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59. The three remaining sins to be 23. The inn at Bethlehem. purged away are Avarice, Gluttony, 25. The Roman Consul who rejected] and Lust.

with disdain the bribes of Pyrrhus, and 61. See Canto XIV. 148.

died so poor that he was buried at the 73. Psalms cxix. 25: “My soul public expense, and the Romans were cleaveth unto the dust : quicken thou me obliged to give a dowry to his daughters according to thy word.”

Virgil, Æneid, VI. 844, calls him 99. Know that I am the successor of “powerful in poverty. Dante also Peter. It is Pope Adrian the Fifth who extols him in the Convito, IV. 5. speaks. He was of the family of the 31. Gower, Conf. Amant., V. 13: Counts of Lavagna, the family taking “ Betwene the two extremites its title from the river Lavagna, flowing Of vice stont the propertes between Siestri and Chiaveri, towns on

Of vertue, and to prove it so the Riviera di Genova. He was Pope

Take avarice and take also

The vice of prodegalite, only thirty-nine days, and died in 1276. Betwene hem liberalite, When his kindred came to congratulate

Which is the vertue of largesse him on his election, he said, Would

Stant and governeth his noblesse. that ye came to a Cardinal in good 32. This is St. Nicholas, patron saint health, and not to a dying Pope. of children, sailors, and travellers. The

134. Revelation xix. 10: “And I fell incident here alluded to is found in the at his feet to worship him. And he said Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine, unto me, See thou do it not, I am thy the great storehouse of mediæval wonfellow-servant."

ders. 137. Mat!hew xxii. 30: “For in the It may be found also in Mrs. Jameresurrection they neither marry, nor are son's Sacred and Legendary Art, II, 62, given in marriage, but are as the angels and in her version runs thus:in heaven.” He reminds Dante that “Now in that city there dwelt a here all earthly distinctions and relations certain nobleman who had three daugh. are laid aside. He is no longer “the ters, and, from being rich, he became Spouse of the Church."

poor ; so poor that there remained no 141. Penitence; line 92:-

means of obtaining food for his daugh. "In whom weeping ripens

ters but by sacrificing them o an infaThat without which to God we cannot turn." mous life ; and oftentimes it came into

his mind to tell them so, but shame and 142. Madonna Alagia was the wife of

sorrow held him dumb. Meantime the Marcello Malespini, that friend of Dante with whom, during his wanderings he what to do, and not having bread to eat;

maidens wept continually, not knowing took refuge in the Lunigiana, in 1307.

and their father became more and more desperate. When Nicholas heard of

this, he thought it a shame that such a CANTO XX.

thing should happen in a Christian land; 1. In this canto the subject of the therefore one night, when the maidens preceding is continued, namely, the were asleep, and their father alone sat punishment of Avarice and Prodigality. watching and weeping, he took a hand

2. To please the speaker, Pope Adful of gold, and, tying it up in a handrian the Fifth, (who, Canto XIX. 139, kerchief, he repaired to the dwelling of says,

the poor man. He considered how he "Now go, no longer will I have thee linger,") might bestow it without making himself

known, and, while he stood irresolute, Dante departs without further question, the moon coming from behind a cloud though not yet satisfied.

showed him a window open ; so he 13. See the article Cabala at the end threw it in, and it fell at the feet of the of Paradiso.

father, who, when he found it, returned 15. This is generally supposed to refer thanks, and with it he portioned his to Can Grande della Scala. See Inj. I, eldest daughter. A second time Nicho. Note 101,

las provided a similar sum, and again he







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threw it in by night; and with it the folly. Never was man or monarch so nobleman married his second daughter. intensely selfish as Philip the Fair: his But he greatly desired to know who it own power was his ultimate scope; he was that came to his aid; therefore he extended so enormously the royal predetermined to watch, and when the good rogative, the influence of France, because saint came for the third time, and pre- he was King of France. His rapacity, pared to throw in the third portion, he which persecuted the Templars, his vin. was discovered, for the nobleman seized dictiveness, which warred on Boniface him by the skirt of his robe, and fung after death as through life, was this sel. himself at his feet, saying, 'O Nicholas ! fishness in other forms." servant of God! why seek to hide thy He was defeated at the battle of self?' and he kissed his feet and his Courtray, 1302, known in history as the hands. But Nicholas made him promise battle of the Spurs of Gold, from the that he would tell no man. And many great number found on the field after other charitable works did Nicholas per the battle. This is the vengeance im. form in his native city."

precated upon him by Dante. 43. If we knew from what old chro 50. For two centuries and a half, that nicle, or from what Professor of the Rue is, from 1060 to 1316, there was either a du Fouarre, Dante derived his know. Louis or a Philip on the throne of ledge of French history, we might pos- France. The succession was as fol. sibly make plain the rather difficult lows:passage which begins with this line.

Philip I. the Amorous. 1060 The spirit that speaks is not that of the Louis VI. the Fat .

1108 King Hugh Capet, but that of his father, Louis VII. the Young. 1137 Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count

Philip II. Augustus

1180 of Paris. He was son of Robert the Louis VIII. the Lion . 1223 Strong. Pasquier, Rech. de la France, Louis IX. the Saint

1226 VI. I, describes him as both valiant and

Philip III, the Bold

1270 prudent, and says that, although he

Philip IV. the Fair

1285 was never king, yet was he a maker and Louis X.

1314 unmaker of kings," and then goes on to draw an elaborate parallel between him is to be taken literally or figuratively.

52. It is doubtful whether this passage and Charles Martel. The “malignant plant” is Philip the Ch. 1 (thinking it is the King Hugh

Pasquier, Rech. de la France, Liv. VÍ. Fair, whose character is thus drawn by Capet that speaks), breaks forth in inMilman, Lat. Christ., Book XI. Ch. dignant protest as follows:-. 8:“ In Philip the Fair the gallantry of lity there was in this family from its

"From this you can perceive the fata. the French temperament broke out on

beginning to its end, to the disadvantage rare occasions; his first Flemish cam

And moreover, paigns were conducted with bravery and how ignorant the Italian poet Dante

of the Carlovingians. skill, but Philip ever preferred the subtle was, when in his book entitled Purgatory negotiation, the slow and wily encroach- he says that our Hugh Capet was the ment; till his enemies were, if not in his

son of a butcher.

Which word, once power

, at least at great disadvantage, he written erroneously and carelessly by did not venture on the usurpation or him, has so crept into the heads of some invasion. In the slow systematic pursuit simpletons, that many who never invesof his object he was utterly without tigated the antiquities of our France have scruple, without remorse. He was not fallen into this same heresy. François so much cruel as altogether obtuse to de Villon, more studious of taverns and human suffering, if necessary to the pro: ale-houses than of good books, says in secution of his schemes; not so much

some part of his works, rapacious as, finding money indispen.

• Si feusse les hoirs de Capet sable to his aggrandizement, seeking

Qui fut extrait de boucherie.' money by means of which he hardly seenied to discern the injustice or the And since then Agrippa Alamanni, in



his book on the Vanity of Science, chap- carried to England by Hugh the Great, ter Of Nobility, on this first ignorance in 936. The Man in Cloth of Grey re. declares impudently against the genea. mains as great a mystery as the Man in logy of our Capet. If Dante thought the Iron Mask. that Hugh the Great, Capet's father, was 59. Hugh Capet was crowned at a butcher, he was not a clever man. But Rheims, in 987. The expression which if he used this expression figuratively, as follows shows clearly that it is llugh the I am willing to believe, those who cling Great who speaks, and not Hugh the to the shell of the word are greater block- founder of the Capetian dynasty. heads still...

61. Until the shame of the low origin “This passage of Dante being read of the family was removed by the marand explained by Luigi Alamanni, an riage of Charles of Anjou, brother of Italian, before Francis the First of that Saint Louis, to the daughter of Raimond name, he was indignant at the impos- Berenger, who brought him Provence as ture, and commanded it to be stricken her dower.

He was even excited to interdict 65. Making amends for one crime by the reading of the book in his kingdom. committing a greater. The particular But for my part, in order to exculpate transaction here alluded to is the seizing this author, I wish to say that under the by fraud and holding by force these proname of Butcher he meant that Capet vinces in the time of Philip the Fair. was son of a great and valiant warrior. 67. Charles of Anjou.

If Dante understood it thus, I 68. Curradino, or Conradin. son of forgive him; if otherwise, he was a very the Emperor Conrad IV., a beautiful ignorant poet.”

youth of sixteen, who was beheaded in Benvenuto says that the name of Capet the square of Naples by order of Charles comes from the fact that Hugh, in play- of Anjou, in 1268. Voltaire, in his ing with his companions in boyhood, rhymed chronology at the end of his “ was in the habit of pulling off their Annales de l'Empire, says, caps and running away with them."

C'est en soixante-huit que la main d'un Ducange repeats this story from an old

bourreau chronic's, and gives also another and

Dans Conradin son fils éteint un sang si more probable origin of the name, as coniing from the hood or cowl which Endeavouring to escape to Sicily after Hugh was in the habit of wearing. his defeat at Tagliacozzo, he was carried

The belief that the family descended to Naples and imprisoned in the Castel from a butcher was current in Italy in dell'Uovo. “Christendom heard with Dante's time. Villani, IV. 3, says : horror,” says Milman, Lat. Christ., "Most people say that the father was a Book XI. Ch. 3, “that the royal brother great and rich burgher of Paris, of a race of St. Louis, that the champion of the of butchers or dealers in cattle."

Church, after a mock trial, by the sen. 53. When the Carlovingian race were tence of one judge, Robert di Lavena, all dead but one. And who was he ? after an unanswerable pleading by Guido The Ottimo says it was Rudolph, who de Suzaria, a famous jurist, had con• became a monk and afterwards Arch- demned the last heir of the Swabian bishop of Rheims. Benvenuto gives no house-a rival king who had fought gal. name, but says only “a monk in poor, lantly for his hereditary throne-to be coarse garments." Buti says the same. executed as a felon and a rebel on a pubDaniello thinks it was some Friar of St. lic scaffold. So little did Conradin Francis, perhaps St. Louis, forgetting dread his fate, that, when his doom was that these saints did not see the light till announced, he was playing at chess with some two centuries after the time here Frederick of Austria. Slave,' said spoken of. Others say Charles of Lor- Conradin to Robert of Bari, who read raine ; and Biagioli decides that it must the fatal sentence, do you dare to conbe either Charles the Simple, who died demn as a criminal the son and heir of a prisoner in the castle of Péronne, in kings? Knows not your master that he 922; or Louis of Outre-Mer, who was is my equal, not my judge?' He added,


I am a moital, and must die ; yet ask Jhesus,' he seide, the kings of the earth if a prince be cri

And secche that the fend claymeth. minal for seeking to win back the heri

Piers fruyt the Plowman. tage of his ancestors. But if there be no pardon for me, spare, at least, my faith "• Who shal juste with Jhesus ?' quod I, ful companions; or if they must die,

Jewes or scrybes?' ətrike me first, that I may not behold

“Nay,' quod he : ‘The foule fend,

And tals doom and decth.'” Their death.' They died devoutly, nobly. Every circumstance aggravated the ab 75. By the aid of Charles of Valois horrence ; it was said - perhaps it was the Neri party triumphed in Florence, the invention of that abhorrence, that and the Bianchi were banished, and with Robert of Flanders, the brother of them Dante. Charles, struck dead the judge who had 76. There is an allusion here to the presumed to read the iniquitous sentence. nickname of Charles of Valois, SenzaWhen Conradin knelt, with uplifted terra, or Lackland. hands, awaiting the blow of the execu 79. Charles the Second, son of Charles tioner, he uttered these last words, O of Anjou. He went from France to my mother ! how deep will be thy sor recover Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers. row at the news of this day!' Even the In an engagement with the Spanish fleet followers of Charles could hardly restrain under Admiral Rugieri d'Oria, he was their pity and indignation. With Con- taken prisoner. Dante says he sold his radin died his young and valiant friend, daughter, because he married her for a Frederick of Austria, the two Lancias, large sum of money to Azzo the Sixth of two of the noble house of Donaticcio of Este. Pisa. The inexorable Charles would not 82. Æneid, III. 56. “Cursed thirst permit them to be buried in consecrated of gold, to what dost thou not drive the ground.”

hearts of men.” 69. Thomas Aquinas, the Angelic 86. The flower-de-luce is in the banDoctor of the Schools, died at the con ner of France. Borel, Tresor de Re. Vent of Fossa Nuova in the Campagna, cherches, cited by Roquefort, Glossaire, being on his way to the Council of under the word 'Leye, says: “The oriLyons, in 1274. He is supposed to have famme is so called from gold and flame; been poisoned by his physician, at the that is to say, a lily of the marshes. The instigation of Charles of Anjou.

lilies are the arms of France on a field of 71. Charles of Valois, who came into azure, which denotes water, in memory Italy by invitation of Boniface the Eighth, that they (the French) came from a in 1301. See Inf. VI. 69.

marshy country. It is the most ancient 74. There is in old French literature and principal banner of France, sown a poem entitled le Tournoyement de with these lilies, and was borne around l'Antechrist, written by Hugues de Mery, our kings on great occasions." a monk of the Alley of St. Germain Roquefort gives his own opinion as des-Prés, in the thirteenth century, in follows: “The Franks, afterwards which he describes a battle between the called French, inhabited (before enterVirtues under the banner of Christ, and ing Gaul properly so called) the environs the Vices under that of Antichrist. of the Lys, a river of the Low Countries,

In the Vision of Piers Ploughman, whose banks are still covered with a kind there is a joust between Christ and the of iris or flag of a yellow colour, which foul fiend:

differs from the common lily and more “Thanne was Feith in a fenestre,

nearly resembles the flower-de-luce of our And cryde a fili David,

Now it seems to me very natural As dooth a heraud of armes, Whan aventrous cometh to justes

that the kings of the Franks, having to Old Jewes of Jerusalem

choose a symbol to which the name of For joye thei songen,

armorial bearings has since been given, Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.

should take in its composition a beautiful “Than I srayned at Feith, What all that fare by-mente,

and remarkable flower, which they had And who sholde juste in Jerusalem.

before their eyes, and that thev should



name it, from the place where it grew in through the common

Then abundance, flower of the river Lys.' arrived, but not to the rescue, Arnulf,

These are the lilies of which Drayton the Captain of the People ; he had perspeaks in his Ballad of Agincourt : haps been suborned by Reginald of when our grandsire great,

Supino. With him were the sons of Claiming the regal seat,

Chiton, whose father was pining in the By many a warlike feat

dungeons of Boniface. Instead of resistLopped the French lilies."

ling, they joined the attack on the palace

of the Pope s nephew and his own. The 87. This passage alludes to the seizure Pope and his nephew implored a truce ; and'imprisonment of Pope Boniface the it was granted for eight hours. This Eighth by the troops of Philip the Fair time the Pope employed in endeavouring at Alagna or Anagni, in 1303. Milman, to stir up the people to his defence ; the Lat. Christ., Book XI. Ch. 9, thus people coldly answered, that they were describes the event :

under the command of their Captain. “On a sudden, on the 7th September The Pope demanded the terms of thi: (the 8th was the day for the publication conspirators. 'If the Pope would save his of the Bull), the peaceful streets of life, let him instantly restore the Colonna Anagni were disturbed. The Pope and Cardinals to their dignity, and reinstate the Cardinals, who were all assembled the whole house in their honours and posaround him, were startled with the tram sessions; after this restoration the Pope pling of armed horse, and the terrible must abdicate, and leave his body at the cry, which ran like wildfire through the disposal of Sciarra.' The Pope groaned city, “Death to Pope Boniface ! Long in the depths of his heart. The word live the King of France!' Sciarra Co- is spoken. Again the assailants thunlonna, at the head of three hundred dered at the gates of the palace ; still horsemen, the Barons of Cercano and there was obstinate resistance. The Supino, and some others, the sons of principal church of Anagni, that of Santa Master Massio of Anagni, were marching Maria, protected the Pope's palace. in furious haste, with the banner of the Sciarra Colonna's lawless band set fire king of France displayed. The ungrate to the gates ; the church was crowded ful citizens of Anagni, forgetful of their with clergy and laity and traders who pride in their holy compatriot, of the had brought their precious wares into the honour and advantage to their town from sacred building. They were plundered the splendour and wealth of the Papal with such rapacity that not a man residence, received them with rebellious escaped with a farthing. and acclaiming shouts.

“The Marquis found himself com. "The bell of the city, indeed, had pelled to surrender, on the condition tolled at the first alarm ; the burghers that his own life, that of his family and had assembled ; they had chosen their of his servants, should be spared. At commander ; but that commander, these sad tidings the Pope wept bitterly. whom they ignorantly or treacherously The Pope was alone ; from the first the chose, was Arnulf, a deadly enemy of Cardinals, some from treachery, some the Pope. The banner of the Church from cowardice, had fled on all sides, was unfolded against the Pope by the even his most familiar friends : they had captain of the people of Anagni. The crept into the most ignoble hiding places. first attack was on the palace of the The aged Pontiff alone lost not his selfPope, on that of the Marquis Gaetani, command. He had declared himself his nephew, and those of three Cardi. ready to perish in his glorious cause ; he nals, the special partisans of Boniface. determined to fall with dignity. “If I The houses of the Pope and of his am betrayed like Christ, I am ready to nephew made some resistance. The die like Christ.' He put on the stole of doors of those of the Cardinals were St. Peter, the imperial crown was on his beaten down, the treasures ransacked head, the keys of St. Peter in one hand and carried off; the Cardinals them and the cross in the other: he took his selves fled from the backs of the houses seat on the l'apal throne, and, like the

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