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142. John ii. 3: “And when they That idol of mistake, that worshipped cheat, wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith

That Honour,-since so called

By vulgar minds appalled,-unto him, They have no wine."

Played not the tyrant with our nature yet. 146. Daniel i. 12 : “ Prove thy ser. It had not come to fret vants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let The sweet and happy fold

Of gentle human-kind; them give us pulse to eat and water to

Nor did its hard law bind drink.

And Daniel had under Souls nursed in freedom; but that law of gold, standing in all visions and dreams." That glad and golden law, all free, all fitted,

Which Nature's own hand wrote, -What 148. Compare the description of the

pleases, is permitted." Golden Age in Ovid, Mlet., I. :“The golden age was first; when man, yet Also Don Quixote's address to the

goatherds, Don Quix., Book II. Ch. 3, No rule but uncorrupted reason knew, And, with a native bent, did good pursue.

Jarvis's Tr. :/ Unforced by punishment, unawed by fear,

“ After Don Quixote had satisfied his His words were simple, and his soul sincere ; hunger, he took up an handful of acorns, Needless was written law, where none opprest: and, looking on them attentively, gave The law of man was written in his breast : No suppliant crowds before the judge appeared, utterance to expressions like these :No court erected yet, nor cause was heard: ' ‘Happy times, and happy ages! But all was safe, for conscience was their guard. those to which the ancients gave the The mountain-trees in distant prospect please, Ere yet the pine descended to the seas;

name of golden, not because gold (which, Ere sails were spread, new oceans to explore;

in this our iron age, is so much esteemed) And happy mortals, unconcerned for more, was to be had, in that fortunate period, Confined their wishes to their native shore,

without toil and labour ; but because No walls were yet: nor fence, nor mote, nor mound,

they who then lived were ignorant of Nor drum was heard, nor trumpet's angry sound: these two words Meum and Tuum. In Nor swords were forged; but, void of care and that age of innocence, all things were

crime, The sost creation slept away their time.

in common; no one needed to take any The teeming earth, yet guiltless of the plough,

other pains for his ordinary sustenance, And unprovoked, did fruitful stores allow : than to list up his hand and take it from Content with food, which nature freely bred,

the sturdy oaks, which stood inviting On wildings and on strawberries they sed; Cornels and bramble-berries gave the rest,

him liberally to taste of their sweet and And falling acorns furnished out a feast. relishing fruit. The limpid fountains, The flowers unsown in fields and meadows and running streams, offered them, in

reigned; And western winds immortal spring maintained. magnificent abundance, their delicious In following years, the bearded corn ensued and transparent waters. In the clefts of From earth unasked, nor was that earth re- rocks, and in the hollow of trees, did the

newed. From veins of valleys milk and nectar broke,

industrious and provident bees form their And honey sweating through the pores of oak.”

commonwealths, offering to every hand,

without usury, the fertile procice of Also Boëthius, Book II. Met. 5, and their most delicious toil. The stout the Ode in Tasso's Aminta, Leigh Hunt's cork trees, without any other induceTr., beginning :

ment than that of their own courtesy, "O lovely age of gold!

divested themselves of their light and Not that the rivers rolled With milk, or that the woods wept honey to cover their houses, supported by rough

expanded bark, with which men dew; Not that the ready ground

poles, only for a defence against the inProduced without a wound,

clemency of the seasons. All then was Or the mild serpent had no tooth that slew; Not that a cloudless blue

peace, all amity, all concord. As yet For ever was in sight,

the heavy coulter of the crooked plough Or that the heaven which burns,

had not dared to force open, and search And now is cold by turns,

into, the tender bowels of our first Looked out in glad and everlasting light; No, nor that even the insolent ships from far

mother, who unconstrained offered, from Brought war to no new lands, nor riches worse every part of her fertile and spacious than war:

bcsom, whatever might feed, sustain, But solely that that vain

and delight those her children, who then And breath-invented pain

had her in possession. Then did the

simple and beauteous young shepherd- Could not one wolfish appetite assuage: rsses trip it from dale to dale, and from For gluting nourishment increased its rage.

As rivers poured from every distant shore hill to hill, their tresses sometimes The sea insatiate drinks, and thirsts for more; plaitel, sometimes loosely Nowing, with or as the fire, which all materials burns, no more clothing than was necessary and wasted forests into ashes turns,

Grows more voracious as the more it preys, modestly to cover what modesty has Recruits dilate the flame, and spread the blaze: always required to be concealed; nor So impigus Erisichthon's hunger raves, were there ornaments like those now-a Receives refreshments, and refreshments craves, days in fashion, to which the Tyrian is but a new provocative to eat.

Food raises a desire for food, and meat purple and the so-many-ways martyred He grows more empty as the more supplied, silk give a value; but composed of green And endless cramming but extends the void." dock-leaves and ivy interwoven ; with which, perhaps, they went as splendidly 30. This tragic tale of the siege o: and elegantly decked as our court-ladies Jerusalem by Titus is thus told in do now, with all those rare and foreign Josephus, Jewish IVar, Book VI. Ch. 3, inventions which idle curiosity hath Whiston's Tr. :taught them. Then were the amorous " There was a certain woman that conceptions of the soul clothed in simple dwelt beyond Jordan ; her name was and sincere expressions, in the same way Mary; her father was Eleazar, of the and manner they were conceived, without village Bethezub, which signifies the seeking artificial phrases to set them off. house of Hyssop. She was eminent Nor as yet were fraud, deceit, and malice for her family and her wealth, and intermixed with truth and plain dealing. had fled away to Jerusalem with the Justice kept within her proper bounds; rest of the multitude, and was with them favour and interest, which now so much besieged therein at this time. The other depreciate, confound, and persecute her, effects of this woman had been already not daring then to disturb or offend her. seized upon, such I mean as she had As yet the judge did not make his own brought with her out of Perea, and will the measure of justice ; for then removed to the city. What she had there was neither cause nor person to be treasured up besides, as also what food

she had contrived to save, had been also carried off by the rapacious guards, who

came every day running into her house CANTO XXIII.

for that purpose.

This put the poor 1. The punishment of the sin of woman into a very great passion, and by Gluttony.

the frequent reproaches and imprecations 3. Shakespeare, As You Like It, II. she cast at these rapacious villains, she 7:

had provoked them to anger against her;

but none of them, either out of the in"Under the shade of melancholy boughs Lose and neglect the creeping hours of time.” dignation she had raised against herself,

or out of commiseration of her case, 11. Psalms li. 15: “O Lord, open would take away her life. And if she thou my lips; and my mouth shall show found any food, she perceived her labours forth thy praise.'

were for others and not for herself; and 26. Erisichthon the Thessalian, who it was now become impossible for her in derision cut down an ancient oak in any way to find any more food, while the sacred groves of Ceres. He was the famine pierced through her very punished by perpetual hunger, till, other bowels and marrow, when also her pas. food failing him, at last he gnawed his sion was fired to a degree beyond the own flesh. Ovid, Met. VIII., Vernon's famine itself. Nor did she consult with T. :

anything but with her passion and the " Straight he requires, impatient in demand, necessity she was in. She then attempted Provisions from the air, the seas, the land; a most unnatural thing, and, snatching But though the land, air, seas, provisions grant, up her son who was a child sucking at Starves at full lubles, and complains of want. What to a people might in dole be paid,

her breast, she said, “O thou miserable Or victual cities for a long blockade,

infant! For whom shall I preserve thee


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in this war, this famine, and this sedition? word omo (homo, man) in the human As to the war with the Romans, if they face, so written as to place the two o's preserve our lives, we must be slaves. between the outer strokes of the m, the This famine also will destroy us, even former represent the eyes, and the latter before that slavery comes upon us. Yet the nose and cheekbones : are these seditious rogues more terrible t'han both the other. Come on, be thou my food, and be thou a fury to these seditious varlets, and a byword to the world; which is all that is now wanting to complete the calamities of the Jews. Brother Berthold, a Franciscan monk As soon as she had said this, she slew of Regensburg, in the thirteenth century, her son, and then roasted him, and ate makes the following allusion to it in the one half of him, and kept the other one of his sermons. See Wackernagel half by her concealed. Upon this the Deutsches Lesebuch, I. 678. The monk seditious came in presently, and, smelling carries out the resemblance into still furthe horrid scent of this food, they threat ther detail :ened her that they would cut her throat “Now behold, ye blessed children of immediately, if she did not show them God, the Almighty has created you soul what food she had gotten ready. She and body. And he has written it under replied, that she had saved a very fine your eyes and on your faces, that you portion of it for them; and withal un are created in his likeness. He has covered what was left of her son. Here written it upon your very faces with orupon they were seized with a horror and namented letters. With great diligence amazement of mind, and stood aston are they embellished and ornamented. ished at the sight, when she said to This your learned men will understand, them: “This is mine own son, and what but the unlearned may not understand it. hath been done was mine own doing. The two eyes are two o's. The h is Come, eat of this food; for I have eaten properly no letter; it only helps the of it myself. Do not you pretend to be others; so that homo with an h means either more tender than a woman, or Man. Likewise the brows arched above more compassionate than a mother. and the nose down between them are an But if you be so scrupulous, and dom, beautiful with three strokes. So is abominate this my sacrifice, as I have the ear a d, beautifully rounded and oreaten the one-half, let the rest be re- namented. So are the nostrils beautiserved for me also. After which those fully formed like a Greek & beautifully men went out trembling, being never so rounded and ornamented. So is the much affrighted at anything as they were mouth an i, beautifully adorned and or. at this, and with some difficulty they namented. Now behold, ye good Chris. left the rest of that meat to the mother. tian people, how skilfully he has adomed Upon which the whole city was full of you with these six letters, to show that this horrid action immediately ; and ye are his own, and that he has created while everybody laid this miserable case you! Now read me an o and an m and before their own eyes, they trembled as if another o together; that spells homo. this unheard of action had been done by Then read me a d and an e and an i toge. themselves. So those that were thus ther; that spells dei. Homo dei, man of distressed by the famine were very desi. God, man of God !” rous to die, and those already dead were 48. Forese Donati, the brother-in-law esteemed happy, because they had not and intimate friend of Dante. This lived long enough either to hear or to Forese," says Buti, " was a citizen of see such miseries."

Florence, and was brother of Messer 31. Shakespeare, King Lear, V. 3: Corso Donati, and was very gluttonous ; " And in this habit

and therefore the author feigns that he Met I my father with his bleeding rings, found him here, where the Gluttons are Their precious stoncs new lost."

punished.” 32. In this fanciful recognition of the Certain vituperative sonnets, addressed


to Dante, have been attributed to Forese. women go about in hoods and clonks ; If authentic, they prove that the friend most of the young men without cloaks, ship between the two poets was not un. in long, flowing hair, and if they throw interrupted. See Rossetti, Early Italian off their breeches, which from their Poets, Appendix to Part II.

smallness may easily be done, all is off, 74. The same desire that sacrifice and for they literally stick their posteriors atonement may be complete.

into a pair of socks and expend a yard 75. Matthew xxvii. 46: “Eli, Eli, of cloth on their wristbands, while more lama sabachthani ? that is to say, My stuff is put into a glove than a cloak. God, my God, why hast thou forsaken hood. However, I am comforted by

one thing, and that is, that all now have 83. Outside the gate of Purgatory, begun to put their feet in chains, perhaps where those who had postponed repent as a penance for the many vain things ance till the last hour were forced to they are guilty of ; for we are but a day wait as many years and days as they had in this world, and in that day the fashion lived impenitent on earth, unless aided is changed a thousand times : all seek by the devout prayers of those on earth. liberty, yet all deprive themselves of it : See Canto IV.

God has made our feet free, and many 87. Nella, contraction of Giovannella, with long pointed toes to their shoes can widow of Forese. Nothing is known of scarcely walk : he has supplied the legs this good woman but the name, and what with hinges, and many have so bound Forese here says in her praise.

them up with close lacing that they can 94. Covino, Descriz. Geograf. dello scarcely sit: the bust is tightly bandaged Italia, p. 52, says: “In the district of up; the arms trail their drapery along; Arborea, on the slopes of the Gennar. the throat is rolled in a capuchin ; the gentu, the most vast and lofty mountain head so loaded and bound round with range of Sardinia, spreads an alpine caps over the hair that it appears as country which in Dante's time, being though it were sawed off. And thus I almost barbarous, was called the Bar- might go on for ever discoursing of bagia.

female absurdities, commencing with the 102. Sacchetti, the Italian novelist of immeasurable trains at their feet, and the fourteenth century, severely criticises proceeding regularly upwards to the the fashions of the Florentines, and their head, with which they may always be sudden changes, which he says it would seen occupied in their chambers; some take a whole volume of his stories to curling, some smoothing, and enumerate. In Nov. 178, he speaks of whitening it, so that they often kill their wearing their dresses “far below themselves with colds caught in these their arm-pits," and then“ up to their vain occupations." zars;” and continues, in Napier's ver

132. Statius. sion, Flor. Hist., II. 539 :

“The young Florentine girls, who used to dress so modestly, have now

CANTO XXIV. changed the fashion of their hoods to resemble courtesans, and thus attired 1. Continuation of the punishment of they move about laced up to the throat, Gluttony. with all sorts of animals hanging as 7. Continuing the words with which ornaments about their necks. Their the preceding canto closes, and referring sleeves, or rather their sacks, as they to Statius. should be called, — was there ever so 10. Picarda, sister of Forese and useless and pernicious a fashion ! Can Corso Donati. She was a nun of Santa any of them reach a glass or take a Clara, and is placed by Dante in the * morsel from the table without dirtying first heaven of Paradise, which Forese herself or the cloth by the things she calls “high Olympus.” See Par. III. knocks down?' And thus do the young 48, where her story is told more in men, and worse ; and such sleeves are detail. ma:le even for sucking babes. The 19. Buonagiunta Urbisani of Lucca in


one of the early minor poets of Italy, a "He was a good man, and very favour. contemporary of Dante.' Rossetti, Early able to Holy Church and to those of the Italian Poets, 77, gives some specimens house of France, because he was from of his sonnets and canzoni. All that is Tours." kriuwn of him is contained in Benve He is said to have died of a surfeit. nuto's brief notice : Buonagiunta of The eels and sturgeon of Bolsena, and Urbisani, an honourable man of the city the wines of Orvieto and Montefiascone, of Lucca, a brilliant orator in his mother in the neighbourhood of whose vineyards tongue, a facile producer of rhymes, and he lived, were too much for him. But still more facile consumer of wines; who he died in Perugia, not in Orvieto. knew our author in his lifetime, and 24. The Lake of Bolsena is in the sometimes corresponded with him.” Papal States, a few miles northwest of

Tiraboschi also mentions him, Storia Viterbo, on the road from Rome to della Lett., IV. 397: “He was seen by Siena. It is thus described in Murray's Dante in Purgatory punished among the Handbook of Central Italy, p. 199:Gluttons, from which vice, it is proper to "Its circular form, and being in the say, poetry did not render him exempt.” centre of a volcanic district, has led to

22. Pope Martin the Fourth, whose its being regarded as an extinct crater ; fondness for the eels of Bolsena brought but that hypothesis can scarcely be adhis life to a sudden close, and his soul mitted when the great extent of the lake to this circle of Purgatory, has been ridi. is considered. The treacherous beauty culed in the well-known epigram, of the lake conceals malaria in its most "Gaudent anguillæ, quod mortuus hic jacet ille fatal forms; and its shores, although Qui quasi morte reas excoriabat eas.

there are no traces of a marsh, are de. “Martin the Fourth,” says Milman, serted, excepting where a few sickly Hist. Lat. Christ., VI, 143, was born hamlets are scattered on their westem at Mont. Pencè in Brie ; he had been slopes. The ground is cultivated in Canon of Tours. He put on at first the man; parts down to the water's edge, show of maintaining the lofty character but the labourers dare not sleep for a of the Churchman. He excommunicated single night during the summer or authe Viterbans for their sacrilegious mal. turn on the plains where they work by treatment of the Cardinals ; Rinaldo day; and a large tract of beautiful and Annibaldeschi, the Lord of Viterbo, was productive country is reduced to a per. compelled to ask pardon on his knees of fect solitude by this invisible calamity. the Cardinal Rosso, and forgiven only Nothing can be more striking than the at the intervention of the Pope. Martin appearance of the lake, without a single the Fourth retired to Orvieto.

sail upon its waters, and with scarcely a “But the Frenchman soon began to human habitation within sight of Bol. predominate over the Pontiff; he sunk sena ; and nothing perhaps can give the into the vassal of Charles of Anjou. I traveller who visits Italy for the first The great policy of his predecessor, to time a more impressive idea of the effects assuage the feuds of Guelph and Ghi- of malaria." belline, was an Italian policy ; it was Of the Vernaccia or Vernage, in which altogether abandoned. The Ghibellines Pope Martin cooked his eels, Henderson in every city were menaced or smitten says, Hist. Anc. and Mod. Iines, p. 296: with excommunication; the Lambertazzi

“'The Vernage

was a red wine, were driven from Bologna. Forlì was of a bright colour, and a sweetish and placed under interdict for harbouring the somewhat rough flavour, which was exiles; the goods of the citizens were grown in Tuscany and other parts of confiscated for the benefit of the Pope. Italy, and derived its name from the Jiertoldo Orsini was deposed from the thick-skinned grape, vernaccia (correCountship of Romagna; the office was sponding with the vinaciola of the an. bestowed on John of Appia, with in- cients), that was used in the preparation structions everywhere to coerce or to of it." chastise the refractory Ghibellines.” Chaucer mentions it in the Merchant's

Villani, Book VI. Ch. 106, says : | Tale :

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