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half-brother. See Note 65, Canto l'I. CANTO XXXII.

He is said also to have killed his uncle.

65. Sassol Mascheroni, according to 1. In this Canto begins the Ninth Benvenuto, was one of the Toschi family and last Circle of the Inferno, where of Florence. He murdered his nephew Traitors are punished.

in order to get possession of his property; Hence in the smallest circle, at the point for which crime he was carried through Of all the universe, where Dis is seated, the streets of Florence, nailed up in a Whoe'er betrays forever is consumed.'

cask, and then beheaded. 3. The word thrust is here used in its 68. Camicion de' Pazzi of Valdarno, architectural sense, as the thrust of a who murdered his kinsman Ubertino. tridge against its abutments, and the But his crime will seem small and ex

cusable when compared with that ou 9. Still using the babble of child- another kinsman, Carlino de' Pazzi, who bool.

treacherously surrendered the castle of 11. The Muses; the poetic tradition Piano in Valdarno, wherein many Flo. being that Amphion built the walls of rentine exiles were taken and put to 'Thebes by the sound of his lyre; and the death. prosaic interpretation, that he did it by 81. The speaker is Bocca degli Abati, his persuasive eloquence.

whose treason caused the defeat of the 15. Matthew xxvi. 24: “Woe unto Guelfs at the famous battle of Monta. that nian by whom the Son of man is perti, in 1260. See Note 86, Canto X. betrayed ! it had been good for that man “Messer Bocca degli Abati, the trai. if he had not been born."

tor," says Malispini, Storia, ch. 171, 28. Tambernich is a mountain of Scla- “ with his sword in hand, smote and cut yonia, and Pietrapana another near off the hand of Messer Jacopo de' l'azzi Lucca.

of Florence, who bore the standard of 55. These two “miserable brothers" the cavalry of the Commune of Florence. are Alessandro and Napoleone, sons of And the knights and the people, seeing Alberto degli Alberti, lord of Falterona the standard down, and the treachery, in the valley of the Bisenzio. After were put to rout. their father's death they quarrelled, and 88. The second division of the Circle, me treacherously slew the other. called Antenora, from Antenor, the Tro.

58. Caïna is the first of the four di- jan prince, who betrayed his country by visions of this circle, and takes its name keeping up a secret correspondence with from the first fratricide.

the Greeks. Virgil, Æneit, I. 242, 62. Sir Mordred, son of King Arthur. makes him founder of Padua. See La Mort d'Arthure, III. ch. 167: 106. See Note 81 of this Canto. And there King Arthur smote Sir 116. Buoso da Duera of Cremona, Mordred under the shield with a foine being bribed, suffered the French cavalry of his speare throughout the body more under Guido da Monforte to pass through than a fadom."

Lombardy on their way to Apulia, withNothing is said here of the sun's out opposing them as he had been comshining through the wound, so as to manded. break the shadow on the ground, but 117. There is a double meaning in that incident is mentioned in the Italian the Italian expression sta fresco, which version of the Romance of Launcelot of is well rendered by the vulgarism, lift the lake, L'illustre e famosa istoria di out in the cold, so familiar in American Lancillotto del Lago, III. ch. 162: “Be- politics. hind the opening made by the lance 119. Beccaria of Pavia, Abbot of there passed through the wound a ray Vallombrosa, and Papal Legate at Floof the sun so manifestly, that Girflet rence, where he was beheaded in 1258 saw it."

for plotting against the Guelss. 63. Focaccia was one of the Cancel

Gianni de' Soldanieri, of Flor lieri Bianchi, of Pistoia, and was engaged ence, a Ghibelline, who betrayed his

• Messe) in the affair of cutting off the hand of his party. Villani, VII. 14, says:


Gianni de' Soldanieri put himself at the Visconte retired to the absolute govern. head of the populace from motives of ment of Sardinia. But Ugolino, still ambition, regardless of consequences dissatisfied, sent his son to disturb the which were injurious to the Ghibelline island; a deadly feud was the conseparty, and to his own detriment, which quence, Guelph against Guelph, while seems always to have been the case in the latent spirit of Ghibellinism, which Florence with those who became popular filled the breasts of the citizens and was leaders."

encouraged by priest and friar, felt its 122. The traitor Ganellon, or Gana. advantage; the Archbishop Ruggiero lon, who betrayed the Christian cause at Rubaldino was its real head, but he Roncesvalles, persuading Charlemagne worked with hidden caution as the appa. not to go to the assistance of Orlando. rent friend of either chiefta'n. In 1287, See Canto XXXI. Note 18.

after some sharp contests, both of them Tebaldello de' Manfredi treacherously abdicated, for the sake, as it was allegedl, opened the gates of Faenza to the French of public tranquillity; but, soon perceive in the night

ing their error, again united, and, scour. 130. Tydeus, son of the king of Ca- ing the streets with all their followers, lydon, slew Menalippus at the siege forcibly re-established their authority. of Thebes, and was himself mortally Ruggieri seemed to assent quietly to this wounded. Statius, Thebaid, VIII., thus new outrage, even looked without emodescribes what followed :

tion on the bloody corpse of his favourite “ O'ercome with joy and anger, Tydeus tries

nephew, who had been stabbed by UgoTo raise himself, and meets with eager eyes

lino; and so deep was his dissimulation, The deathful object, pleased as he surveyed that he not only refused to believe the His own condition in his foe's pourtrayed. murdered body to be his kinsman's, but The severed head impatient he demands, And grasps with servour in his trembling zealously assisted the Count to establish hands,

himself alone in the government, and While he remarks the restless balls of sight accomplish Visconte's ruin. The design That sought and shunned alternately the light. was successful ; Nino was overcome and Contented now, his wrath began to cease, And the fierce warrior had expired in peace ;

driven from the town, and in 1288 UgoBut the fell fiend a thought of vengeance lino entered Pisa in triumph from his bred,

villa, where he had retired to await the Unworthy of himself and of the dead. Meanwhile, her sire un noved, Tritonia came, glected nothing, and Ugolino found


catastrophe. The Archbishop had neBut when she saw his jaws besprinkled o'er self associated with this prelate in the With spattered brains, and tinged with living public government; events now began Whilst his imploring friends attempt in vain

to thicken; the Count could not brook To calm his fury, and his rage restrain, a competitor, much less a Ghibelline Again, recoiling from the loathsome view, The sculptur'd target o'er her face she threw." parties flew to arms, and the Archbishop

priest; and in the month of July both was victorious. After a feeble attempt

to rally in the public palace, Count UgoCANTO XXXIII.

lino, his two sons, Uguccione and Gad1. In this Canto the subject of the do, and two young grandsons, Anselpreceding is continued.

muccio and Brigata, surrendered at 13. Count Ugolino della Gherardesca discretion, and were immediately im. was Podestà of Pisa. “Raised to the prisoned in a tower, afterwards called highest offices of the republic for ten the Torre della fame, and there perished years," says Napier, Florentine History, by starvation. Count Ugolino della 1. 318, "he would soon have become Gherardesca, whose tragic story after absolute, had not his own nephew, Nino five hundred years still sounds in awful Visconte, Judge of Gallura, contested numbers from the lyre of Dante, was this supremacy and forced himself into stained with the ambition and darker conjoint and equal authority; this could vices of the age; like other potent chiefs, not continue, and a sort of compromise he sought to enslave his country, and was for the moment effected, by which I checked at nothing in his impetuous


forth the tower was called the Tower of Thus ended is this mighty Erl of Pise : treasons he perhaps deserved such a

tareer. He was accused of many crimes; and grandchildren, who were young and of poisoning his own nephew, of failing innocent boys; and this sin, committed in war, making a disgraceful peace, of by the Pisans, did not remain un. iying shamefully, perhaps traitorously, punished.” at Meloria, and of obstructing all nego Chaucer's version of the story in the tiations with Genoa for the return of Monkes Tale is as follows: his imprisoned countrymen. Like most others of his rank in those frenzied times, Ther may no tonge tellen for pitee.

“Of the erl Hugelin of Pise the langour he belonged more to faction than his But litel out of Pise stant a tour, Wuntry, and made the former subser. In whiche tour in prison yput was he, vient to his own ambition; but all these And with him ben his litel children


The eldest scarsely five yere was of age : accusations, even if well founded, would Alas! fortune, it was gret crueltee not draw him from the general stand- Swiche briddes for to put in swiche a cage. ard; they would only prove that he Dampned was he to die in that prison, shared the ambition, the cruelty, the For Roger, which that bishop of Pise, ferocity, the recklessness of human life Had on him made a false suggestion, and suffering, and the relentless pursuit Thurgh which the peple gan upon him rise, of power in common with other chief. As ye han herd; and mete and drinke he had lains of his age and country. Ugolino So smale, that wel unntehe it may suffise, *23 overcome, and suffered a cruel death; And therwithal it was ful poure and bad. his family was dispersed, and his me

And on a day befell, that in that houre,

Whan that his mete wont was to be brought, mory has perhaps been blackened with a

The gailer shette the dores of the toure : darker colouring to excuse the severity He hered it wel, but he spake right nought. naturali followed their parent's fortune, That they for hunger wolden do him dien; were scarcely implicated in his crimes, Therwith the teres fellen fro his eyen. although they shared his fate; and his

His grandsons, though not children, were Unto him said, fader, why do ye wepe ?

yonge sone, that three yere was of ags, still less guilty, though one of these was Whan will the gailer bringen our potage ? not unstained with blood. The Arch. Is ther no morsel bred that ye do kepe? bishop had public and private wrongs to Now wolde God that I mignt slepen ever, revenge, and had he fallen, his sacred Than shuld not hunger in my wombe crepe ; character alone would probably have Ther n'is no thing, sauf bred, that me were procared for him a milder destiny." Villani, VII, 128, gives this account

Thus day by day this childe began to crie, of the imprisonment:

Til in his fadres barme adoun it lay,

And saide, farewel, fader, I mote die ; " The Pisans, who had imprisoned And kist his fader, and dide the same day. Count Ugolino and his two sons and two And whan the woful fader did it sey, grandsons, children of Count Guelfo, as

For wo his armes two he gan to bite, we have before mentioned, in a tower on Thy false whele my wo all may I wite.

And saide, alas ! fortune, and wala wa ! the Piazza degli Anziani, ordered the door of the tower to be locked, and the That he his armes gnowe, and not for

His children wenden, that for hunger it was keys to be thrown into the Arno, and And sayden : fader, do not so, alas! forbade any food should be given to the But rather ete the flesh upon us two prisoners, who in a few days died of Our flesh

thou yaf us, take our flesh us fro, hunger

. And the five dead bodies, being And after that, within a day or two, taken together out of the tower

, were they laide hem in his lappy adown, and deide. ignominiously buried; and from that day Himself dispeired eke for hunger starf. Famine, and shall be for evermore.

From high estat fortune away him carf. for this cruelty the Pisans were much Who so wol here it in a longer wise,

Of this tragedie it ought ynough suffice blamed through all the world where it Redeth the grete poete of Itaille, *23 known; not so much for the Count's That highte Dante, for he can it devise fake, as on account of his crimes and Fro point to point, not o word wol ne faille."

Buti, Commento, says : “ After eight



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and carried wrapped in matting to the tower was locked, and the keys thrown church of the Minor Friars at San into the Arno; and I believe most of Francesco, and buried in the monu- the commentators interpret the line in ment, which is on the side of the steps this way. But the locking of a prison leading into the church near the gate of door, which must have been a daily octhe cloister, with irons on their legs, currence, could hardly have caused the which irons I myself saw taken out of dismay here pourtrayed, unless it can be the monument.'

shown that the lower door of the tower 22. “The remains of this tower," was usually left unlocked. says Napier, Florentine History, I. 319, “ The thirty lines from Ed io sents' note, “still exist in the Piazza de' Cava are unequalled," says Landor, Penla. lieri, on the right of the archway as the meron, 40, “by any other continuous spectator looks toward the clock.” Ac- thirty in the whole dominions of poetry.” cording to Buti it was called the Mew, 80. Italy; it being an old custom to “because the eagles of the Commune call countries by the affirmative particle . were kept there to moult.'

of the language. Shelley thus sings of it, Poems, III. 82. Capraia and Gorgona are two 91 :

islands opposite the mouth of the Amo. Amid the desolation of a city,

Ampère, Voyage Dantesque, 217, reWhich was the cradle, and is now the grave

marks: “This imagination may appear Olin extinguished people, so that pity grotesque and forced if one looks at the Weeps o'er the shipwrecks of oblivion's wave, map, for the isle of Gorgona is at some There stands the Tower of Famine.

It is distance from the mouth of the Arno,
Upon some prison-homes, whose dwellers rave and I had always thought so, until the
For bread, and gold, and blood : pain, linked day when, having ascended the tower of
to guilt,

Pisa, I was struck with the aspect which
Agitates the light flame of their hours,
Until its vital oil is spent or spilt ;

the Gorgona presented from that point.
There stands the pile, a tower amid the towers It seemed to shut up the Arno. I then
And sacred domes ; each marble-ribbed roof, understood how Dante might naturally
The brazen-gated temples, and the bowers
Of solitary wealth! The tempest-proof

have had this idea, which had seemed Pavilions of the dark Italian air

strange to me, and his imagination was Are by its presence dimmed, -- they stand justified in my eyes. He had not seen the And are' withdrawn, --so that the world is did not exist in his time, but from some

Gorgona from the Leaning Tower, which
As if a spectre, wrapt in shapeless terror, one of the numerous towers which pro-
Amid a company of ladies fair
Should glide and glow, till it became a mirror alone would be sufficient to show what

tected the ramparts of Pisa. This fact
Of all their beauty, and their hair and hue,
The life of their sweet eyes, with all its error,

an excellent interpretation of a poet traShould be absorbed till they to marble grew.' 30. Monte San Giuliano, between

86. Napier, Florentine History, I. Pisa and Lucca.

313 : “ He without hesitation surrenShelley, Poems, III. 166:-

dered Santa Maria a Monte, Fuccechio,

Santa Croce, and Monte Calvole to
• It was that hill whose intervening brow Florence ; exiled the most zealous Ghi.
Screens Lucca from the Pisan's envious eye,
Which the circumfluous plain waving below,

bellines from Pisa, and reduced it to a Like a wide lake of green fertility,

purely Guelphic republic; he was ac-
With streams and fields and marshes bare, cused of treachery, and certainly his own
Divides from the far Apennine, which lie
Islanded in the immeasurable air.”

objects were admirably forwarded by the

continued captivity of so many of his 31. The hounds are the Pisan mob ; countrymen, by the banishment of the the hunters, the Pisan noblemen here adverse faction, and by the friendship troutioned ; the wolf and whelps, Ugo and support of Florence.” luv and his sons.

87. "Thebes was renowned for its 46. It is a question whether this misfortunes and grim tragedies, from the line chiavar is to be rendered nailed up days of the sowing of the dragon's teeth or dxked. Villani and Benvenuto say the ' by Cadmus, down to the destruction of

velling is."



the guests.

the city by Alexander, who commanded ceived the might of Hercules, an image ; it to be utterly demolished, excepting for he himself amongst the immortal only the house in which the poet Pindar gods is delighted with banquets, and has was born. Moreover, the tradition runs the fair-legged Hebe, daughter of mighty that Pisa was founded by Pelops, son of Jove, and golden-sandalled Juno.” King Tantalus of Thebes, although it


Ser Branca d'Oria was derived its name from the Olympic Genoese, and a member of the cele. Pisa on the banks of the Alpheus. brated Doria family of that city. Never

118. Frtar Alberigo, of the family of theless he murdered at table his fatherthe Manfredi, Lords of Faenza, was one in-law, Michel Zanche, who is men. of the Frati Gaudenti, or Jovial Friars, tioned' Canto XXII. 88. mentioned in Canto XXIII. 103. The 151. This vituperation of the Genoese account which the Ottimo gives of his reminds one of the bitter Tuscan protreason is as follows: “Having made verb against them : “Sea without fish; peace with certain hostile fellow-citizens, mountains without trees; men without he betrayed them in this wise. One faith ; and women without shame." evening he invited them to supper, and 154. Friar Alberigo. had armed retainers in the chambers round the supper room. It was in summer-time, and he gave orders to his

CANTO XXXIV. servants that, when after the meats he The fourth and last division of the should order the fruit, the chambers Ninth Circle, the Judecca,should be opened, and the armed men

“the smallest circle, at the point should come forth and should murder all

Of all the Universe, where Dis is seated." And so it was done. And

The first line, “ The banners of the he did the like the year before at Castello delle Mura at Pistoia. These are

king of Hell come forth,” is a parody of the fruits of the Garden of Treason, of the first line of a Latin hymn of the which he speaks.” Benvenuto says that

sixth century, sung in the churches duhis guests were his brother Manfred and ring Passion week, and written by For: his (Manfred's) son.

Other commen

tunatus, an Italian by birth, but who fators say they were certain members of died Bishop of Poitiers in 600. The first the Order of Frati Gaudenti. In 1300, stanza of this hymn is, – the date of the poem, Alberigo was still

“ Vexilla regis prodeunt,

Fulget crucis mysterium,

Quo carne carnis conditor, 120. A Rowland for an Oliver.

Suspensus est patibulo." 124. This division of Cocytus, the

See Königsfeld, Lateinische Hyminen Lake of Lamentation, is called Ptolo- und Gesänge aus dem Mittelalter, 64. mixa from Ptolomeus, 1 Maccabees, xvi.

18. Milton, Parad. Lost, V. 708 :-!!, where “the captain of Jericho inviteth Simon and two of his sons into

“His countenance as the morning star, that

guides his castle, and there treacherously mur The starry flock," dereth them;" for “when Simon and his sons had drunk largely, Ptolomee and

28. Compare Milton's descriptions of bis men rose up, and took their wea

Satan, Parad. Lost, I. 192, 589, II. 636

IV. 985:pons, and came upon Simon into the banqueting-place, and slew him, and Thus Satan, talking to his nearest male, his two sons, and certain of his ser. That sparkling blazed ; his other parts besides

With head uplift above the wave, and eyes vants,"

Prone on the flood, extended long and large, Or perhaps from Ptolemy, who mur. Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge dered Pompey after the battle of Phar. As whom the fables name of monstrous size,

Titanian, or Earth-born, that warred on Jove,

Briareus, or Typhon, whom the den 126. Of the three Fates, Clotho held By ancient Tarsus

held, or that sea-beast the distaff, Lachesis spun

the thread, and Leviathan, which God of all his works Atropos cut it.

Created hugest that swin the ocean stream:

Him, haply, slumbering on the Norway foam, Odyssey, XI. : “After him I per. The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff,



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