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22. Mount Ida.
118. The golden key is the authority 30. To the region of fire. Brunetto of the confessor ; the silver, his knowLatini, Tresor, Ch. CXIII., says : “Af. ledge. ter the environment of the air is seated 132. Luke ix. 62: "No man having the fourth element: this is an orb of put his hand to the plough, and look: fire, which extends to the moon and ing back, is fit for the kingdom of God.” surrounds this atmosphere in which we And xvii. 32 : “Remember lot's are
And know that above the fire is wife." in the first place the moon, and the Boëthius, Cons. Phil., Lib. III. Met. other stars, which are all of the nature 12 of fire."
“Heu ! noctis prope terminos 37. To prevent Achilles from going
Orpheus Eurydicen suam to the siege of Troy, his mother Thetis
Vidit, perdidit, occidit.
Vos hæc fabula respicit, took lim from Chiron, the Centaur, and
Quicumque in superum diem concealed him in female attire in the
Mentem ducere quæritis, court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros.
Nam qui Tartareum in specus 53. As Richter says:
Victus lumina flexerit, when sleep is nigh unto the soul.”
Quicquid præcipuum trahit,
Perdit, dum videt inferos." 55. Lucia, the Enlightening Grace of heaven. Inf. II. 97.
136. Milton, Parad. Lost, II. 879 58. Nino and Conrad.
“ On a sudden open fly 63. Ovid uses a like expression : With impetuous recoil and jarring sound
The infernal doors, and on their hinges grate “Sleep ard the god together went away." Harsh thunder."
94. The first stair is Confession ; 138. When Cæsar robbed the Ro. the second, Contrition ; and the third, man treasury on the Tarpeian hill, the Penance.
tribune Metellus strove to defend it; bat 97. Purple and black. See Inf. V. Cæsar, drawing his sword, said to him, Note 89.
“It is easier to do this than to say 105. The gate of Paradise is thus it.” described by Milton, Parad. Lost, III. Lucan, Phars., III. :501:
“ The tribune with unwilling steps withdrew, “Far distant he descries,
While impious hands the rude assault renew : Ascending by degrees magnificent
The brazen gates with thundering strokes re. Up to the wall of heaven, a structure high;
sound, At top whereof, but far more rich, appeared
And the Tarpeian mountain rings around. The work as of a kingly palace gate,
At length the sacred storehouse, open laid, With frontispiece of diamond and gold
The hoarded wealth of ages past displayed : Imbellished; thick with sparkling orient gems
There might be seen the sums proud Carthage The portal shone, inimitable on earth
sent, By model or by shading pencil drawn.
Her long impending ruin to prevent. The stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw
There heaped the Macedonian treasures shone, Angels, ascending and descending bands
What great Flaminius and Æmilius won Or guardians bright, when he from Esau fled
From vanquished Philip and his hapless son.. To Padan-Aram in the field of Luz,
There lay, what flying Pyrrhus lost, the gold Dreaming by night under the open sky,
Scorned by the patriot's honesty of old : And waking cried, “This is the gate of Whate'er our parsimonious sires could save heaven.
What tributary gifts rich Syria Gave: Each stair mysteriously was meant, nor stood
The hundred Cretan cities' ample spoil: There always, but drawn up to heaven some
What Cato gathered from the Cyprian islc. times Viewless; and underneath a bright sea flowed
Riches of captive kings by Pompey borne,
In happier days, his triumph to adorn, Of jasper, or of liquid pearl, whereon
From utmost India and the rising morn; Who after came from earth sailing arrived,
Wealth infinite, in one rapacious day, Wasted by angels ; or flew o'er the lake,
Became the needy soldier's lawless prey : Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds."
And wretched Rome, by robbery laid low,
Was poorer than the bankrapt Cæsar now.' 112. The Seven Sins, which are punished in the seven circles of Purgatory ; 140. The hymn of St. Ambrose, uni. Pride, Envy, Anger, Sloth, Avarice, versally known in the churches as the 70 Gluttony, Lust.
144. Thomson, Hymn :
contended for the ransom-money of a "In swarming cities vast
slain man : the one affirmed that he had Assembled men to the deep organ join
paid all, appealing to the people; but The long-resounding voice, oft breaking clear the other denied, averring that he had At solemn pauses through the swelling bass, And, as each mingling fame increases cach,
received naught : and both wished to In one united ardour rise to heaven,
find an end of the dispute before a judge. The people were applauding both, sup
porters of either party, and the heralds CANTO X.
were keeping back the people ; but the 1. In this cantı) is described the First elders sat upon polished stones, in a Circle of Purgatory, where the sin of sacred circle, and the pleaders held in Pride is punished.
their hands the staves of the clear-voiced 14. It being now Easter Monday, and heralds ; with these then they arose, and the fourth day after the full moon, the alternately pleaded their cause. Morehour here indicated would be four hours over, in the midst lay two talents of gold, after sunrise. And as the sun was more to give to him who should best establish than two hours high when Dante found his claim among them. But round the himself at the gate of Purgatory (Canto other city sat two armies of people glitIX. 44), he was an hour and a half in tering in arms; and one of two plans this needle's eye.
was agreeable to them, either to waste 30. Which was so steep as to allow of it, or to divide all things into two parts, no ascent; dritto di salita being used in the wealth, whatever the pleasant city the sense of right of way:
contained within it. They, however, 32. Polycletus, the celebrated Grecian had not yet complied, but were secretly sculptor, among whose works one, re- arming themselves for an ambuscade. presenting the body-guard of the king of Meanwhile, their beloved wives and Persia, acquired such fame for excellence young children kept watch, standing as to be called “the Rule.”
above, and among them the men whom 33. With this description of the sculp- old age possessed. But they (the younger tures on the wall of Purgatory compare men) advanced ; but Mars was their that of the shield which Vulcan made leader, and Pallas Minerva, both golden, for Achilles, liad, XVIII. 484, Buck- and clad in golden dresses, beautiful and ley's Tr. :
large, along with their armour, radiant “On it he wrought the earth, and the all round, and indeed like gods; but the heaven, and the sea, the unwearied sun, people were of humbler size. But when and the full moon. On it also he repre. they now had reached a place where it sented all the constellations with which appeared fit to lay an ambuscade, by a the heaven is crowned, the Pleiades, the river, where there was a watering-place Hyades, and the strength of Orion, and for all sorts of cattle, there then they the Bear, which they also call by the settled, clad in shining steel. There, appellation of the Wain, which there re. apart from the people, sat two spies, volves, and watches Orion ; but it alone watching when they might perceive the is free from the baths of the ocean. sheep and crooked-horned oxen. These,
“In it likewise he wrought two fair however, soon advanced, and two shepcities of articulate speaking men. In herds accompanied them, amusing them. the one, indeed, there were marriages selves with their pipes, for they had not and feasts; and they were conducting yet perceived the stratagem. Then they, the brides from their chambers through discerning them, ran in upon them, and the city with brilliant torches, and many immediately slaughtered on all sides the a bridal song was raised. The youthful herds of oxen, and the beautiful flocks dancers were wheeling round, and among of snow-white sheep; and slew the shep. them pipes and lyres uttered a sound; herds besides. But they, when they and the women standing, each at her heard the great tumult among the oxen portals, admired.
And people were previously sitting in front of the assembly, crunded together in an assembly, and mounting their nimble-footed steeds, pur. there a contest had arisen ; for two men sued; and soon came up with them
Then, having marshalled themselves, a shrill harp; and with tender voice sang they fought a battle on the banks of gracefully to the chord; while they, beatthe river, and wounded one another with ing the ground in unison with dancing their brazen spears. Among them min- and shouts, followed, skipping with their glal Discord and Tumult, and destruc. feet. tive Fate, holding one alive recently “In it he also wrought a herd of oxen wounded, another unwounded, but a with horns erect. But the kine were third, slain, she drew by the feet through made of gold and of tin, and rushed out the battle ; and had the garment around with a lowing from the stall to the pas. her shoulders crimsoned with the gore ture, beside a murmuring stream, along of men. But they turned about, like the breeze-waving reeds. Four golden living mortals, and fought, and drew herdsmen accompanied the oxen, and away the slaughtered bodies of each nine dogs, swist of foot, followed. But other.
two terrible lions detained the bull, roar. “On it he also placed a soft fallow ing among the foremost oxen, and he field, rich glebe, wide, thrice.ploughed; was dragged away, loudly bellowing, and in it many ploughmen drove hither and the dogs and youths followed for and thither, turning round their teams.
They indeed, having torn off But when, returning, they reached the the skin of the great ox, lapped up his end of the field, then a man, advancing, entrails and black blood; and the shepgave into their hands a cup of very sweet herds vainly pressed upon them, urging sine ; but they turned themselves in on their feet dogs. These however reseries, eager to reach the other end of fused to bite the lions, but, standing very the deep fallow. But it was all black near, barked, and shunned them. behind, similar to ploughed land, which “On it illustrious Vulcan also formed indeed was a marvel beyond all others. a pasture in a beautiful grove full of
“On it likewise he placed a field of white sheep, and folds, and covered huts deep corn, where reapers were cutting, and cottages. having sharp sickles in their hands. “ Illustrious Vulcan likewise adorned Some handfuls fell one after the other it with a dance, like unto that which, upon the ground along the furrow, and in wide Gnossus, Dædalus contrived the binders of sheaves tied others with for fair-haired Ariadne. There danced bands. Three binders followed the youths and alluring virgins, holding each reapers, while behind them boys gather- other's hands at the wrist. These wore ing the handfuls, and bearing them in fine linen robes, but those were dressed their arms, continually supplied them ; in well-woven tunics, shining as with and among them the master stood by oil; these also had beautiful garlands, the swath in silence, holding a sceptre, and those wore golden swords, hanging delighted in heart. But apart, beneath from silver belts. Sometimes, with skil. an oak, servants were preparing a ban. ful feet, they nimbly bounded round; quet, and, sacrificing a huge ox, they as when a potter, sitting, shall make ministered; while women sprinkled much trial of a wheel fitted to his hands, whewhite barley on the meat, as a supper for ther it will run : and at other times again the reapers.
they ran back to their places through one “On it likewise he placed a vineyard, another. But a great crowd surrounded heavily laden with grapes, beautiful, the pleasing dance, amusing themselves; golden; but the clusters throughout were and among them two tumblers, begin. black; and it was supported throughout ning their songs, spun round through the by silver poles. Round it he drew an midst. azure trench, and about it a hedge of “But in it he also formed the vast tin ; but there was only one path to it, strength of the river Oceanus, near the by which the gatherers went when they last border of the well-formed shield.”. collected the vintage. Young virgins See also Virgil's description of the and youths, of tender minds, bore the Shield of Æneas, Eneid, VIII., and of luscious fruit in woven baskets, in the the representations on the walls of the midst of whom a boy played sweetly on Temple of Juno at Carthage, Æneid, h.
Also the description of the Temple of might; and David was girded with a Mars, in Statius, Thebaid, VII., and linen ephod.” that of the tomb of the Persian queen 68. 2 Samuel vi. 16: “And as the in the Alexandreis of Philip Gaultier, ark of the Lord came into the city of noticed in Mr. Sumner's article, Atlantic David, Michal, Saul's daughter, looked Monthly, XVI. 754. And finally “the through a window and saw King David noble kerving and the portreitures” of leaping and dancing before the Lord; the Temples of Venus, Mars, and Diana, and she despised him in her heart." in Chaucer's K’nightes Tale :
73. This story of Trajan is told in
nearly the same words, though in prose, “Why shulde I not as wel eke tell you all in the Fiore di Filosof, a work attributed The portreiture that was upon the wall
to Brunetto Latini. See Nannucci, Within the temple of mighty Mars the Rede ?
Manuale della Letteratura de Primo “First on the wall was peinted a forest, Secolo, III. 291. It may be found also In which ther wonneth neyther man ne best; in the Legenda Aurea, in the Cento NoWith knotty, knarry, barrein trees old, velle Antiche, Nov. 67, and in the Life of Of stubbes sharpe, and hidous to behold; In which ther ran a romble and a swough,
St. Gregory, by Paulus Diaconus. As though a storme shuld bresten every bough. As told by Ser Brunetto the story runs And, dounward from an hill, under a bent, thus : “Trajan was a very just Emperor, Ther stood the temple of Mars Armipotent, Wrought all of burned stele ; of which thentree and one day, having mounted his horse Was longe and streite, and gastly for to see ;
to go into battle with his cavalry, a And therout came a rage and swiche a vise, woman came and seized him by the foot, That it made all the gates for to rise.
and, weeping bitterly, asked him and The northern light in at the dore shone ; For window, on the wall, ne was ther none,
besought him to do justice upon those Thurgh which men mighten any light discerne, who had without cause put to death her The dore was all of athamant eterne ;
son, who was an upright young man. Yclenched, overthwart and endelong,
And he answered and said, 'I will give With yren tough. And, for to 'rake it strong, Every piler the temple to sustene
thee satisfaction when I return.' And Was tonne-gret, or yren bright and shene. she said, 'And if thou dost not return?'
“ Ther saw I, first, the derke imagining And he answered, 'If I do not return, Or felonie, and alle the compassing; The cruel ire, red as any glede;
my successor will give thee satisfaction." The pikepurse ; and eke the pale drede ; And she said, “How do I know that! The smiler, with the knif under the cloke ; and suppose he do it, what is it to thee The shepen brenning, with the blake smoke, The treson of the mordring in the bedde ;
if another do good? Thou art my The open werre, with woundes all bebledde ; debtor, and according to thy deeds shalt Conteke, with blody knif and sharp, menace : thou be judged; it is a fraud for a man All full of chirking was that sory place, The sleer of himself, yet, saw I'there,
not to pay what he owes ; the justice of His herte-blood hath bathed all his here,
another will not liberate thee, and it will The naile ydriven in the shode anyght,
be well for thy successor if he shall libe. The colde deth, with mouth gaping upright." rate himself.' Moved by these words the
Emperor alighted, and did justice, and 40. Luke i. 28: “And the angel came consoled the widow, and then mounted in into her and said, Hail, thou that art his horse, and went to battle, and routed highly favoured, the Lord is with thee.” his enemies. A long time afterwards
44. Luke i. 38: “ And Mary said, St. Gregory, hearing of this justice, saw Behold the handmaid of the Lord.” his statue, and had him disinterred, and
57. 2 Samuel vi. 6, 7: “And when found that he was all turned to dust, they came to Nachon's threshing-floor, except his bones and his tongue, which Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of was like that of a living man.
And by God, and took hold of it; for the oxen this St. Gregory knew his justice, for shook it. And the anger of the Lord this tongue had always spoken it; so was kindled against Uzzah, and God that when he wept very piteously through smote him there for his error; and there compassion, praying God that he would he died by the ark of God."
take this soul out of Hell, knowing that 65. 2 Samuel vi. 14 : “And David he had been a Pagan. Then God, be. danced before the Lord with all his cause of these prayers, drew that soul
from pain, and put it into glory. And to omit nothing relative to art that may thereupon the angel spoke to St. Gre- be worthy of commemoration—a certain gory, and told him never to make such Oderigi of Agobbio, an excellent minia. a prayer again, and God laid upon him ture-painter of those times, with whom as a penance either to be two days in Giotto lived on terms of close friendship; Purgatory, or to be always ill with fever and who was therefore invited by the and side-ache. St. Gregory as the lesser Pope to illuminate many books for the punishment chose the fever and side-ache library of the palace : but these books (male di fianco).
have in great part perished in the lapse 75. Gregory's “great victory” was of time. In my book of ancient drawsaving the soul of Trajan by prayer. ings I have some few remains from the
124. Jeremy Taylor says: “As the hand of this artist, who was certainly a silk-worm eateth itself out of a seed to clever man, although much surpassed by become a little worm ; and there feeding Franco of Bologna, who executed many on the leaves of mulberries, it grows till admirable works in the same manner, its coat be off, and then works itself into for the same Pontiff (and which were also a house of silk; then, casting its pearly destined for the library of the palace), seeds for the young to breed, it leaveth at the same time with those of Oderigi. its silk for man, and dieth all white and From the hand of Franco also, I have winged in the shape of a flying creature : designs, both painting and illuminso is the progress of souls."
ating, which may be seen in my book 127. Gower, Confes. Amant., 1.: above cited ; among others are an eagle, " The proude vice of veingloire
perfectly well done, and a lion tearing Remembreth nought of purgatoire."
up a tree, which is most beautiful.”
81. The art of illuminating manu. And Shakespeare, King Henry the scripts, which was called in Paris allu. Eighth, III. 2. :
minare, was in Italy called miniare. “I have ventured,
Hence Oderigi is called by Vasari a
83. Franco Bolognese was a pupil of
Oderigi, who perhaps alludes to this fact CANTO XI.
in claiming a part of the honour paid to
the younger artist. 3. The angels, the first creation or 94. Of Cimabue, Vasari, Lives of the effects of the divine power.
Painters, Mrs. Foster's Tr., I. 35, says: 6. Wisdom of Solomon, vii. 25: "For “ The overwhelming flood of eviis by she is the breath of the power of God, which unhappy Italy has been submerged and a pure influence flowing from the and devastated had not only destroyed glory of the Almighty.” In the Vul- whatever could properly be called buildgate : Vapor est enim virtutis Dei.
ings, but, a still more deplorable conse. 45. See Inf. XII. Note 2.
quence, had totally exterminated the artists 58. Or Italian. The speaker is Om- themselves, when, by the will of God, in berto Aldobrandeschi, Count of Santa- the year 1240, Giovanni Cimabue, of the fiore, in the Maremma of Siena. “The noble family of that name, was born, in Counts of Santafiore were, and are, and the city of Florence, to give the first almost always will be at war with the light to the art of painting. This youth, Sienese,” says the Ottimo. In one of | as he grew up, being considered by his these wars Omberto was slain, at the father and others to give proof of an village of Campagnatico. “The author acute judgment and a clear understandmeans," continues the same commen- ing, was sent to Santa Maria Novella to tator, " that he who cannot carry his study lefters under a relation, who was head high should bow it down like a then master in grammar to the novices bulrush.
of that convent. But. Cimabue, instead 79. Vasari, Lives of the Painters, Mrs. of devoting himself to letters, consumed Foster's Tr., I. 103, says :
the whole day in drawing men, horses, " At this time there lived in Rome- houses, and other various fancies, ou his