crescimbeni, Hist. Volg. Poesia, III. church ; of which one may say he made

43, says that Dante “ esteemed him so a pigsty; for he did not put in a priest, highly, that he even mentions him in but a pig in the way of eating and drink. his Comedy, doing him the favour 10 ing, who had neither grammar nor any put him into Purgatory.” Tassoni, good thing in him.”

and others after him, make the careless Some writers say that this Boniface, statement that he addressed a sonnet to Archbishop of Ravenna, was a son of

Petrarca, He died before Petrarca was Ubaldino ; but this is confounding him born. Rossetti gives several specimens with Ruggieri, Archbishop of Pisa. He

of his sonnets and canzonette in his was of the Fieschi of Genoa. His pas- Early Italian Poe's, of which the fol. turing many people alludes to his keep- lowing is one:ing a great retinue and court, and the free life they led in matters of the table.

Of his LADY IN HEAVEN. 31. Messer Marchese da Forlì, who “I have it in my heart to serve God so answered the accusation made against

That into Paradise I shall repair, him, that "he was always drinking,” by

The holy place through the which every saying, that "he was always thirsty.”

I have heard say that joy and solace flow, 37. A lady of Lucca with whom Without my lady I were loath to go,Dante is supposed to have been en

She who has the bright face and the bright

hair; amoured.

over in

Because if she were absent, I being there, silence,” says Balbo, Life and l'imes of My pleasure would be less than nought,' i Dante, 11. 177, “the consolations and

hnow. errors of the poor exile.” But Buti

Look you, I say not this to such intent

As that I there would deal in any sin : “ He formed an attachment to only would behold her gracious mien, a gentle lady, called Madonna Gen And beautiful soft eyes, and lovely face, tucca, of the family of Rossimpelo, on

That so it should be my complete content

To see my lady joyful in her place." account of her great virtue and modesty, and not with any other love."

Fra Guittone d' Arezzo, a contemBenvenuto and the Ottimo interpret porary of the Notary, was one of the the passage differently, making gentucca Frati Gaudenti, or Jovial Friars, men

common noun, --- gente bassa, low tioned in Inf. XXIII. Note 103. He people. But the passage which imme. first brought the Italian Sonnet to the diately follows, in which a maiden is perfect form it has since preserved, and


* Let

us pass

says :


left behind the earliest specimens of against him, he never cowered for an Italian letter-writing. These letters are instant, but courageously determined to written in a very florid style, and are resist, until succoured by Uguccione perhaps more poetical than his verses, della Faggiola, to whom he had sent which certainly fall very far short of the for aid. This attack continued during "sweet new style.”. Of all his letters the greater part of the day, and genethe best is that To the Florentines, from rally with advantage to the Donati, for which a brief extract is given Canto VI. the people were not unanimous, and Vote 76.

many fought unwillingly, so that, if the 82. Corso Donati, the brother of Rossi, Bardi, and other friends had Forese who is here speaking, and into joined, and Uguccioni's forces arrived, whose mouth nothing but Ghibelline it would have gone hard with the citi. wrath could have put these words. zens. The former were intimidated, Corso was the leader of the Neri in the latter turned back on hearing how Florence, and a partisan of Charles de matters stood ; and then only did Valois. His death is recorded by Vil. Corso's adherents lose heart and slink lani, VIII. 96, and is thus described by from the barricades, while the townsNapier, Flor. Hist., 1. 407:

men pursued their advantage by break“The popularity of Corso was now ing down a garden wall opposite the thoroughly undermined, and the priors, Stinche prisons and taking their enemy after sounding the Campana for a general in the rear. This completed the disassembly of the armed citizens, laid a aster, and Corso, seeing no chance reformal 'accusation before the Podestà maining, fled towards the Casentino ; Piero Branca d' Agobbio against him but, being overtaken by some Cata. for conspiring to overthrow the liberties lonian troopers in the Florentine ser. of his country, and endeavouring to vice, he was led back a prisoner from make himself Tyrant of Florence: he Rovezzano. After vainly endeavouring was immediately cited to appear, and, to bribe them, unable to support the not complying, from a reasonable dis- indignity of a public execution at the trust of his judges, was within one hour, hands of his enemies, he let himself against all legal forms, condemned to fall from his horse, and, receiving sevelose his head, as a rebel and traitor to ral stabs in the neck and flank from the commonwealth.

the Catalan lances, his body was left “Not willing to allow the culprit bleeding on the road, until the monks more time for an armed resistance than of San Salvi removed it to their conhad been given for legal vindication, the vent, where he was interred next Seignory, preceded by the Gonfalonier morning with the greatest privacy. of justice, and followed by the Podestà, Thus perished Corso Donati, 'the the captain of the people, and the exe- wisest and most worthy knight of his cutor, -all attended by their guards and time; the best speaker, the most expeofficers,– issued from the palace; and rienced statesman; the most renowned, with the whole civic force marshalled in the boldest, and most enterprising noblecompanies, with banners flying, moved man in Italy: he was handsome in forward to execute an illegal sentence person and of the most gracious managainst a single citizen, who nevertheless ners, but very worldly, and caused stood undaunted on his defence.

infinite disturbance in Florence “Corso, on first hearing of the prose account of his ambition.'* cution, had hastily barricaded all the People now began to repose, and his approaches to his palace, but, disabled unhappy death was often and variously by the gout, could only direct the neces. discussed, according to the feelings of sary operations from his bed; yet thus friendship or enmity that moved the helpless, thus abandoned by all but his speaker; but in truth, his life was danown immediate friends and vassals ; gerous, and his death reprehensible. He suddenly condemned to death ; encom. was a knight of great mind and name, passed by the bitterest foes, with the whole force of the republic banded

Villani, VIII. Ch. 36.




gentle in manners as in blood; of a fine He seized with sudden force the frighted fair. figure even in his old age, with a beauti- 'Twas Eurytus began: his bestial kind

His crime pursued; and each, as pleased his ful countenance, delicate features, and a

mind, fair complexion; pleasing, wise ; and an Or her whom chance presented, took : the feast eloquent speaker. His attention was

An image of a taken town expressed.

The cave resounds with female shrieks; we ever fixed on important things; he was intimate with all the great and noble, Mad with revenge, to make a swift reprise : had an extensive influence, and was And Theseus first, What frenzy has possessed, famous throughout Italy. He was an

O Eurytus,' he cried, 'thy brutal breast, enemy of the middle classes and their But, while I live, two friends conjoined in

To wrong, Pirithous, and not him alone, supporters, beloved by the troops, but full of malicious thoughts, wicked, and

125. Judgas vii

. 5, 6: “So he brought artful. He was thus basely murdered down the people unto the water: and by a foreign soldier, and his fellow-citi- the Lord said unto Gideon, Every one zens well knew the man, for he was that lappeth of the water with his instantly conveyed away: those who tongue, as a dog lappeth, him shalt thou ordered his death were Rosso della Tosa set by himself; likewise every one that and Pazzino de' Pazzi, as is commonly boweth down upon his knees to drink. said by all; and some bless him and And the number of them that lapped, some the contrary. Many believe that putting their hand to their mouth, were the two said knights killed him, and I, three hundred men ; but all the rest of wishing to ascertain the truth, inquired the people bowed down upon their knees diligently, and found what I have said to to drink water." be true. Such is the character of Corso

139. The Angel of the Seventh Donati, which has come down to us from Circle. two authors who must have been personally acquainted with this distinguished chief, but opposed to each other in the

CANTO XXV. general politics of their country.” See also Inf. VI. Note 52.

1. The ascent to the Seventh Circle of 99. Virgil and Statius.

Purgatory, where the sin of Lust is 105. Dante had only so far


gone round the circle, as to come in sight of

3. When the sign of Taurus reached the second of these trees, which from the meridian, the sun, being in Aries, distance to distance encircle the moun.

would be two hours beyond it. It is tain.

now two o'clock of the afternoon. The 116. In the Terrestrial Paradise on the Scorpion is the sign opposite Taurus. top of the mountain.

15. Shakespeare, Hamlet, I. 2:121. The Centaurs, born of Ixion and

And did address the Cloud, and having the “double

Itself to motion, like as it would spcak." breasts” of man and horse, became 22. Meleager was the son of Eneus drunk with wine at the marriage of Hip- and Althæa, of Calydon. At his birth podamia and Pirithous, and strove to the Fates were present and predicted his carry off the bride and the other women future greatness. Clotho said that he by violence. Theseus and the rest of the would be brave; Lachesis, that he would Lapithæ opposed and drove them be strong; and Atropos, that he would from the feast. This famous battle is live as long as the brand upon the fire described at great length by Ovid, Mel. remained unconsumed. XII., Dryden's Tr.:

Ovid, Met. VIII. :“For one, most brutal of the brutal brood, Or whether wine or beauty fired his blood,

There lay a log unlighted on the hearth, Or both at once, beheld with lustful eyes

When she was labouring in the throcs of birth The bride; at once resolved to make his prize.

For th' unborn chief ; the fatal sisters came, Down went the board; and fastening on her And

raised it up, and tossed it on the flame. hair,

Then on the rock a scanty measure place
Of vital fax, and turned the wheel apace;

And turning sung, 'To this red brand and thos, • Dino Compagni, III. 76.

O new-born babe, we give an equal destiny :




So vanished out of view. The frighted dame “Mother, I dying with unforgetful tongue Sprung hasty from her bed, and quenched the Hail thee as holy and worship thee as just flame.

Who art unjust and unholy ; and with my The log, in secret locked, she kept with care,

knees And that, while this preserved, preserved her Would worship, but thy fire and subtlety, heir."

Dissundering them, devour me ; for these limbs

Are as light dust and crumblings from mine Meleager distinguished himself in the Argonautic expedition, and afterwards in

Before the fire has touched them; and my

face the hunt of Calydon, where he killed

As a dead leaf or dead root's mark on snow, the famous boar, and gave the boar's And all this body a broken barren tree head to Atalanta ; and when his uncles That was so strong, and all this flower of life

Disbranched and desecrated miserably, tried to take possession of it, he killed

And minished all that god-like muscle and them also. On hearing this, and seeing might the dead bodies, his mother in a rage And lesser than a man's : for all my veins threw the brand upon the fire again,

Fail me, and all mine ashen life burns

down." and, as it was consumed, Meleager perished.

37. The dissertation which Dante Mr. Swinburne, Atalanta in Calydon : here puts into the mouth of Statius may

be found also in a briefer prose form in When thou dravest the men

the Convito, IV. 21. It so much excites Of the chosen of Thrace,

the enthusiasm of Varchi, that he None turned him again

declares it alone sufficient to prove Nor endured he thy face

Dante to have been a physician, philosoClothed round with the blush of the battle, with light from a terrible place.

pher, and theologian of the highest order ; and goes on to say: "I not

only confess, but I swear, that as many " Thou shouldst die as he dies

times as I have read it, which day and For whom nonc sheddeth tears ; Filling thine eyes

night are more than a thousand, my And fulfilling thine ears

wonder and astonishment have always With the brilliance of battle, the bloom and the increased, seeming every time to find beauty, the splendour of spears.

therein new beauties and new instruction, CHORUS.

and consequently new difficulties." In the ears of the world

This subject is also discussed in part It is sung, it is told,

by Thomas Aquinas, Sum. Theol., 1: And the light thereof hurled

Quæst. cxix., De propagatione hominis And the noise thereof rolled From the Acroceraunian snow to the ford of the quantum ad corpus. fleece of gold.

Milton, in his Latin poem, De Idea

Platonica, has touched upon a theme MELEAGER. “ Would God ye could carry me

somewhat akin to this, but in a manner Forth of all these ;

to make it seem very remote. Perhaps Heap sand and bury me

no two passages could better show the By the Chersonese

difference between Dante and Milton, Where the thundering Bosphorus answers the than this canto and Plato's Archetypal thunder of Pontic seas.

Man, which in Leigh Hunt's translation

runs as follows:-
“ Dost thou mock at our praise
And the singing begun

"Say, guardian goddesses of woods,
And the men of strange days

Aspects, felt in solitudes;
Praising my son

And Memory, at whose blessed knee
In the folds of the hills of home, high places of The Nine, which thy dear daughters be,

Learnt of the majestic past;
And thou, that in some antre vast

Leaning afar off dost lie,
“ For the dead man no home is ;

Otiose Eternity,
Ah, better to be

Keeping the tablets and decrees
What the flower of the foam is

Of Jove, and the ephemerides
In fields of the sea,

or the gods, and calendars, That the sea-waves might be as my raiment, the Of the ever festal stars ; gulf-stream a garment for me.

Say, who was he, the sunless shade,
After whose pattern man was made:


70. God.

He first, the full of ages, Lorn

In the language of the Schools, the With the old pale polar morn,

Possible Intellect, intellectus possibilis, Sole, yet all ; first visible thought, After which the Deity wrought?

is the faculty which receives impressions Twin-birth with Pallas, not remain

through the senses, and forms from Doth he in Jove's o'ershadowed brain; them pictures or phantasmata in the But though of wide communion, Dwells apart, like one alone ;

mind." The Active Intellect, intellectus And fills the wondering embrace,

agens, draws from these pictures various (Doubt it not) of size and place.

ideas, notions, and conclusions. They Whether, companion of the stars, With their tentold round he errs;

represent the Understanding and the Or inhabits with his lone

Nature in the neighbouring moon;
Or sits with body-waiting souls,

75. Redi, Bacchus in Tuscany :-
Dozing by the Lethæan pools :-
Or whether, haply, placed afar

"Such bright blood is a ray enkindled In some blank region of our star,

Of that sun, in heaven that shines, He stalks, an unsubstantial heap,

And has been left behind entangled Humanity's giant archetype;

And caught in the net of the many

vines. Where a loftier bulk he rears Than Atlas, grappler of the stars,

79. When Lachesis has spun out the And through their shadow-touched abodes

thread of life. Brings a terror to the gods. Not the seer of him had sight,

81. Thomas Aquinas, Sum. Theol., Who found in darkness depths of light ;* I. Quæst. cxviii. Art. 3 : Anima in His travelled eyeballs saw him not

tellectiva remanet destructo corpore." In all his mighty gulís of thought :Him the farthest-footed good,

86. Either upon the shores of Acheron Pleiad Mercury, never showed

or of the Tiber. To any poct's wisest sight

103. Æneid, VI. 723, Davidson's In the silence of the night:

Tr. :
News of him the Assyrian priest
Found not in his sacred list,

“In the first place, the spirit within Though he traced back old king Nine, nourishes the heavens, the earth, and And Bclus, elder name divine,

watery plains, the moon's enlightened And Osiris, endless famed. Not the glory, triple-named,

orb, and the Titanian stars; and the Thrice great Hermes, though his eyes mind, diffused through all the members, Read the shapes of all the skies,

actuates the whole frame, and mingles Left him in his sacred verse Revealed to Nature's worshippers.

with the vast body of the universe. "O Plato! and was this a dream

Thence the race of men and beasts, the Or thine in bowery Academc?

vital principles of the flying kind, and Wert thou the golden tongue to tell the monsters which the ocean breeds First of this high miracle, And charm him to thy schools below ?

under its smooth plain. These principles O call thy poets back, if so, I

have the active force of fire, and are of a Back to the state thine exiles call,

heavenly original, so far as they are not Thou greatest fabler of them all ; Or follow through the self-same gate,

clogged by noxious bodies, blunted by Thou, the founder of the state.'

earth-born limbs and dying members.

Hence they fear and desire, grieve and 48. The heart, where the blood takes rejoice; and, shut up in darkness and a the “ virtue informative," as stated in gloomy prison, lose sight of their native

skies. Even when with the last beams 52. The vegetative soul, which in of light their life is gone, yet not every man differs from that in plants, as being ill, nor all corporeal stains, are quite in a state of development, while that of removed from the unhappy beings; and plants is complete already.

it is absolutely necessary that many 55. The vegetative becomes a sensi. imperfections which have long been tive soul.

joined to the soul should be in marvellous 65. “This was the opinion of Aver- ways increased and riveted therein. mes,” says the Ottimo, " which is false, Therefore are they afflicted with punishand contrary to the Catholic faith."

ments, and pay the penalties of their

former ills, Some, hung on high, are • Tiresias, who was blind, + Sanchoniathon. spread out to the empty winds ;, in

Whom Plato banished from his imaginary others, the guilt not done away is washed republic,

line 40.

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