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the inhabitants of the Val d'Arno might was of Brettinoro ; he was a gentleman be said of the greater part of the Ita full of courtesy and honour, was fond lians, nay, of the world. Dante, being of entertaining guests, made presents of once asked why he had put more Chris- robes and horses, loved honourable men, tians than Gentiles into Hell, replied, and all his life was devoted to largess • Because I have known the Christians and good living.”

The marriage of Riccardo Manardi 58. Messer Fulcieri da Calboliof Forli, with Lizio's daughter Caterina is the nephew of Rinieri. He was Podestà of subject of one of the tales of the Deca. Florence in 1302, and, being bribed by meron, V. 4. Pietro Dante says, that, the Neri, had many of the Bianchi put to when Lizio was told of the death of his death.

dissipated son, he replied, “It is no news 64. Florence, the habitation of these to me, he never was alive." wolves, lest so stripped by Fulcieri, on 98. Of Pier Traversaro the Ottimo his retiring from office, that it will be long says: “He was of Ravenna, a man ir in recovering its former prosperity. most gentle blood ;” and of Guido di

81. Guido del Duca of Brettinoro, near Carpigna : “He was of Montefeltro, Forli, in Romagna; nothing remains

Most of the time he lived at but the name He and his companion Brettinoro, and surpassed all others in Rinieri were “gentlemen of worth, if they generosity, loved for the sake of loving, had not been burned up with envy." and lived handsomely." 87. On worldly goods, where selfish

“ This Messer Fabbro," says the ness excludes others; in contrast with the Ottimo, was born of low parents, spiritual, which increase by being shared. and lived so generously that the author See Canto XV. 45.

(Dante) says there never was his like in 88. Rinieri da Calboli. " He was Bologna. very famous," says the Ottimo, and his 101. The Ottimo again : "This Messer tory says no more. In the Cento Novelle Bernardino, son of Fosco, a farmer, and Antiche, Nov.44, Roscoe's Tr., he figures of humble occupation, became so excel.

lent by his good works, that he was an “A certain knight was one day en honour to Faenza ; and he was named treating a lady whom he loved to smile with praise, and the old grandees were upon his wishes, and among other deli- not ashamed to visit him, to see his mag: cate arguments which he pressed upon nificence, and to hear his pleasant jests. her was that of his own superior wealth, 104. Guido da Prata, from the village elegance, and accomplishments, espe of that name, between Faenza and Forli

, cially when compared with the merits and Ugolin d' Azzo of Faenza, according of her own liege-lord, 'whose extreme to the same authority, though “of humble ugliness, madam,' be continued, 'I think birth, rose to such great honour, that, I need not insist upon.' Her husband, leaving their native places, they associated who overheard this compliment from the with the noblemen before mentioned." place of his concealment, immediately 106. Frederick Tignoso was a gentle. replied, Pray, sir, mend your own man of Rimini, living in Brettinoro. “A manners, and do not vilify other people.' man of great mark," says Buti, “with The name of the plain gentlenian was his band of friends.” According to Ben. Lizio di Valbona, and Messer Rinieri da venuto, "he had beautiful blond hair, Calvoli that of the other."

and was called tignoso (the scurvy fel. 92. In Romagna, which is bounded by low) by way of antiphrase.” The Ottimo the Po, the Apennines, the Adriatic, and speaks of him as follows: "He avoided the river Reno, that passes near Bologna. the city as much as possible, as a place 93. For study and pleasure.

hostile to gentlemen, but when he was 97. Of Lizio and Manardi the Ottimo in it, he kept open house." says :

“ Messer Lizio di Valbona, a 107. Ancient and honourable families courteous gentleman, in order to give of Ravenna. There is a story of them in a dinner at Forli, sold half his silken the Decameron, Gior. V. Nov. 8, which bedquilt for sixty florins. Arrigo Manardi is too long to quote. Upon this tale is

thus :

founded Dryden's poem of Theodore and Of calling shapes and beckoning shadows dire Honoria.

And airy tongues that syllable men's namen 109. Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, I. I: These voices in the air proclaim ex. “ The dames, the cavaliers, the arms, the loves, amples of envy. The courtesies, the daring deeds I sing."

133. Genesis iv. 13, 14:

" And Cain said unto the Lord,

Every one 112. Brettinoro, now Bertinoro, is a that findeth me shall slay me." small town in Romagna, between Forli 139. Aglauros through envy opposed and Cesena, in which lived many of the the interview of Mercury with her sister families that have just been mentioned. Herse, and was changed by the god into The hills about it are still celebrated for stone. Ovid, Jletamorph., I., Addison's their wines, as its inhabitants were in | Tr. :old times for their hospitality. The fol. “Then keep thy seat for ever,' cries the god, Icwing anecdote is told of them by the And touched the door, wide opening to his rod. Ottimo, and also in nearly the same

Fain would she rise and stop him, but she

found words in the Cento Novelle Antiche, Her trunk too heavy to forsake the ground : Nov. 89:

Her joints are all benumbed, her hands are “ Among other laudable customs of

pale, the nobles of Brettinoro was that of

And marble now appears in every nail.

As when a cancer in the body feeds, hospitality, and their not permitting any And gradual death from limb to limb proceeds, man in the town to keep an inn for

So does the chillness to each vital part money. But there was a stone column

Spread by degrees, and creeps into her heart;

Till hardening everywhere, and speechless in the middle of the town,” (upon which

grown, were rings or knockers, as if all the She sits unmoved, and freezes to a stone. front-doors were there represented),

But still her envious hue and sullen mien “and to this, as soon as a stranger

Are in the sedentary figure scen.” made his appearance, he was conducted,

147. The falconer's call or lure, which and to one of the rings hitched his horse he whirls round in the air to attract the or hung his hat upon it; and thus, as falcon on the wing. chance decreed, he was taken to the 148. Ovid, Metamorph., I., Dryden's house of the gentleman to whom the Tr. :ring belonged, and honoured according | " Thus, while the mute creation downward bend to his rank. This column and its rings Their sight, and to their earthly mother tend, were invented to remove all cause of

Man looks aloft; and with crected eyes

Beholds his own hereditary skies.” quarrel among the noblemen, who used to run to get possession of a stranger, as 150. Beaumont and Fletcher, The now-a-days they almost run away from Laws of Candy, IV. I:him."

"Seldom despairing men look up to heaven, 115. Towns in Romagna. Bagna Although it still speaks to 'em in its glories ; cavallo, and Castrocaro, and Conio,” For when sad thoughts perplex the mind of says the Oltimo, were all habitations

There is a plummet in the heart that weighs of courtesy and honour. Now in Bag. And pulls us, living, to the dust we came nacavallo the Counts are extinct; and he

from." (Dante) says it does well to produce no more of them because they had degenerated like those of Conio and Castrocaro.

CANTO XV. 118. The Pagani were Lords of Faenza 1. In this canto is described the ascent and Imola. The head of the family, to the Third Circle of the mountain. Nainardo, was surnamed “the Devil.' The hour indicated by the peculiarly - See Inf. XXVII. Note 49. His bad Dantesque introduction is three hours repute will always be a reproach to the before sunset, or the beginning of that family.

division of the canonical day called 121. A nobleman of, who Vespers. Dante states this simple fact died without heirs, and thus his name with curious circumlocution, as if he

would imitate the celestial sphere in this 132, Milton, Comus:

scherzoso movement, The beginning of


was safe.

the day is sunrise; consequently the end To noble heart love doth for shelter Ay, of the third hour, three hours after sun

As seeks the bird the forest's leafy shade:

Love was not selt till noble heart beat high, rise, is represented by an arc of the celes

Nor before love the noble heart was made; tial sphere measuring forty-five degrees. Soon as the sun's broad flame The sun had still an equal space to pass

Was formed, so soon the clear light filled

the air, over before his setting. This would make

Yet was not till he came; It afternoon in Purgatory, and midnight So love springs up in noble breasts, and 'n Tuscany, where Dante was writing the


Has its appointed space, noem.

As heat in the brighi flame finds its allotter' 20. From a perpendicular.

place. 38. Matthew v. 7: “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy;"

“ Kindles in noble heart the fire of love,

As hidden virtue in the precious stone : ---sung by the spirits that remained be.

This virtue comes not from the stars above, hind. See Canto XII. Note 110.

Till round it the ennobling sun has shone ; 39. Perhaps an allusion to “what the But when his powerful blaze Spirit saith unto the churches," Revela

Has drawn forth what was vile, the stars

impart tion ii. 7: “ To him that overcometh Strange virtue in their rays; will I give to eat of the tree of life, And thus when nature doth create the heart which is in the midst of the paradise of

Noble, and pure, and high,

Like virtue from the star, love comes from God." And also the “hidden manna,

woman's cye." and the morning star," and the white raiment," and the name not blotted out 70. l'ar. XIV. 40 :of the book of life.”

" Its brightness is proportioned to the ardour, 55. Milton, Par. Lost, V. 71:

The ardour to the vision, and the vision “Since good the more

Equals what grace it has above its merit." Communicated, more abundant grows."

89. Luke ii. 48: “And his mother 67. Convilo, IV. 20: “According to said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus the Apostle, 'Every good gift and every dealt with us? behold, thy father and I perfect gift is from above, and cometh have sought thee sorrowing." down from the Father of lights.' He 97. The contest between Neptune says then that God only giveth this grace and Minerva for the right of naming to the soul of him whom he sees to be Athens, in which Minerva carried the prepared and disposed in his person to day by the vote of the women. This is receive this divine act. . . Whence one of the subjects which Minerva wrough if the soul is imperfectly placed, it is in her trial of skill with Arachne. Ovich not disposed to receive this blessed and Metamorph., VI. :divine infusion ; as when a pearl is badly Pallas in figures wrought the heavenly powa. disposed, or is imperfect, it cannot re. And Mars's hill among the Athenian towers. ceive the celestial virtue, as the noble On lofty thrones twice six celestials sate, Guido Guinizzelli says in an ode of his,

Jove in the midst, and held their warm debate;

The subject weighty, and well known to same, beginning,

From whom the city should receive its name.

Each god by proper features was expressed, "To noble heart love doth for shelter fly.'

Jove with majestic mien excelled the rest.

His three-forked mace the dewy sea-gard The soul, then, may be ill placed in the

shook, person through defect of temperament, And, looking sternly, smote the ragged rock : or of time; and in such a soul this divine When from the stone leapt forth a sprightly radiance never shines. And of those


And Neptune claims the city for the deal. whose souls are deprived of this light it Herself she blazons, with a glittering spear, may be said that they are like valleys And crested helm that veiled her braided hair, turned toward the north, or like sub

With shield, and scaly breastplate, implements

of war terranean caverns, where the light of the

Struck with her pointed lance, the teeming sun never falls, unless reflected from some

earth other place illuminated by it."

Seemed to produce a new, surprising birth : The following are the first two stanzas

When from the glebe the pledge of corquest of Guido's Ode :

sprung, A tree fale-grecn with fairest olives hueg."


vii. 54:

101. Pisistratus, the tyrant of Athens, of him in the Cento Novelle Antiche, who used his power so nobly as to make Nov. 41, 52, hardly worth quoting. the people forget the usurpation by which It is doubtful whether the name of he had attained it. Among his good Lombardo is a family name, or only indeeds was the collection and preservation dicates that Marco was an Italian, after of the Homeric poems, which but for the fashion then prevalent among the him might have perished. He was also French of calling all Italians Lombards. the first to found a public library in See Note 124. Athens. This anecdote is told by Vale Benvenuto says of him that he “ rius Maximus, Fact. ac Dict., VI. 1. a man of noble mind, but disdainsul, and 106. The stoning of Stephen. Acts easily moved to anger.'

“ They gnashed on him with Buti's portrait is as follows : “This their teeth. But he, being full of the Marco was a Venetian, called Marco Holy Ghost, looked up steadfastly into Daca ; and was a very learned man, and heaven. .. Then they cried out with had many political virtues, and was very a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and courteous, giving to poor noblemen all ran upon him with one accord, and cast that he gained, and he gained much ; him out of the city, and stoned him. for he was a courtier, and was much be

: . And he kneeled down, and cried loved for his virtue, and much was given with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sin him by the nobility; and as he gave to to their charge! And when he had said those who were in need, so he lent to all this, he fell asleep.”

who asked. So that, coming to die, 117. He recognizes it to be a vision, and having much still due to him, he but not false, because it symbolized the made a will, and among other bequests truth.

this, that whoever owed him should not

be held to pay the debt, saying, 'Who. CANTO XVI.

ever has, may keep.'

Portarelli thinks that this Marco may The Third Circle of Purgatory, be Marco Polo the traveller ; but this is and the punishment of the Sin of Pride. inadmissible, as he was still living at the

2. Poor, or impoverished of its stars time of Dante's death. by clouds. The same expression is ap 57. What Guido del Duca has told plied to the Arno, Canto XIV, 45, to him of the corruption of Italy, in Canto indicate its want of water.

XIV. 19. In the Litany of the Saints : 64. Ovid, Metamorph., X., Ozell's

" Lamb of God, who takest away the Tr. :sins of the word, spare us, O Lord. “ Lamb of God, who takest away the

" The god upon its leaves

The sad expression of his sorrow weaves, sins of the world, graciously hear us, O And to this hour the mournful purple wears Lord.

Ai, ai, inscribed in funeral characters." “Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on 67. See the article Cabala, at the end

of Paradiso. 27. Still living the life temporal, 69. Boëthius, Cons. Phil., V. Prosa 29 where time is measured by the calen. Ridpath's Tr. :-dar.

'But in this indissoluble chain of 46. Marco Lombardo, was a Vene causes, can we preserve the liberty of the tian nobleman, a man of wit and learning will ? Does this fatal Necessity restrain and a friend of Dante. Nearly all the motions of the human soul?'— that he gained,” says the Ottimo," he “There is no reasonable being,' replied spent in charity. . He visited Paris, she, “who has not freedom of will : for and, as long as his money lasted, he was every being distinguished with this faesteemed for his valour and courtesy. culty is endowed with judgment to perAfterwards he depended upon those ceive the differences of things; to discover richer than himself, and lived and died what he is to avoid or pursue. Now honourably.” There are some anecdotes | what a person esteems desirable, he drum



sires ; but what he thinks ought to be latter, that the person sits; in the former, avoided, he shuns. Thus every rational that the opinion concerning him is true : creature hath a liberty of choosing and but the person doth not sit, because the rejecting. But I do not assert that this opinion of his sitting is true, but the liberty is equal in all beings. Heavenly opinion is rather true because the action substances, who are exalted above us, of his being seated was antecedent in have an enlightened judgment, an in- time. Thus, though the truth of the corruptible will, and a power ever at opinion may be the effect of the person command effectually to accomplish their taking a seat, there is, nevertheless, a desires. With regard to man, his im- necessity common to both. The same material spirit is also free; but it is most method of reasoning, I think, should be at liberty when employed in the contem- employed with regard to the prescience plation of the Divine mind ; it becomes of God, and future contingencies ; for, less so when it enters into a body; and allowing it to be true that events are is still more restrained when it is im. foreseen because they are to happen, and prisoned in a terrestrial habitation, com- that they do not befall because they are posed of members of clay; and is reduced, foreseen, it is still necessary that what in fine, to the most extreme servitude is to happen must be foreseen by God, when, by plunging into the pollutions of and that what is foreseen must take place. vice, it totally departs from reason : for This then is of itself sufficient to destroy the soul no sooner turns her eye from the all idea of human liberty.” radiance of supreme truth to dark and 78. Ptolemy says,

* The wise man base objects, but she is involved in a shall control the stars ;" and the Turkmist of ignorance, assailed by impure ish proverb, “ Wit and a strong will are desires; by yielding to which she in- superior to Fate.” creases her thraldom, and thus the free 79. Though free, you are subject to dom which she derives from nature the divine power which has immediately becomes in some measure the cause of breathed into you the soul, and the soul her slavery. But the eye of Providence, is not subject to the influence of the which sees everything from eternity, stars, as the body is. perceives all this; and that same Pro 84. Shakespeare, Lear, V. 3:vidence disposes everything she has pre

" And take upou's the mystery of things, destinated, in the order it deserves. As As if we were God's spies.' Homer says of the sun, It sees everything and hears everything.'

92. Convito, IV. 12: “ The supreme Also Milton, Parad. Lost, II. 557 : desire of everything, and that first given

by nature, is to return to its source; and Others apart sat on a hill retired, In thoughts more elevate, and reasoned high

since God is the source of our souls, and of providence, foreknowledge, will and fate, maker of them in his own likeness, as is Fixed fate, free will, foreknowledge absolute, written, “Let us make man in our image, And sound no end, in wandering mazes lost.'

after our likeness,' to him this soul chiefly See also Par. XVII. Note 40.

desireth to return. And like as a pil. 70. Boëthius, Cons. Phil., V. Prosa 3, grim, who goeth upon a road on which ! Ridpath's Tr. :

he never

was before, thinketh every “But I shall now endeavour to demon- house he seeth afar off to be an inn, and strate, that, in whatever way the chain not finding it so, directeth his trust to of causes is disposed, the event of things the next, and thus from house to house which are foreseen is necessary; although until he reacheth the inn ; in like man. prescience may not appear to be the ner our soul, presently as she entereth necessitating cause of their befalling the new and untravelled road of this life, For example, if a person sits, the opinion turneth her eyes to the goal of her suformed of him that he is seated' is of preme good; and therefore whatever necessity true ; but by inverting the thing she seeth that seemeth to have phrase, if the opinion is true that he is some good in it, she believeth to be that. 389701, he must necessarily sit. In both And because her knowledge at first is cases, then, there is a necessity; in the imperfect, not being experienced por

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