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trained, small goods seem great, and Second. Gregory retained the ambition, therefore with them beginneth her de. the vigour, almost the activity of youth, sire. Hence we see children desire ex. with the stubborn obstinacy, and some. ceedingly an apple; and then, going thing of the irritable petulance, of old farther, desire a little bird ; and farther age. He was still master of all his still, a beautiful dress; and then a horse; powerful faculties ; his knowledge of and then a woman; and then wealth affairs, of mankind, of the peculiar innot very great, and then greater, and terests of almost all the nations in then greater still. And this cometh to Christendom, acquired by long employ: pass, because she findeth not in any of ment in the most important negotiation ; these things that which she is seeking, both by Innocent the Third and by and trusteth to find it farther on." Honorius the Third ; eloquence whicul 96. Henry Vaughan, Sacred Poems :- his own age compared to that of Tully;

profound erudition in that learning “They are indeed our pillar-fires, Seen as we go;

which, in the mediæval churchman, com: They are that city's shining spires manded the highest admiration. No We travel to."

one was his superior in the science of 99. Leviticus xi. 4: “ The camel be

the canon law; the Decretals, to which he afterwards gave a

more full and cause he cheweth the cud, but divideth

authoritative form, were at his comnot the hoof: he is unclean to you." | mand, and they were to him as much Dante applies these words to the Pope the law of God as the Gospels them. as temporal sovereign.

101. Worldly goods. As in the old selves, or the primary principles of moFrench satirical verses :

rality. The jealous reverence and attach

ment of a great lawyer to his science " Au temps passé du siècle d'or, strengthened the lofty pretensions of the Crosse de bois, évêque d'or;

churchman. Maintenant changent les lois,

“Frederick the Second, with many of Crosse d'or, évêque de bois."

the noblest qualities which could capti107. The Emperor and the Pope ; the vate the admiration of his own age, in temporal and spiritual power.

some respects might appear misplaced, 115. Lombardy and Romagna. and by many centuries prematurely born.

117. The dissension and war between Frederick having crowded into his youth the Emperor Frederick the Second and adventures, perils, successes, almost unPope Gregory the Ninth. Milman, Hist. paralleled in history, was now only Lat. Christ., Book X. Ch. 3, says : expanding into the prime of manhood.

“The Empire and the Papacy were A parentless orphan, he had struggled now to meet in their last mortal and im- upward into the actual reigning monarch placable strife; the two first acts of this of his hereditary Sicily, he was even tremendous drama, separated by an in- then rising above the yoke of the turterval of many years, were to be deve- bulent magnates of his realm, and the loped during the pontificate of a prelate depressing tutelage of the Papal See; who ascended the throne of St. Peter at he had crossed the Alps a boyish adventhe age of eighty. Nor was this strife turer, and won so much through his own for any specific point in dispute, like the valour and daring that he might well right of investiture, but avowedly for ascribe to himself his conquest, the king. supremacy on one side, which hardly dom of Germany, the imperial crown; deigned to call itself independence; for he was in undisputed possession of the independence, on the other, which re- Empire, with all its rights in Northern motely at least aspired after supremacy. Italy; King of Apulia, Sicily, and Jeru. Cæsar would bear no superior, the suc. salem. He was beginning to be at once cessor of St. Peter no equal. The con- the Magnificent Sovereign, the knight, test could not have begun under men the poet, the lawgiver, the patron of more strongly contrasted, or more deter- arts, letters, and science ; the Magniminedly oppugnant in character, than ficent Sovereign, now holding his court Gregory the Ninth and Frederick the in one of the old barbaric and feudal

cities of Germany among the proud and more strong or more irreconcilable than turbulent princes of the Empire, more the octogenarian Gregory, in his cloister osten on the sunny shores of Naples or palace, in his conclave of stern ascetics, Palermo, in southern and almost Oriental with all but severe imprisonment within luxury ; the gallant Knight and trouba- conventual walls, completely monastic dour Poet, not forbidding himself those in manners, habits, views, in corporate amorous indulgences which were the re pirit, in celibacy, in rigid seclusion from ward of chivalrous valour and of the the rest of mankind, in the conscientious

gay science;' the Lawgiver, whose determination to enslave, if possible, all far-seeing wisdom seemed to anticipate Christendom to its inviolable unity of some of those views of equal justice, of faith, and to the least possible latitudo the advantages of commerce, of the cul- of discipline; and the gay and ya tivation of the arts of peace, beyond all youthful Frederick, with his mingled the toleration of adverse religions, which assemblage of knights and ladies, of even in a more dutiful son of the Church Christians, Jews, and Mohammedans, of would doubtless have seemed godless in poets, and men of science, met, as it difference. Frederick must appear before were, to enjoy and minister to enjoy us in the course of our history in the full ment,-to cultivate the pure intellect, development of all these shades of cha – where, if not the restraints of reliracter; but besides all this, Frederick's gion, at least the awful authority of views of the temporal sovereignty were churchmen was examined with freeas imperious and autocratic as those of dom, sometimes ridiculed with sportive the haughtiest churchman of the spiritual wit.” supremacy. The ban of the Empire

See also Inf. X. Note 119. ought to be at least equally awful with 124. Currado (Conrad) da Palazzo of that of the Church; disloyalty to the Brescia ; Gherardo da Camino of Tre. Emperor was as heinous a' sin as in- viso ; and Guido da Castello of Reggio. fidelity to the head of Christendom; the Of these three the Ottimo thus speaks :independence of the Lombard republics “Messor Currado was laden with was as a great and punishable political honour during his lise, delighted in a heresy. Even in Rome itself, as head of fine retinue, and in political life in the the Roman Empire, Frederick aspired government of cities, in which he ac. to a supremacy which was not less un- quired much praise and fame. limited because vague and undefined, and “Messer Guido was assiduous in irreconcilable with that of the Supreme honouring men of worth, who passed on Pontiff. If ever Emperor might be their way to France, and furnished many tempted by the vision of a vast heredi. with horses and arms, who came hithertary monarchy to be perpetuated in his ward from France. To all who had house, the princely house of Hohen. honourably consumed their property, staufen, it was Frederick. He had heirs and returned more poorly furnished than of his greatness; his eldest son was King became them, he gave, without hope of of the Romans; from his loins might yet return, horses, arms, and money. spring an inexhaustible race of princes ; “Messer Gherardo da Camino de the failure of his imperial line was his lighted not in one, but in all noble last fear. The character of the man things, keeping constantly at home.” seemed formed to achieve and to main He farther says, that his fame was so tain this vast design; he was at once great in France that he was there spoken terrible and popular, courteous, generous, of as the simple Lombard,” just as, placable to his foes; yet there was a "when one says the City, and no more, depth of cruelty in the heart of Frederick one means Rome." Benvenuto da Imola towards revolted subjects, which made says that all Italians were called Lom. him Jook on the atrocities of his allies, bards by the French. In the Histoire d Eccelin di Romano, and the Salinguerras, Cronique du petit Jehan de Saintré, fol. but as legitimate means to quell insolent 219, ch. iv., the author remarks : “The and stubborn rebellion. ...

fifteenth day after Saintre's return, there “It is impossible to conceive a contrast came to Paris two young, noble, and

will ;

brave Italians, whom we call Lom- beautifully when the spring newly begins, bards,"

sitting in the thick branches of trees, 132. Deuteronomy xviii. 2: “There and she, frequently changing, pours forth fore" shall they have no inheritance her much-sounding voice, lamenting her among their brethren : the Lord is dear Itylus, whom once she slew with their inheritance, as he hath said unto the brass through ignorance.” them.”

25. Esther vii. 9, 10: “ And Har140. “This Gherardo," says Buti, bonah, one of the chamberlains, said “had a daughter, called, on account of before the king, Behold also, the gal. her beauty, Gaja ; and so modest and lows, fifty cubits high, which Haman virtuous was she, that through all Italy had made for Mordecai, who had spoken was spread the fame of her beauty and good for the king, standeth in the house modesty."

of Haman. Then the king said, hang The Ottimo, who preceded Buti in him thereon. So they hanged Haman point of time, gives a somewhat different on the gallows that he had prepared for and more equivocal account. He says : Mordecai. Then was the king's wrath “ Madonna Gaia was the daughter of pacified.” Messer Gherardo da Camino : she was a 34. Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus lady of such conduct in amorous delecta- and Queen Amata, betrothed to Turnus. tions, that her name was notorious Amata, thinking Turnus dead, hanged throughout all Italy; and therefore she herself in anger and despair. Æneid, is thus spoken of here.”

XII. 875, Dryden's Tr. :-
"Mad with her anguish, impotent to bear

The mighty grief, she loathes the vital air.
CANTO XVII.

She calls herself the cause of all this ill, 1. The trance and vision of Dante, and

And owns the dire effects of her ungoverned the ascent to the Fourth Circle, where She raves against the gods, she beats her the sin of Sloth is punished.

breast, 2. liad, III. 10: “As the south She tears with both her hands her purple vest;

Then round a beam a running noose she tied, wind spreads a mist upon the brow of a And, fastened by the neck, obscenely died. mountain, by no means agreeable to the “Soon as the fatal news by same was blown, shepherd, but to the robber better than And to her dames and to her daughters known, night, in which a man sees only as far as

The sad Lavinia rends her yellow hair

And rosy cheeks; the rest her sorrow share ; he can cast a stone.”

With shrieks the palace rings, and madness of 19. In this vision are represented some despair." of the direful effects of anger, beginning

53. See Par. V. 134 : with the murder of Itys by his mother,

“Even as the sun, that doth conceal himself Procne, and her sister, Philomela. Ovid,

By too much light." VI. :-

And Milton, Parad. Lost, III. 380:“Now, at her lap arrived, the flattering boy

Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear." Salutes his parent with a smiling joy : About her neck his little arms are thrown, And he accosts her in a prattling tone.

68. Matthew v. 9: “Blessed are the

peacemakers : for they shall be called When Procne, on revengeful mischief bent, the children of God." Home to his heart a piercing poniard sent.

Sloth. See Inf. VII. Note 115. Itys, with rueful cries, but all too late,

And Brunetto Latini, Tesoretto, XXI. Holds out his hands, and deprecates his fate ; Still at his mother's neck he fondly aims, And strives to melt her with endearing names;

" In ira nasce e posa Yet still the cruel mother perseveres,

Accidia niquitosa."
Nor with concern his bitter anguish hears.
This might suffice ; but Philomela too

97. The first, the object; the second, Across his throat a shining cutlass drew."

too much or too little vigour. Or perhaps the reference is to the 124. The sins of Pride, Envy, and Homeric legend of Philomela, Odyssey, Anger. The other is Sloth, or luke. XIX. 518: “As when the daughter of warmness in well-doing, punished in this Pandarus, the swarthy nightingale, sings circle.

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145 :

136. The sins of Avarice, Gluttony, The greatest gift that in his largess God and Lust.

Creating made, and unto his own goodness
Nearest conformed, and that which he doth

prize

Most highly, is the freedom of the will,
CANTO XVIII.

Wherewith the creatures of intelligence

Both all and only were and are endowed." 1. The punishment of the sin of 76. Near midnight of the Second Day Sloth.

of Purgatory. 27. Bound or taken captive by the 80. The moon was rising in the sign image of pleasure presented to it. See of the Scorpion, it being now five days Canto XVII. 91.

after the full ; and when the sun is in 22. Milton, Parad. Lost, V. 100: this sign, it is seen by the inhabitants of " But know that in the soul

Rome to sit between the islands of Cor. Are many lesser faculties, that serve

sica and Sardinia. Reason as chief; among these Fancy next 83. Virgil, born at Pietola, near Her office holds ; of all external things, Mantua. Which the five watchful senses represent, She forms imaginations, aery shapes,

84. The burden of Dante's doubts Which Reason joining or disjoining frames and questions, laid upon Virgil. All what we affirm or what deny, and call

91. Rivers of Boeotia, on whose banks Our knowledge or opinion ; then retires Into her private cell, when Nature rests."

the Thebans crowded at night to invoke

the aid of Bacchus to give them rain for 30. The region of Fire. Brunetto their vineyards. Latini, Tresor. Ch. CVIII. : “ After the 94. The word falcare, in French zone of the air is placed the fourth ele- faucher, here translated curve,” is a ment. This is an orb of fire without term of equitation, describing the motion any moisture, which extends as far as of the outer fore-leg of a horse in going the moon, and surrounds this atmosphere round in a circle. It is the sweep of a in which we are.

And know that above mower's scythe. the fire is first the moon, and the other 100. Luke i. 39 : “And Mary arose stars, which are all of the nature of in those days and went into the hill. fire."

country with haste." 44. If the soul follows the appetites 101. Cæsar on his way to subdue naturalis, or goes not with another foot Ilerda, now Lerida, in Spain, besieged than that of nature.

Marseilles, leaving there part of his 49. In the language of the Scholastics, army under Brutus to complete the Form was the passing from the potential work. to the actual. • Whatever is Act,” says 118. Nothing is known of this Abbot, Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theol., Quæst. not even his name. Finding him here, LXVI. Art. 1, “whatever is Act is Form; the commentators make bold to say that quod est actus est forma.And again he was “slothful and deficient in good Form was divided into Substantial Form, deeds.” This is like some of the definiwhich caused a thing to be ; and Acci- tions in the Crusca, which, instead of dental Form, which caused it to be in a the interpretation of a Dantesque word,

as heat makes its subject give you back the passage in which it not simply to be, but to be hot."

occurs. “The soul,” says the same An 119. This is the famous Emperor Doctor, Quæst. LXXVI. Art. 4, “is the Frederick Barbarossa, who, according to substantial form of man; anima est forma the German popular tradition, is still

ubstantialis hominis." It is segregate sitting in a cave in the Kipphauser mounor distinct from matter, though united tains, waiting for something to happen, with it.

while his beard has grown through the 61. “This” refers to the power that stone-table before him. In 1162 he counsels, or the faculty of Reason. burned and devastated Milan, Brescia,

66. Accepts, or rejects like chaff. Piacenza, and Cremona. He 73. Dante makes Beatrice say, Par. drowned' in the Salef in Armenia, on

his crusade in 1190, endeavouring to

certain way,

was

V. 19%

Tossa

ford the river on horseback in his impa- where Avarice is punished. It is the tience to cross. His character is thus dawn of the Third Day. drawn by Milman, Lat. Christ., Book 3. Brunetto Latini, Tresor. Ch. CXL VIII. Ch. 7, and sufficiently explains “Saturn, who is sovereign over all, is why Dante calls him “the good Barba- cruel and malign and of a cold nature.”

4. Geomancy is divination by points “ Frederick was a prince of intrepid in the ground, or pebbles arranged in valour, consummate prudence, unmea- certain figures, which have peculiar sured ambition, justice which hardened names. Among these is the figure into severity, the ferocity of a barbarian called the Fortuna Major, which is thus somewhat tempered with a high chival- drawn:rous gallantry; above all, with a strength of character which subjugated alike the great temporal and ecclesiastical princes of Germany; and was prepared to assert the Imperial rights in Italy to the utmost. Of the constitutional rights of the Em- and which by an effort of imagination peror, of his unlimited supremacy, his can also be formed out of some of the absolute independence of, his temporal last stars of Aquarius, and some of the superiority over, all other powers, even first of Pisces. that of the Pope, Frederick proclaimed Chaucer, Troil.

and Cres., III., the loftiest notions. He was to the 1415: Empire what Hildebrand and Innocent

“But whan the cocke, commune astrologer, were to the Popedom. His power was Gan on his brest to bete and after crowe, of God alone; to assert that it was And Lucifer, the dayes messanger, bestowed by the successor of St. Peter

Gan for to rise and out his bemes throwe, was a lie, and directly contrary to the

And estward rose, to him that could it knowe,

Fortuna Major." doctrine of St. Peter.' 121, Alberto della Scala, Lord of

6. Because the sun is following close Verona. He made his natural son,

behind. whose qualifications for the office Dante

"stammering woman” of here enumerates, and the commentators Dante's dream is Sensual Pleasure, repeat, Abbot of the Monastery of San which the imagination of the beholder Zeno.

adorns with a thousand charms. The 132. See Inf. VII. Note 115.

“lady saintly and alert” is Reason, the 135. Numbers xxxii. 11, 12:

same that tied Ulysses to the mast, and none of the men that came out of Egypt, stopped the ears of his sailors with wax from twenty years old and upward, shalt that they might not hear the song of the see the land which I sware unto 'Abra Sirens. ham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob; be

Gower, Conf. Amant., I.:cause they have not wholly followed me:

"Of such nature save Caleb the son of Jephunneh the

They ben, that with so swete a steven

Like to the melodie of heven Kenezite, and Joshua the son of Nun;

In womannishe vois they singe for they have wholly followed the Lord.” With notes of so great líkinge,

137. The Trojans who remained with Of suche mesure, of suche musike, Acestes in Sicily, instead of following

Whereof the shippes they beswike

That passen by the costes there. Æneas to Italy. Æneid, V.: “They For whan the shipmen lay an ere enroll the matrons for the city, and set Unto the vois, in here airs on shore as many of the people as were

They wene it be a paradis,

Which after is to hem an helle." willing, -souls that had no desire of high renown.”

51. “That is,” says Buti, " they 145. The end of the Second Day. shall have the gift of comforting their

souls.”

Matthew v. 4: “Blessed are they CANTO XIX.

that mourn: for they shall be com. The ascent to the Fifth Circle, forted."

7. This

"Surely

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