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When Pallas, pitying her wretched state, advice, collected all the forces of her
At once prevented and pronounced her fate :
Live : but depend, vile wretch ?" the goddess kingdom, and gave him battle of all

the combats in which the barbarians have 'Doomed in suspense for ever to be tied; engaged among themselves, I reckon this That all your race, to utmost date of time, to have been the fiercest. ... The May feel the vengeance and detest the crime.'

Then, going off, she sprinkled her with juice greater part of the army of the Persians
Which leaves of bancful aconite produce was destroyed, and Cyrus himself fell,
Touched with the poisonous drug, her flowing after reigning nine and twenty years.

Search was made among the slain, by
Fell to the ground and left her temples bare ;
Her usual features vanished from their place,

order of the queen, for the body of
Her body lessened all, but most her face. Cyrus, and when it was found, she took
Her slender fingers, hanging on each side a skin, and filling it full of human blood,
With many joints, the use of legs supplied ;
A spider's bag the rest, from which she gives, she dipped the head of Cyrus in the
A thread, and still by constant weaving lives." gore, saying, as she thus insulted the

corse, 'I live and have conquered thee 46. In the revolt of the Ten Tribes. in fight, and yet by thee am I ruined ; I kings xii. 18: “ Then King Reho for thou tookest my son with guile; but boam sent Adoram, who was over the thus I make good my threat, and give tribute ; and all Israel stoned him with thee thy fill of blood.' Of the many stones, that he died; therefore King different accounts which are given of the Rehoboam made speed to get him up to death of Cyrus, this which I have his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem."

followed appears to be the most worthy 50. Amphiaraus, the soothsayer, fore of credit."" seeing his own death if he went to the

59. After Judith had slain Holofernes. Theban war, concealed himself, to avoid | Judith xv. 1 : “And when they that going. His wife Eriphyle, bribed by a were in the tents heard, they were "golden necklace set with diamonds, astonished at the thing that was done. betrayed to her brother Adrastus his And fear and trembling fell upon them, hiding-place, and Amplıiaraus, depart. so that there was no man that durst ing, charged his son Alcmeon to kill abide in the sight of his neighbour, but, Eriphyle as soon as he heard of his rushing out altogether, they fled into death.

every way of the plain and of the hill Ovid, Metamorph., IX. :


Now when the children " The son shall bathe his hands in parent's of Israel heard it, they all fell upon blood,

them with one consent, and slew them And in one act be both unjust and good." unto Chobai.”

61. This tercet unites the “I saw," Statius, Theb., II. 355, Lewis's Tr. :


” and “Displayed,” of the preced. " Fair Eriphyle the rich gift beheld,

ing passage, and binds the whole as with And her sick breast with secret envy swelled. a selvage. Not the late omens and.the well-known tale

67. Ruskin, Mod. Painters, III. 19: To cure her vain ambition aught avail. O had the wretch by self-experience known

“There was probably never a period in The future woes and sorrows not her own! which the influence of art over the minds But fate decrees her wretched spouse must of men seemed to depend less on its

bleed, And the son's frenzy clear the mother's deed." merely imitative power, than the close of

the thirteenth century. No painting or 53. Isaiah xxxvii. 38 : “And it came sculpture at that time reached more than to pass, as he was worshipping in the a rude resemblance of reality, Its house of Nisroch his god, that Adram- despised perspective, imperfect chiarosmelech and Sharezer, his sons, smote curo, and unrestrained flights of fantastic him with the sword; and they escaped imagination, separated the artist's work into the land of Armenia, and Esarhad. from nature by an interval which there don, his son, reigned in his stead." was no attempt to disguise, and little to

56. Herodotus, Book I. Ch. 214, diminish. And yet, at this very period, Rawlinson's Tr. : “Tomyris, when she the greatest poet of that, or perhaps of found that Cyrus paid no heed to her any other age, and the attached frier d of

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its greatest painter, who must over and Above it on the hill stands the church of over again have held full and free con- San Miniato. This is the hill which versation with him respecting the ob- Michael Angelo fortified in the siege of jects of his art, speaks in the following Florence. In early times it was climbed terms of painting, supposed to be carried by stairways. to its highest perfection :

105. In the good old days, before any

one had falsified the ledger of the public Qual di pennel su maestro, e di stile Che ritraesse l'ombre, e i tratti, ch' ivi

accounts, or the standard of measure. Mirar farieno uno ingegno sottile.

In Dante's time a certain Messer Niccola Muri li morti, e i vivi parean vivi:

tore out a leaf from the public records, Non vide me' di me, chi vide il vero, Quant' io calcai, fin che chinato givi.'

to conceal some villany of his; and a

certain Messer Durante, a custom-house Dante has here clearly no other idea of officer, 'diminished the salt-measure by the highest art than that it should bring one stave. This is again alluded to, Par. back, as in a mirror or vision, the aspect XVI. 105. of things passed or absent.

The scenes

110. Matthew v. 3: “Blessed are the of which he speaks are, on the pave- poor in spirit : for theirs is the kingdom ment, for ever represented by angelic of heaven. power, so that the souls which traverse It must be observed that all the Latin this circle of the rock may see them, as lines in Dante should be chanted with an if the years of the world had been rolled equal stress on each syllable, in order to back, and they again stood beside the make them rhythmical. actors in the moment of action. Nor do I think that Dante's authority is absolutely necessary to compel us to

CANTO XIII. admit that such art as this might indeed 1. The Second Circle, or Cornice, be the highest possible. Whatever where is punished the sin of Envy; of delight we may have been in the habit which St. Augustine says: “Envy is of taking in pictures, if it were but truly the hatred of another's felicity; in offered to us to remove at our will the respect of superiors, because they are canvas from the frame, and in lieu of it not equal to them; in respect of inferiors, to behold, fixed for ever, the image of lest they should be equal to them ; in some of those mighty scenes which it respect of equals, because they are equal has been our way to make mere themes to them. Through envy proceeded the for the artist's fancy,-if, for instance, fall of the world, and ihe death of we could again behold the Magdalene Christ.” receiving her pardon at Christ's feet, or 9. The livid colour of Envy. the disciples sitting with him at the table

14. The military precision with which of Emmaus, -and this not feebly nor Virgil faces to the right is Homeric. fancifully, but as if some silver mirror, Biagioli says that Dante expresses it that had leaned against the wall of the “after his own fashion, that is, entirely chamber, had been miraculously com- new and different from mundane custom. manded to retain for ever the colours 16. Boëthius, Cons. Phil., V. Met. 2: that had flashed upon it for an instant, – would we not part with our picture,

“Him the Sun, then, rightly call,

God who sees and lightens all." Titian's or Veronese's though it might be?"

29. John ii. 3: "And when they 81. The sixth hour of the day, or wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith noon of the second day.

unto him, They have no wine." 102. Florence is here called ironically Examples are first given of the virtue “the well guided” or well governed. opposite the vice here punished. These Rubaconte is the name of the most are but “airy tongues that syllable men's easterly of the bridges over the Arno, names ;” and it must not be supposed and takes its name from Messer Ruba- that the persons alluded to are actually conte, who was Podestà of Florence in passing in the air. 1236, when this bridge was built. 33. The name of Orestes is here


shouted on account of the proverbial it proceeds in the image of this arch, friendship between him and Pylades. ascending and descending.” When Orestes was condemned to death, 122. The warm days near the end of Pylades tried to take his place, exclaim. January are still called in Lombardy I ing, “I am Orestes."

giorni della merla, the days of the black. 36. Matthew v. 44: “But I say unto bird ; from an old legend, that once in you, Love your enemies, bless them that the sunny weather a blackbird sang, “I

you, do good to them that hate you, I fear thee no more, O Lord, for the winter and pray for them which despitefully use is over.” you and persecute you."

128. Peter Pettignano, or Pettinajo, 39. See Canto XIV. 147.

was a holy hermit, who saw visions and 42. The next stairway leading from wrought miracles at Siena. Forsyth, the second to the third circle.

Italy, 149, describing the festival of the 51. The Litany of All Saints. Assumption in that city in 1802, says :-92. Latian for Italian.

“The Pope had reserved for this great 109. A Sienese lady living in banish-festival the Beatification of Peter, a ment at Colle, where from a tower she Sienese comb-maker, whom the Church witnessed the battle between her towns had neglected to canonize till now. Poor men and the Florentines. “Sapia hated Peter was honoured with all the solem. the Sienese,” says Benvenuto, "and nity of music, high-mass, and officiating placed herself at a window not far from cardinal, a floril panegyric, pictured the field of battle, waiting the issue with angels bearing his tools to heaven, and anxiety, and desiring the rout and ruin combing their own hair as they soared; of her own people. Her desires being but he received five hundred years ago a verified by the entire discomfiture of the greater honour than all, a verse of praise Sienese, and the death of their captain," from Dante." (Provenzan Salvani, see Canto XI. Note 138. Dante's besetting sin was not 121,) “exultant and almost beside her envy, but pride. self, she lifted her bold face to heaven, 144. On the other side of the world. and cried, “Now, O God, do with me 153. The vanity of the Sienese is also what thou wilt, do me all the harm thou spoken of Inf. XXIX. 123. canst ; now my prayers are answered, 152. Talamone is a seaport in the and I die content.

Maremma, “many times abandoned by 110. Gower, Confes. Amant., II. : its inhabitants," says the Ottimo, on

account of the malaria. The town is " Whan I have sene another blithe Of love and hadde a goodly chere,

utterly in ruins ; but as the harbour is Ethna, which brenneth yere by yere, deep, and would be of great utility if the Was thanne nought so hote as I Of thilke sore which prively

place were inhabited, the Sienese have Mine hertes thought withinne brenneth."

spent much money in repairing it many

times, and bringing in inhabitants; it is 114. Convito, IV. 23: “Every effect, of little use, for the malaria prevents the in so far as it is effect, receiveth the like- increase of population.” ness of its cause, as far as it can retain it. Talamone is the ancient Telamon, Therefore, inasmuch as our life, as has where Marius landed on his return from been said, and likewise that of every Africa. living creature here below, is caused by 153. The Diana is a subterranean river, the heavens, and the heavens reveal which the Sienese were in search of for themselves to all these effects, not in many years to supply the city with water. complete circle, but in part thereof, so “They never have been able to find it,' must its movement needs be above; and says the Ottimo, "and yet they still as an arch retains all lives nearly, (and, hope.” In Dante's time it was evidently I say, retains those of men as well as of looked upon as an idle dream. To the other living creatures,) ascending and credit of the Sienese be it said, they per. curving, they must be in the similitude severed, and finally succeeded in obtain. of an arch. Returnirig then to our life, ing the water so patiently sought for. of which it is now question, I say that The Pozzo Diana, or Diana's Well, is

stul to be seen at the Convent of the has uttered against this whole valley. Carmen,

He follows the course of the river, and 154. The admirals who go to Tala- as he advances marks every place he mone to superintend the works will lose comes to with fierce invective. The farthere more than their hope, namely, their ther he goes, the more his hate redoubles lives.

in violence and bitterness. It is a piece of topographical satire, of which I know

no other example.” CANTO XIV.

32. The Apennines, whose long chain 1. The subject of the preceding canto ends in Calabria, opposite Cape Peloro is here continued. Compare the intro- in Sicily. Æneid, III. 410, Davidson's ductory lines with those of Canto V. Tr.:

7. These two spirits prove to be Guido “But when, after setting out, the wind del Duca and Rinieri da Calboli. shall waft you to the Sicilian coast, and

17. A mountain in the Apennines, the straits of narrow Pelorus shall open north-east of Florence, from which the wider to the eye, veer to the land on the Arno takes its rise. Ampère, Voyage left, and to the sea on the left, by a long Dantesque, p. 246, thus describes this circuit ; fly the right both sea and shore. region of the Val d'Arno. “Farther on These lands, they say, once with violence is another tower, the tower of Porciano, and vast desolation convulsed, (such revowhich is said to have been inhabited by lutions a long course of time is able to Dante. From there I had still to climb produce,) slipped asunder; when in con. the summits of the Falterona. I started tinuity both lands were one, the sea towards midnight in order to arrive be- rushed impetuously between, and by its fore sunrise. I said to myself, How waves tore the Italian side from that of many times the poet, whose footprints Sicily; and with a narrow frith runs I am following, has wandered in these between the fields and cities separated mountains ! It was by these little alpine by the shores. Scylla guards the right paths that he came and went, on his side, implacable Charybdis the left, and way to friends in Romagna or friends in thrice with the deepest eddies of its gulf Urbino, his heart agitated with a hope swallows up the vast billows, headlong that was never to be fulfilled. I figured in, and again spouts them out by turns to myself Dante walking with a guide high into the air, and lashes the stars under the light of the stars, receiving all with the waves.' the impressions produced by wild and And Lucan, Phars., II. :weather-beaten regions, steep roads, deep " And still we see on fair Sicilia's sands valleys, and the accidents of a long and Where part of Apennine Pelorus stands." difficult route, impressions which he would transfer to his poem. It is enough

And Shelley, Ode to Liberty :to have read this poem to be certain O'er the lit waves every Æolian isle that its author has travelled much, has

From Pithecusa to Pelorus wandered much.

Howls, and Icaps, and glares in chorus." Dante really walks with Virgil. He fatigues himself with 40. When Dante wrote this invective climbing, he stops to take breath, he against the inhabitants of the Val d'Arno, uses his hands when feet are insufficient. he probably had in mind the following He gets lost, and asks the way. He passage of Boëthius, Cons. Phil., IV. observes the height of the sun and Pros. 3, Ridpath's Tr. :stars. In a word, one finds the habits Hence it again follows, that every and souvenirs of the traveller in every thing which strays from what is good verse, or rather at every step of his poetic ceases to be ; the wicked therefore must pilgrimage.

cease to be what they were ; but that * Dante has certainly climbed the top they were formerly men, their human of the Falterona. It is upon this sum- shape, which still remains, testifies. By mit, from which all the Valley of the degenerating into wickedness, then, they Aro is embraced, that one should read must cease to be men. But as virtue the singular imprecation which the poet alone can exalt a man above what is

human, so it is on the contrary evident, 'gentleman at whose house I slept here. that vice, as it divests him of his nature, ascribed the superior flavour of their must sink him below humanity; you hams, which are esteemed the best in ought therefore by no means to consider Italy and require no cooking, to the dryhim as a man whom vice has rendered ness of the air, the absence of stagnant vicious. Tell me, What difference is water, and the quantity of chestnuts there betwixt a wolf who lives by rapine, given to their hogs. Bibbiena has been and a robber whom the desire of ano- long renowned for its chestnuts, which ther's wealth stimulates to commit all the peasants dry in a kiln, grind into a manner of violence ? Is there anything sweet flour, and then convert into bread, that bears a stronger resemblance to a cakes, and polenta.wrathful dog who barks at passengers, 46. The people of Arezzo. Forsyth, than a man whose dangerous tongue at. Italy, p. 128:tacks all the world? What is liker to a " The Casentines were no favourites fox than a cheat, who spreads his snares with Dante, who confounds the men with in secret to undermine and ruin you ? to their hogs. Yet, following the divine a lion, than a furious man who is always poet down the Arno, we came to a race ready to devour you? to a deer, than a still more forbidding. The Aretine peacoward who is afraid of his own shadow? sants seem to inherit the coarse, surly to an ass, than a mortal who is slow, visages of their ancestors, whom he dull, and indolent ? to the birds of the styles Bottoli. Meeting one girl, who air, than a man volatile and inconstant ? appeared more cheerful than her neigh. and what, in fine, is a debauchee who is bours, we asked her how far it was immersed in the lowest sensual gratifi. from Arezzo, and received for answer, cations, but a hog who wallows in the 'Quanto c'è.' mire ? Upon the whole, it is an unques “The valley widened as we advanced, tionable truth that a man who forsakes and when Arezzo appeared, the river left virtue ceases to be a man; and, as it is us abruptly, wheeling off from its environs impossible that he can ascend in the scale at a sharp angle, which Dante converts of beings, he must of necessity degenerate into a snout, and points disdainfully and sink into a beast."

against the currish race. 43. The people of Casentino. Forsyth, “On entering the Val di Chiana, we Italy, p. 126 :

passed through a peasantry more civil “On returning down to the Casentine, and industrious than their Aretine neigh. we could trace along the Arno the mis. bours. One poor girl, unlike the last chief which followed a late attempt to whom we accosted, was driving a laden clear some Apennines of their woods. ass, bearing a billet of wood on her head, Most of the soil, which was then loosened spinning with the rocca, and singing as from the roots and washed down by the she went on. Others were returning torrents, lodged in this plain ; and left with their sickles from the fields which immense beds of sand and large rolling they had reaped in the Maremma, to stones on the very spot where Dante de- their own harvest on the hills. That scribes

contrast which struck me in the man• Li ruscelletti che de' verdi colli

ners of two cantons so near as Cortona Del Casentin discendon giuso in Arno, to Arezzo, can only be a vestige of their Facendo i lor canali e freddi e molli.'

ancient rivality while separate republics. “I was surprised to find so large a Men naturally dislike the very virtues town as Bibbiena in a country devoid of of their enemies, and affect qualities manufactures, remote from public roads, as remote from theirs as they can well and even deserted by its landholders ; defend." for the Niccolini and Vecchietti, who 50. The Florentines. possess most of this district, prefer the 53. The Pisans. obscurer pleasures of Florence to their 57. At the close of these vituperapalaces and pre-eminence here. The tions, perhaps to soften the sarcasm by only commodity which the Casentines making it more general, Benvenuto ap. trade in is pork. Signore Baglione, apends this note : "What Dante says of

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