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him sorrowing in his house," and calling on earth ; and one had challenged the on the Gascons for aid.
other to determine their quarrel by singie 113. Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily combat. and Naples (1265). Villani, VII. 1, “The wager of battle between the thus describes him : “This Charles was kings,” says Milman, Latin Christianity, wise and prudent, and valiant in arms, vi. 168, “which maintained its solemn and rough, and much feared and re- dignity up almost to the appointed time, doubted by all the kings of the world; ended in a pitiful comedy, in which magnanimous and of a high spirit; stead. Charles of Anjou had the ignominy of fast in carrying on every great enter- practising base and disloyal designs prise, firm in every adversity, and true against his adversary; Peter, that of to every promise, speaking little and eluding the contest by craft, justifiable doing much. He laughed but little ; only as his mistrust of his adversary was was chaste as a monk, catholic, harsh in well or ill grounded, but much too cun. judgment, and of a fierce countenance ; ning for a frank and generous knight. large and muscular in person, with an He had embarked with his knights for olive complexion and a large nose, and the South of France ; he was cast back looked the king more than any other by tempests on the shores of Spain. He lord. He sat up late at night, and slept set off with some of his armed comlittle, and was in the habit of saying panions, crossed the Pyrenees undis, that a great deal of time was lost in covered, appeared before the gates of sleeping. He was
generous to his Bordeaux, and summoned the English knights, but eager to acquire land, lord. Seneschal
. To him he proclaimed him. ship, and money wherever he could, to self to be the king of Aragon, demanded furnish means for his enterprises and to see the lists, rode down them in slow
In courtiers, minstrels, and play- state, obtained an attestation that he ers he never took delight.”
had made his appearance within the Yet this is the monarch whose tyrrany covenanted time, and affixed his solemn in Sicily brought about the bloody re- protest against the palpable premedivenge of the Sicilian Vespers ; which in tated treachery of his rival, which made turn so roused the wrath of Charles, it unsafe for him to remain longer at that he swore that, "if he could live a Bordeaux. Charles, on his part, was thousand years, he would go on razing furious that Peter had thus broken the cities, burning the lands, torturing through the spider's web of his policy. the rebellious slaves. He would leave He was in Bordeaux when Peter apSicily a blasted, barren, uninhabited peared under the walls, and had chal. rock, as a warning to the present age, lenged him in vain. Charles presented an example to the future.”
himself in full armour on the appointed 116. Philip the Third of Aragon left day, summoned Peter to appear, and profour sons, Alfonso, James, Frederick, claimed him a recreant and a dastardly and Peter. Whether the stripling here craven, unworthy of the name of spoken of is Alfonso or Peter does not knight." appear.
Charles of Anjou, Peter the Third of 121. Chaucer, Wif of Bathes Tale :- Aragon, and Philip the Third of France,
all died in the same year, 1285. wise poet of Florence,
126. These kingdoms being badly That highte Dant, speken of this sentence : Lo, in swiche maner rime is Dantes tale.
governed by his son and successor, Ful selde up riseth by his branches smale
Charles the Second, called the Lame. Prowesse of man, for God of his goodnesse 128. Daughters of Raymond Beren. Wol that we claime of him our gentillesse : ger the Fifth, Count of Provence ; the For of our elders may we nothing claime But temporel thing, that man may hurt and first married to St. Louis of France,
and the second to his brother, Charles
of Anjou. 124. It must be remembered that
129. Constance, daughter of Manthese two who are singing together in fredi of Apulia, and wife of Peter the this Valley of Princes were deadly foes Third of Aragon.
“ Wel can
III. 302 :
131. Henry the Third (1216-1272,) Alessandria della Paglia (of the Straw); of whom Hume says : “This prince either from the straw used in the bricks, was noted for his piety and devotion, or more probably from the supposed inand his regular attendance on public security of a city built in so short a space worship ; and a saying of his on that of time. head is much celebrated by ancient writers. He was engaged in a dispute
CANTO VIII. with Louis the Ninth of France, conceming the preference between sermons 1. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, and masses; he maintained the superiority of the latter, and affirmed that he " It was the hour when every traveller would rather have one hour's conversa
And every watchman at the gate of towns tion with a friend, than hear twenty of Begins to long for sleep, and drowsiness the most elaborate discourses pronounced
Is falling even on the mother's eyes
Whose child is dead.' in his praise."
Dickens, Child's History of England, Also Byron, Don Juan, III. 108:Ch. XV., says of him : "He was as much of a king in death as he had ever “ Soft hour! which wakes the wish and melts been in life. He was the mere pale shadow of a king at all times.”
Of those who sail the seas, on the first day
When they from their sweet friends are toro His “better issue" was Edward the First, called, on account of his amend Or fills with love the pilgrim on his way, ment and establishment of the laws,
As the far bell of vesper makes him start, the English Justinian, and less respecto
Seeming to weep the dying day's decay.
Is this a fancy which our reason scorns ? fully Longshanks, on account of the Ah! surely nothing dies but something length of his legs. “ His legs had need to be strong,” says the authority just quoted, “however long, and this
4. The word "pilgrim” is here used they were ; for they had to support him by Dante in a general sense, meaning through many difficulties on the fiery any traveller,
6. Gray, Elegy :sands of Syria, where his small force of soldiers fainted, died, deserted, and “The curfew tolls the knell of parting day." seemed to melt away. But his prowess made light of it, and he said, 'I will go
13. An evening hymn of the Church, on, if I go on with no other follower than sung at Complines, or the latest service my groom.
of the day 134. The Marquis of Monferrato, a “ Te lucis ante terminum, Ghibelline, was taken prisoner by the
Rerum creator, poscimus people of Alessandria in Piedmont, in
Ut pro tua clementia
Sis presul ad custodiam. 1290, and, being shut up in a wooden cage, was exhibited to the public like a
Procul recedant somnia wild beast. This he endured for eighteen
Et noxium phantasmata, months, till death released him. A
Hostemque nostrum comprime,
Ne polluantur corpora. war was the consequence between Alessandria and the Marquis's
Presta, Pater piissime, provinces of Monferrato and Canavese.
Patrique compar Unice,
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 135. The city of Alessandria is in
Regnans per omnc sæculum." Piedmont, between the Tanaro and the Bormida, and not far from their junc This hymn would seem to have no tion. It was built by the Lombard great applicability to disembodied spirLeague, to protect the country against its; and perhaps may have the same the Emperor Frederick, and named in reference as the last petition in the honour of Pope Alexander the Third, a Lord's Prayer, Canto XI. 19:protector of the Guelphs. It is said to have been built in a single year, and was
"Our virtue, which is easily o'ercome,
Put not to proof with the old Adversary, called in derision, by the Ghibellines, But thou from him who spurs it so, deliver.
This last petition verily, dear Lord, fying heavenly love and heavenly truth."
Not for ourselves is made, who need it not, The same colours were given to St. John But for their sake who have remained be the Evangelist, with this difference, hind us."
that he wore the blue tunic and the red
mantle; in later pictures the colours are Dante seems to think_his meaning sometimes red and green. very easy to penetrate.
The commen “Yellow, or gold, was the symbol tators have found it uncommonly diffi- of the sun ; of the goodness of God; cult.
initiation, or marriage ; faith, or fruit26. Genesis iii. 24 : “And he placed fulness. St. Joseph, the husband of the at the east of the garden of Eden che- Virgin, wears yellow. In pictures of rubims, and a flaming sword which the Apostles, St. Peter wears a yellow turned every way, to keep the way of mantle over a blue tunic. In a bad the tree of life.”
sense, yellow signifies inconstancy, jea27. Justice tempered with mercy, say lousy, deceit ; in this sense it is given the commentators.
to the traitor Judas, who is generally 28. Green, the colour of hope, which habited in dirty yellow. is the distinguishing virtue of Purgatory. “ GREEN, the emerald, is the colour of On the symbolism of colours, Mrs. Jame spring; of hope, particularly hope in son, Sacred and Legendary Art, Introd., immortality; and of victory, as the colour
of the palm and the laurel. “In very early Art we find colours “Violet, the amethyst, signified love ased in a symbolical or mystic sense, and truth; or, passion and suffering. and, until the ancient principles and Hence it is the colour often worn by the traditions were wholly worn out of martyrs. In some instances our Saviour, memory or set aside by the later paint. after his resurrection, is habited in a ers, certain colours were appropriated violet, instead of a blue mantle. The to certain subjects and personages, and Virgin also wears violet after the crucicould not arbitrarily be applied or mis- fixion. Mary Magdalene, who as patron applied. In the old specimens of stained saint wears the red robe, as penitent glass we find these significations scrupu- wears violet and blue, the colours of lously attended to. Thus :
sorrow and of constancy. In the devo"WHITE, represented by the dia- tional representation of her by Timoteo mond or silver, was the emblem of light, della Vite, she wears red and green, the religious purity, innocence, virginity, colours of love and hope. faith, joy, and life. Our Saviour wears “Gray, the colour of ashes, signified white after his resurrection. In the judge mourning, humility, and innocence acit indicated integrity; in the rich 'man, cused ; hence adopted as the dress of humility ; in the woman, chastity. It the Franciscans (the Gray Friars); but was the colour consecrated to the Virgin, it has since been changed for a dark who, however, never wears white except rusty brown. in pictures of the Assumption.
"BLACK expressed the earth, darkRED, the ruby, signified fire, divine ness, mourning, wickedness, negation, love, the Holy Spirit, heat, or the crea- death ; and was appropriate to the tive power, and royalty. White and red Prince of Darkness. In some old illuroses expressed love and innocence, or minated MSS., Jesus, in the Temptalove and wisdom, as in the garland with tion, wears a black robe. White and which the angel crowns St. Cecilia. In black together signified purity of life, a bad sense, red signified blood, war, and mourning or humiliation; hence hatred, and punishment. Red and black adopted by the Dominicans and the Carcombined were the colours of purgatory melites." and the Devil.
50. It was not so dark that on a near “BLUE, or the sapphire, expressed approach he could not distinguish objects heaven, the firmament, truth, constancy, indistinctly visible at a greater distance. fidelity. Christ and the Virgin wear the red tunic and the blue mantle, as signi. Saviour's mantle is generally a deep rich violet.
• In the Spanish schools the colour of our
53. Nino de' Visconti of Pisa, nephew With burnished neck of verdant gold, erect of Count Ugolino, and Judge of Gallura Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass in Sardinia. Dante had known him at
Floated redundant : pleasing was his shape
And lovely; never since of serpent-kind the siege of Caprona, in 1290, where he Lovelier, not those that in Illyria changed saw the frightened garrison march out Hermione and Cadmus, or the god under safeguard. Inf. XXI. 95. It was
In Epidaurus ; nor to which transformed
Ammonian Jove or Capitoline was seen,this “gentle Judge,” who hanged Friar
He with Olympias, this with her who bore Gomita for peculation. Inf. XXII. 82. Scipio, the height of Rome. With track 71. His daughter, still yourg and in
At first, as one who sought access, but nocent.
feared 75. His widow married Galeazzo de' To interrupt, sidelong he works his way. Visconti of Milan, "and much discom As when a ship, by skilful steersman wrought fort did this woman suffer with her hus. Nigh river's mouth or forcland, where the
wind band,” says the Ottimo, “so that many Veers oft, as oft so steers, and shifts her sail ; a time she wished herself a widow."
So varied he, and of his tortuous train 79. Hamlet, IV. 5:
Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve.
Oft he bowed
His turret crest, and sleek enamelled neck, “His obscure funeral, No trophy, sword, or hatchment o'er his grave."
Fawning: and licked the ground whereon she 80. The Visconti of Milan had for
114. In the original al sommo smalto, their coat of arms a viper; and being on the banner, it led the Milanese to battle. to the Terrestrial Paradise, enamelled
to the highest enamel ; referring either 81. The arms of Gallura. Accord ing to Fara, a writer of the sixteenth enamelled with stars.
with flowers, or to the highest heaven
The azure-stone, century," says Valery, Voyage en Corse et en Sardaigne, 11. 37, " the elegant but pierre d'azur, or lapis lazuli, is perhaps
a fair equivalent for the smalto, particusomewhat chimerical historian of Sar: larly if the reference be to the sky, dinia, Gallura is a Gallic colony ; its arms are a cock; and one might find which runs the Magra, dividing the
116. The valley in Lunigiana, through some analogy between the natural viva. Genoese and Tuscan territories. Par. city of its inhabitants and that of the 1x. 89:French." Nino thinks it would look better on a tombstone than a viper.
“The Magra, that with journey short 89. These three stars are the Alpha
Doth from the Tuscan part the Genoese.” of Euridanus, of the Ship, and of the Golden Fish ; allegorically, if
118. Currado or Conrad Malaspina,
father of Marcello Malaspina, who six gory be wanted, the three Theological Viriues, Faith, Hope, and Charity. The years later sheltered Dante in his exile,
as foreshadowed in line 136. It was four morning stars, the Cardinal Virtues
from the convent of the Corvo, over. of active life, are already set ; these announce the evening and the lise contem- looking the Gulf of Spezia, in Lunigi
ana, that Frate Ilario wrote the letter plative.
100. Compare this with Milton's de describing Dante's appearance in the scription of the serpent, Parad. Lost, ix. cloister. See Illustrations at the end of
Inferno. 434-496 :
131. Pope Boniface the Eighth. " Nearer he drew, and many a walk traversed
134. Before the sun shall be seven Of stateliest covert, cedar, pine, or palm ;
times in Aries, or before seven years are Then voluble and bold, now hid, now seen, passed. Among thick-woven arborets, and flowers
137. Ecclesiastes, xii. 11:“The words Imbordered on each bank.
of the wise are as goads, and as nails Not with indented wave,
fastened by the masters of assemblies.” Prone on the ground, as since; but on his 139. With this canto ends the first
day in Purgatory, as indicated by the Circular base of rising folds, that towered Fold above fold, a surging maze ! his head
description of evening at the beginning, Crested alost, and carbuncle his eyes ; aw the rising of the stars in line 89.
With it closes also the first subdivision Iliad, X. 250 : “Let us be going, then, of this part of the poem, indicated, as for the night declines fast, and the the reader will not fail to notice, by the morning is near. And the stars have elaborate introduction of the next canto. already far advanced, and the greater
portion of the night, by two parts, has CANTO IX.
gone by, but the third portion still reI.
Dante begins this canto,” says 10. Namely, his body. Benvenuto da Imola, “ by saying a 12. Virgil, Sordello, Dante, Nino, thing that was never said or imagined and Conrad. And here Dante falls by any other poet, which is, that the upon the grass and sleeps till dawn. aurora of the moon is the concubine There is a long pause of rest and sleep of Tithonus. Some maintain that he between this line and the next, which means the aurora of the sun ; but this makes the whole passage doubly beauti. cannot be, if we closely examine the ful. The narrative recommences like text." This point is elaborately dis. the twitter of early birds just beginning cussed by the commentators. I agree to stir in the woods. with those who interpret the passage 14. For the tragic story of Tereus, as referring to a lunar aurora. It is still changed to a lapwing, Philomela to a evening ; and the hour is indicated a few nightingale, and Procne to a swallow, lines lower down.
see Ovid, Metamorph., VI. :To Tithonus was given the gift of immortality, but not of perpetual youth.
“Now, with drawn sabre and impetuous speed,
In close pursuit he drives Pandion's breed ; As Tennyson makes him say :
Whose nimble feet spring with so swift a
force “ The woods decay, the woods decay and fall,
Across the fields, they seem to wing their The vapours weep their burthen to the ground, Man comes and tills the field and lies beneath,
And now, on real wings themselves they raise, And after many a summer dies the swan.
And steer their airy flight by different ways; Me only cruel immortality
One to the woodland's
shady covert hies, Consumes : I wither slowly in thine arms,
Around the smoky roof the other flies ; Here at the quiet limit of the world,
Whose feathers yet the marks of murder A white-haired shadow roaming like a dream
stain, The ever silent spaces of the East,
Where stamped upon her breast the crimson Far-folded mists, and gleaming halls of morn."
Tereus, through grief and haste to be re2. Don Quixote, I. 2: “Scarcely had venged, ruddy Phæbus spread the golden
Shares the like fate, and to a bird is changed ; tresses of his beauteous hair over the
Fixed on his head the crested plumes appear,
Long is his beak, and sharpened like a spear: face of the wide and spacious earth, Thus armed, his looks his inward mind disand scarcely had the painteá little birds, play, with the sweet and mellifluous harmony
And, to a lapwing turned, he fans his way." of their serrated tongues, saluted the approach of rosy Aurora, when, quitting See also Gower, Confes. Amant., V.:the soft couch of her jealous husband,
" And of her suster Progne I finde she disclosed herself to mortals through How she was torned out of kinde the gates and balconies of the Manchegan
Into a swalwe swift of wing, horizon.”
Which eke in winter lith swouning
There as she may no thing be sene, 5. As the sun was in Aries, and it was And whan the worlde is woxe grene now the fourth day after the full moon, the And comen is the somer tide, Scorpion would be rising in the dawn Then ficeth she forth and ginneth to chide
And chitereth out in her langage which precedes the moon.
What falshede is in mariage, 8. This indicates the time to be And telleth in a maner speche two hours and a half after sunset, or Of Tereus the spouse breche." half past eight o'clock. Two hours of the ascending night are passed, and the 18. Pope, Temple of Fame, 7:third is half over. This circumstantial way of measur
“What time the morn mysterious visions bring,
While ing the flight of time is Womeric.
purer slumbers spread their golden wings."