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Roman senators of old, awaited the doubtless not unwilling to withdraw, approach of the Gaul.

The Pope was rescued, and led out into * But the pride and cruelty of Boni. the street, where the old man addressed face had raised and infixed deep in the a few words to the people : 'Good men hearts of men passions which acknow and women, ye see how mine enemies ledged no awe of age, of intrepidity, or have come upon me, and plundered my religious majesty. In William of No- goods, those of the Church and of the garet the blood of his Tolosan ancestors, poor. Not a morsel of bread have I in Colonna, the wrongs, the degradation, eaten, not a drop have I drunk, since the beggary, the exile of all his house, my capture. I am almost dead with had extinguished every feeling but re hunger. If any good woman will give venge. They insulted him with contu- me a piece of bread and a cup of wine, melious reproaches; they menaced his if she has no wine, a little water, I will life. The Pope answered not a word. absolve her, and any one who will give They insisted that he should at once ab- me their alms, from all their sins.' The dicate the Papacy. “Behold my neck, compassionate rabble burst into a cry, behold my head,' was the only reply. Long life to the Pope !' They carried But fiercer words passed between the him back to his naked palace. They Pope and William of Nogaret. Nogaret crowded, the women especially, with threatened to drag him before the Coun provisions, bread, meat, water, and cil of Lyons, where he should be deposed wine. They could not find a single from the Papacy. Shall I suffer my. vessel : they poured a supply of water self to be degraded and deposed by into a chest. The Pope proclaimed a Paterins like thee, whose fathers were general absolution to all, except the righteously burned as Paterins?' Wil. plunderers of his palace. He even de. liam turned fiery red, with shame clared that he wished to be at peace with thought the partisans of Boniface, the Colonnas and all his enemies. This more likely with wrath. Sciarra, it was perhaps was to disguise his intention of said, would have slain him outright ; retiring, as soon as he could, to Rome. he was prevented by some of his own “ The Romans had heard with indige followers, even by Nogaret. "Wretched nation the sacrilegious attack on the perPope, even at this distance the good son of the Supreme Pontiff. Four hunness of my lord the King guards thy dred horse under Matteo and Gaetano life.'

Orsini were sent to conduct him to the “He was placed under close custody, city. He entered it almost in triumph; not one of his own attendants permitted the populace welcomed him with every to approach him. Worse indignities demonstration of joy. But the awe of awaited him. He was set on a vicious his greatness was gone ; the spell of his horse, with his face to the tail, and so dominion over the minds of men was led through the town to his place of im. broken. His overweening haughtiness prisonment. The palaces of the Pope and domination had made him many and of his nephew were plundered ; so enemies in the Sacred College, the gold vast was the wealth, that the annual / of France had made him more. This revenues of all the kings in the world general revolt is his severest condemnawould not have been equal to the trea- tion. Among his first enemies was the sures found and carried off by Sciarra's Cardinal Napoleon Orsini. Orsini had freebooting soldiers. His very private followed the triumphal entrance of the chamber was ransacked; nothing left Pope. Boniface, to show that he desired but bare walls.

to reconcile himself with all, courteously "At length the people of Anagni invited him to his table. The Orsini could no longer bear the insult and the coldly answered, that he must receive sufferings heaped upon their illustrious the Colonna Cardinals into his favour ; and holy fellow-citizen. They rose in he must not now disown what had been irresistible insurrection, drove out the wrung from him by compulsion.' 'I will soldiers by whom they had been over- pardon them,' said Boniface, but the awed, now gorged with plunder, and mercy of the Pope is not to be from


compulsion.' He found himself again a account of the seizure of Pope Boniprisoner.

face." “ This last mortification crushed the 97. What he was saying of the Virbodily, if not the mental strength of the gin Mary, line 19. Pope. Among the Ghibellines terrible 103. The brother of Dido and murstories were bruited abroad of his death. derer of her husband. Æneid, I., 350 : In an access of fury, either from poison "He, impious and blinded with the love or wounded pride, he sat gnawing the of gold, having taken Sichæus by surtop of his staff

, and at length either beat prise, secretly assassinates him before out his own brains against the wall, or the altar, regardless of his sister's great smothered himself (a strange notion !) affection." with his own pillows. More friendly, 106. The Phrygian king, who, for his probably more trustworthy, accounts hospitality to Silenus, was endowed by describe him as sadly but quietly breath Bacchus with the fatal power of turning ing his last, surrounded by eight Cardi- all he touched to gold. The most laughnals, having confessed the faith and able thing about him was his wearing received the consoling offices of the ass's ears, as a punishment for preferring Church. The Cardinal-Poet anticipates the music of Pan to that of Apollo. Jais mild sentence from the Divine Judge. Ovid, XI., Croxall's Tr. :“ The religious mind of Christendom

“ Pan tuned the pipe, and with his rural song was at once perplexed and horror Pleased the low taste of all the vulgar throng: stricken by this act of sacrilegious vio. Such songs a vulgar judgment mostly please : lence on the person of the Supreme

Midas was there, and Midas judged with Pontiff; it shocked some even of the sternest Ghibellines. Dante, who brands See also Hawthorne's story of The the pride, the avarice, the treachery of Golden Touch in his Wonder-Book. Bonisace in his most terrible words, and 109. Joshua vii. 21: “When I saw has consigned him to the direst doom, among the spoils a goodly Babylonish (though it is true that his alliance with garment, and two hundred shekels the French, with Charles of Valois, by of silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty whom the poet had been driven into shekels weight, then I coveted them, and exile, was among the deepest causes of took them; and behold, they are hid in his hatred to Boniface,) nevertheless ex- the earth in the midst of my tent, and presses the almost universal feeling the silver under it." Christendom shuddered to behold the 112. Acts v. 1, 2 : “But a certain Fleur-de-lisenter into Anagni, and man named Ananias, with Sapphira his Christ again captive in his Vicar, the wise, sold a possession, and kept back mockery, the gall and vinegar, the cruci- part of the price, his wife also being fixion between living robbers, the inso- privy to it, and brought a certain part, lent and sacrilegious cruelty of the second and laid it at the apostles' feet." Pilate.”

113. The hoof-beats of the miracu. Compare this scene with that of his lous horse in the Temple of Jerusalem, inauguration as Pope, Inf. XIX. Note when Heliodorus, the treasurer of King 53.

Seleucus, went there to remove the trea. 91. This “modern Pilate” is Philip sure. 2. Maccabees iii. 25 : “For there the Fair, and the allusion in the follow- appeared unto them an horse with a ter. ing lines is to the persecution and sup- rible rider upon him, and adorned with pression of the Order of the Knights a very fair covering, and he ran fiercely, Templars, in 1307–1312. See Milman, and smote at Heliodorus with his fore. Lat. Christ., Book XII. Ch. 2, and feet, and it seemed that he that sat Villani, VIII. 92, who says the act was upon the horse had complete harness of committed per cupidigia di guadagnare, gold." for love of gain ; and says also: “The 115. Æneid, III. 49, Davidson's Tr.: king of France and his children had “ This Polydore unhappy Priam had for: afterwards much shame and adversity, merly sent in secrecy, with a great weight both on account of this sin and on of gold, to be brought up by the king of


Thrace, when he now began to distrust the centre of the Cyclades.

It was the arnis of Troy, and saw the city with thrown up by an earthquake, in order close siege blocked up. He, [Polym- to receive Latona, when she gave birth nestor,) as soon as the power of the to Apollo and Diana, ---the Sun and the Trojans was crushed, and their fortune Moon. gone, espousing Agamemnon's interest 136. Luke ii. 13, 14: " And suddenly and victorious arms, breaks every sacred there was with the angel a multitude of bond, assassinates Polydore, and by vio- the heavenly host, praising God, and lence possesses his gold. Cursed thirst saying, Glory to God in the highest, and of gold, to what dost thou not drive the on earth peace, good will toward men.” hearts of men !"

140. Gower, Conf. Amant., III. 5: 116. Lucinius Crassus, surnamed the

" When Goddes sone also was bore, Rich. He was Consul with Pompey, He sent his aungel down therfore, and on one occasion displayed his vast Whom the shepherdes herden singe : wealth by giving an entertainment to the

Pees to the men of welwillinge

In erthe be amonge us here. populace, at which the guests were so numerous that they occupied ten thousand tables. He was slain in a battle

CANTO XXI. with the Parthians, and his head was sent to the Parthian king, Hyrodes, who 1. This canto is devoted to the interhad molten gold poured down its throat. view with the poet Statius, whose release Plutarch does not mention this circum- from punishment was announced by the stance in his Life of Crassus, but says:— earthquake and the outcry at the end of

" When the head of Crassus was the last canto. brought to the door, the tables were 3. John iv. 14, 15: " Whosoever just taken away, and one Jason, a tragic drinketh of the water that I shall give actor of the town of Tralles, was sing. him, shall never thirst.

The ing the scene in the Bacchæ of Euripides woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this concerning Agave. He was receiving water, that I thirst not, neither come much applause, when Sillaces coming to hither to draw.” the room, and having made obeisance to 7. Luke xxiv. 13-15: "And, behold, the king, threw down the head of Cras two of them went that same day to a sus into the midst of the company. The village called Emmaus, which was from Parthians receiving it with joy and accla- Jerusalem about threescore furlongs. mations, Sillaces, by the king's com- | And they talked together of all these mand, was made to sit down, while things which had happened. And it Jason handed over the costume of Pen- came to pass, that, while they comtheus to one of the dancers in the chorus, muned together and reasoned, Jesus and taking up the head of Crassus, and himself drew near, and went with acting the part of a bacchante in her them." frenzy, in a rapturous, impassioned man 15. Among the monks of the Middle ner, sang the lyric passages,

Ages there were certain salutations, We've hunted down a mighty chase to-day,

which had their customary replies or And from the mountain bring the noble prey.' countersigns. Thus one would say, 122. This is in answer to Dante's would be, " And with thy spirit !” Or,

“ Peace be with thee!” and the answer queslon, line 35:-

“ Praised be the Lord !" and the answer, And why only

“ World without end !” Thou Jost renew these praises weii deserved ?"

22. The letters upon Dante's fore128. The occasion of this quaking of head. the mountain is given, Canto XXI.

25. Lachesis,

Of the three Fates, 58:

Clotho prepared and held the distaff, It trembles here, whenever any soul Lachesis spun the thread, and Atropos

Feels itself pure, so that it soars, or moves.
To mount aloft, and such a cry attends it."

“ These," says Plato, Republic, X., 130. An island in the Ægean Sea, in 1" are the daughters of Necessity, the

cut it.


teries see,

Fates, Lachesis, Clotho, and Atropos ; But while the common suffrage crowned his who, clothed in white robes, with gar

And broke the benches with thzir loud aplands on their heads, chant to the music plause, of the Sirens ; Lachesis the events of His Muse had starved, had not a piece unread, the Past, Clotho those of the Present,

And by a player bought, supplied her bread. Atropos those of the Future."

Dante shows his admiration of him 33. See Canto XVIII. 46: by placing him here. “What reason seeth here,

89. Statius was not born in Toulouse, Myself can tell thee; beyond that await as Dante supposes, but in Naples, as he

For Beatrice, since 'tis a work of faith." himself states in his Silure, which work So also Cowley, in his poem on the was not discovered till after Dante's l'se of Reason in Divine Matters :

death. The passage occurs in Book III.

Eclogue V., To Claudia his Wife, where “Though Reason cannot through Faith's mys- he describes the auties of Parthenope,

and calls her the mother and nurse of It sees that there and such they be ; Leads to heaven's door, and there does humbly both, amborum genetrir altrirque. keep,

Landino thinks that Dante's error And there through chinks and keyholes peep : | may be traced to Placidus Lactantius, Though it, like Moses, by a sad command Must not come into the Holy Land,

a commentator of the Thebaid, who Yet thither it infallibly does guide,

confounded Statius the poet of Naples And from afar 'tis all descried."

with Statius the rhetorician of Toulouse. 40. Nothing unusual ever disturbs

101. Would be willing to remain the religio loci, the sacredness of the

another year in Purgatory. mountain.

114. Petrarca uses the same expres. 44. This happens only when the soul, sion,—the lightning of the angelic smile, that came from heaven, is received back

il lampeggiar dell' angelico riso. into heaven; not from any natural causes

131. See Canto XIX. 133. affecting earth or air. 48. The gate of Purgatory, which is

CANTO XXII. also the gate of Heaven. 50. Iris, one of the Oceanides, the

1. The ascent to the Sixth Circle, daughter of Thaumas and Electra; the

where the sin of Glutiony is punished. rainbow.

5. Matthew v. 6: “Blessed are they 65. The soul in Purgatory feels as

which do hunger and thirst after right. great a desire to be punished for a sin, eousness; for they shall be filled.” as it had to commit it.

13. The satirist Juvenal, who flour82. The siege of Jerusalem under ished at Rome during the last half of Titus, sumamed the Delight of Man: the first century of the Christian era, kind,” took place in the year 70. Statius, and died at the beginning of the second, who is here speaking, was born at Naples of Statius, and survived him some thirty

aged eighty. He was a contemporary in the reign of Claudius, and had already become famous “under the name that years. most endures and honours,” that is, as a

40. Æneid, III. 56: “O cursed poet. His works are the 'Silve, or mis: hunger of gold, to what dost thou not

drive the hearts of men." cellaneous poems; the Thebaid, an epic in twelve books; and the Achilleid, left

42. The punishment of the Avaricious unfinished. He wrote also a tragedy,

and Prodigal. Inf. VII. 26:Agave, which is lost.

“With great howls Juvenal says of him, Satire VII., Rolling weights forward by main force of chest." Dryden's Tr.:

46. Dante says of the Avaricious and "All Rome is pleased when Statius will re

Prodigal, Inf. VII. 56:— hearse,

“ These from the sepulchre shall rise again And longing crowds expect the promised With the fist closed, and these with tresses

shorn," His lofty numbers with so great a gust They hear, and swallow with such eager lust; 56. Her two sons, Eteocles and Poly

verse :

for money.

nices, of whom Statius sings in the But why does Dante make no mention Thebaid, and to whom Dante alludes here of “ Æschyles the thunderous” and by way of illustration, Inf. XXVI. 54. “Sophocles the royal”? See also the Note.

Antiphon was a tragic and epic poet 58. Statius begins the Thebaid with of Attica, who was put to death by an invocation to Clio, the Muse of Dionysius because he would not praise History, whose office it was to record the tyrant's writings. Some editions the heroic actions of brave men, I. read Anacreon for Antiphon. 55:

107. Simonides, the poet of Cos, who " What first, () Clio, shall adorn thy page,

won a poetic prize at the age of eighty, The expiring prophet, or Ætolian's rage ? and is said to be the first poet who wrote Say, will thou sing how, grim with hostile

blood, Hippomedon repelled the rushing flood,

Agatho was an Athenian dramatist, Lament the Arcadian youth's untimely fate, of whom nothing remains but the name Or Jove, opposed by Capaneus, relate ?"

and a few passages quoted in other Skelton, Elegy on the Earl of North writers. umberland :

110. Some of the people that Statius " Or hevenly poems, O Clyo calde by name introduces into his poems. Antigone, In the college of musis goddess hystoriale."

daughter of Edipus; Deiphile, wife of 63. Saint Peter.

Tideus ; Argia, her sister, wife of Poly. 70. Virgil's Bucolics, Ecl. IV. 5, a nices ; Ismene, another daughter of passage supposed to foretell the birth of (Edipus, who is here represented as still Christ: “ The last era of Cumæan song lamenting the death of Atys, her be. is now arrived; the great series of ages trothed. begins anew; now the Virgin returns, 112. Hypsipile, who pointed out to returns the Saturnian reign ; now a new Adrastus the fountain of Langia, when progeny, is sent down from the high his soldiers were perishing with thirst heaven.

on their march against Thebes. 92. The Fourth Circle of Purgatory, 113. Of the three daughters of Tire. where Sloth is punished. Canto XVII. sias only Manto is mentioned by Statius 85:

in the T hebaid. But Dante places Manto "The love of good, remiss

among the Soothsayers, Inf. XX. 55, and In what it should have done, is here restored ; Here plied again the ill-belated oar."

not in Limbo. Had he forgotten this? 97. Some editions read in this line, Achilles, and Deidamia, the daughter of

113, 114. Thetis, the mother of instead of nostro amico, - nostro antico, Lycomedes. They are among the perour ancient Terence; but the epithet sonages in the Achilleid of Statius. would be more appropriate to Plautus, 118. Four hours of the day were who was the earlier writer.

already passed. 97, 98. Plautus, Cæcilius, and Terence, the three principal Latin drama- leige :

131. Cowley, The Tree of Knowtists; Varro, “the most learned of the

"The sacred tree 'midst the fair orchard grew, Romans,” the friend of Cicero, and

The phenix Truth did on it rest author of some five hundred volumes,

And built his perfumed nest, which made St. Augustine wonder how

That right Porphyrian tree which did true he who wrote so many books could find

Logic show ;

af did learned notions give time to read so many; and how he who And th' apples were demonstrative ; read so many could find time to write so

So clear their colour and divine many.

The very sha'le they cast did other lights out.

shine." 100. Persius, the Latin satirist.

This tree of Temptation, however, is 10.. Homer. 106. Mrs. Browning, Wine of Cy. hardly the tree of Knowledge, though

sprung from it, as Dante says of the next, prus:

in Canto XXIV. 117. It is meant only “Our Euripides, the human,With his droppings of warın tears ;

to increase the torment of the starving And his touchings of things common,

souls beneath it, by holding its fresh and Till they rose to touch the spheres." dewy fruit beyond their reach.

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