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Tun behold the brothers! When the fire II. 19, Miss Williams's Tr., has this

Pervades their limbs in many a curling spire,
The vast hill trembles, and the intruder's corse

“From the time we entered

passage: Is driven from the pile with sudden force.

the torrid zone, we were never wearied The flames, dividing at the point, ascend with admiring, every night, the beauty And at each other adverse rays extend.

of the Southern sky, which, as we adT'hus when the ruler of the infernal state, Pale-visaged Dis, commits to stern debate

vanced towards the south, opened new The sister-fiends, their brands, held forth to constellations to our view. We feel fight,

an indescribable sensation, when, Now clash, then part, and shed a transient light."

approaching the equator, and particu

larly on passing from one hemisphere to 56. The most cunning of the Greeks the other, we see those stars, which we at the siege of Troy, now united in have contemplated from our infancy, their punishment, as before in warlike progressively sink, and finally disappear. wrath.

Nothing awakens in the traveller a live59. As Troy was overcome by the lier remembrance of the immense distance fraud of the wooden horse, it was in by which he is separated from his a poetic sense the gateway by which country, than the aspect of an unAneas went forth to establish the Roknown firmament. The grouping of man empire in Italy.

the stars of the first magnitude, 62. Deidamia was a daughter of Ly- some scattered nebulæ, rivalling in comedes of Scyros, at whose court splendour the milky way, and tracks of Ulysses found Achilles, disguised in space remarkable for their extreme woman's attire, and enticed him away blackness, give a particular physiog. to the siege of Troy, telling him that, nomy to the Southern sky. This sight according to the oracle, the city could fills with admiration even those who, not be taken without him, but not uninstructed in the branches of accurate telling him that, according to the same science, feel the same emotion of delight oracle, he would lose his life there. in the contemplation of the heavenly

63. Ulysses and Diomed together vault, as in the view of a beautiful land. stole the Palladium, or statue of Pallas, scape, or a majestic site. A traveller at Troy, the safeguard and protection of has no need of being a botanist, to recog.

nize the torrid zone on the mere aspect 75. The Greeks scorned all other of its vegetation; and without having nations as “outside barbarians." Even acquired any notions of astronomy, withVirgil, a Latin, has to plead without any acquaintance with the celestial Ulysses the merit of having praised him charts of Flamstead and De la Caille, he in the Æneid.

feels he is not in Europe, when he sees 108. The Pillars of Hercules at the the immense constellation of the Ship, or straits of Gibraltar; Abyla on the African the phosphorescent clouds of Magellan, shore, and Gibraltar on the Spanish ; in arise on the horizon." which the popular mind has lost its faith, 142. Compare Tennyson's Ulysses :except as symbolized in the columns on the Spanish dollar, with the legend, Plus

There lies the port ; the vessel puffs her sail : ultra,

There gloom the dark broad seas. My maBrunetto Latini, Tesor. IX. 19: Souls that have toiled, and wrought, and

thought with me,-
Appresso questo mare,

That ever with a frolic welcome took
Vidi diritto stare

The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed
Gran colonne, le quali

Free hearts, free foreheads,-you and I are Vi mise per segnali

old ;
Ercules il potente,

Old age hath yet his honour and his toil;
Per mostrare alla gente

Death closes all : but something ere the end,
Che loco sia finata

Some work of noble note, may yet be done. La terra e tcrminata."

Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods

The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks 125. Oddyssey', XI. 155: "Well-fitted The long day wanes : the slow moon climos.

the deep oars, which are also wings to ships." Moans round with many voices. Come, my

127 Humboldt, Personal Narrative, friends,

the city.


Tis not too late to seek a newer world.

It shulde, as though it were
Push uff, and, sitting well in order, smite

A bellewing in a mannes ere
The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds And nought the crieng of a man.
To sal beyond the sunset, and the baths

But he, which alle sleightes can, (all the western stars, until I die.

The devil, that lith in helle fast,
It may be that the gulfs will wash us down : Him that it cast hath overcast,
It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,

That for a trespas, which he dede,
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. He was put in the same stede.
Tho' much is taken, much abides ; and tho' And was himself the first of alle,
We are not now that strength which in old Which was into that peine falle

That be for other inen ordeigneth."
Mored earth and heaven, that which we are,
we are ;

21. Virgil being a Lombard, Dante One equal terper of heroic hearts, Blade weak by time and fate, but strong in suggests that, in giving Ulysses and

Diomed license to depart, he had user Te strive to seek, to find, and not to yield." the Lombard dialect, saying, Issa t' cu

va." See Canto XXIII. Note 7.

28. The inhabitants of the province CANTO XXVII.

of Romagna, of which Ravenna is the 1. The subject of the preceding capital. Canto is continued in this.

29. It is the spirit of Guido da 7: The story of the Brazen Bull of Montefeltro that speaks. The city of Perillus is thus told in the Gestà Roma. Montefeltro lies between Urbino and MCTUM, Tale 48, Swan's Tr. :-

that part of the Apennines in which the Dionysius records, that when Perillus Tiber rises. Count Guido was a famous desired to become an artificer of Phalaris, warrior, and one of the great Ghibelline a cruel and tyrannical king who depopu. | leaders. He tells his own story suffilated the kingdom, and was guilty of ciently in detail in what follows. many dreadful excesses, he presented to

40. Lord Byron, Don Juan, III. 105, him, already too well skilled in cruelty, gives this description of Ravenna, with a brazen bull, which he had just con:

an allusion to Boccaccio's Tale, versified structed. In one of its sides there was by Dryden under the title of Thcodore a secret door, by which those who were and Honoriz :sentenced should enter and be burnt to death. The idea was, that the sounds

Sweet hour of twilight in the solitude

of the pine forest, and the silent shore produced by the agony of the sufferer Which bounds Ravenna's immemorial wood, confined within should resemble the Rooted where once the Adrian wave flow'd

o'er, roaring of a bull; and thus, while no

To where the last Czesarean fortress stood, thing human struck the car, the mind

Ever-green forest! which Boccaccio's lore should be unimpressed by a feeling of

And Dryden's lay made haunted ground to me, mercy. The king highly applauded the

How have I loved the twilight hour and thee! invention, and said, "Friend, the value “ The shrill cicalas, people of the pine, of thy industry is yet untried : more

Making their summer lives one ceaseless

song, cruel even than the people account me, Were the sole echoes, save my steed's and thou thyself shalt be the first victim.'

mnine, Also in Gower, Confes. Amant.,

And vesper-bell's that rose the bougas alorg: The spectre huntsman of Oncsti's line,

His hell-dogs, and their chase, and the fair "He had ci counseil many one,


Which leurned from this example not to fly Among the whiche there was one, By name which Berillus hight.

From a true lover, shadowed my mind's eye.” And he bethought him how he might Unto the tirant do liking.

Dryden's Theodore and Ilonoria begins And of his own ymagining

with these words :Let forge and make a bulle of bras, And on the side cast there was

Of all the cities in Romanian lands, A dore, where a man may inne,

The chief, and most renowned, Ravenna Whan he his peine shall beginne


Adorned in ancient times with arms and arts, Through fire, which that men put under, And all this did he for a wonder,

And rich inhabitants, with generous hearts." That whan a man for peine cride, The bull of bras, which gapeth wide,

It was at Ravenna that Dante passed


the last years of his life, and there he had been deceived in the election, and died and was buried.

were rebellious under the rule of Boni. 41. The arms of Guido da Polenta, face. The Cardinals of the great Ghi. Lord of Ravenna, Dante's friend, and belline house took no pains to conceal father (or nephew) of Francesca da Ri- their ill-will toward the Guelf Pope. mini, were an eagle half white in a field Boniface, indeed, accused them oi plot. of azure, and half red in a field of gold. ting with his enemies for his overthrow. Cervia is a small town some twelve miles The Colonnas, finding Rome unsafe, had from Ravenna.

withdrawn to their strong town of Pales. 43. The city of Forlì, where Guido trina, whence they could issue forth at da Montefeltro defeated and slaughtered will for plunder, and where they could the French in 1282. See Canto XX. give shelter to those who shared in their Note 118.

hostility toward the Pope. On the other 45. A Green Lion was the coat of hand, Boniface, not trusting himself in arms of the Ordelaffi, then Lords of Rome, withdrew to the secure height of Forlì.

Orvieto, and thence on the 14th of De. 46. Malatesta, father and son, ty. cember, 1297, issued a terrible bull for a rants of Rimini, who murdered Mon- crusade against them, granting plenary tagna, a Ghibelline leader. Verrucchio indulgence to all (such was the Christian was their castle, near the city. Of temper of the times, and so literally were this family were the husband and lover the violent seizing upon the kingdom of of Francesca. Dante calls them mas. heaven,) who would take up arms against tiffs, because of their fierceness, making these rebellious sons of the Church and “ wimbles of their teeth” in tearing and march against their chief stronghold, their devouring

'alto seggio 'of Palestrina. They and their 49. The cities of Faenza on the La- adherents had already been excommuni. mone, and Imola on the Santerno. They cated and put under the ban of the were ruled by Mainardo, surnamed “the Church ; they had been stripped of all Demon," whose coat of arms was a lion dignities and privileges; their property azure in a white field.

had been confiscated; and they were now 52. The city of Cesena.

by this bull placed in the position of ene67. Milton, Parad. Lost, III. 479: mies, not of the Pope alone, but of the

Church Universal. Troops gathered Dying put on the weeds of Dominic, Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised."

against them from all quarters of Papal

Italy. Their lands were ravaged, and 70. Boniface VIII., who in line 85 they themselves shut up within their is called “the Prince of the new Phari- stronghold; but for a long time they held

out in their ancient high-walled moun. 81. Dante, Convito, IV. 28, quoting tain-town. It was to gain Palestrina that Cicero, says : “Natural death is as it Boniface had war near the Lateran.' were a haven and rest to us after long The great church and palace of the La. navigation. And the noble soul is like teran, standing on the summit of the a good mariner ; for he, when he draws Cælian Hill, close to the city wall, overnear the port, lowers his sails, and enters looks the Campagna, which, in broken it softly with feeble steerage."

levels of brown and green and purple 86. This Papal war, which was waged fields, reaches to the base of the encir. against Christians, and not against pagan cling mountains. Twenty miles away, Saracens, nor unbelieving Jews, nor crowning the top and clinging to the against the renegades who had helped side of one of the last heights of the Sa. them at the siege of Acre, or given them bine range, are the gray walls and roofs aid and comfort by traffic, is thus de- of Palestrina. It was a far more conscribed by Mr. Norton, Travel and Study spicuous place at the close of the thirin Italy, p. 263:

teenth century than it is now; for the “ This' war near the Lateran’ was a great columns of the famous temple of war with the great family of Colonna. Fortune still rose above the town, and Two of the house were Cardinals. They the ancient citadel kept varch over it

" sees.


there concealed, the Emperor was at-
they advised that he should bathe himself
in a bath of children's blood, and three the story at length :-
thousand children were collected for this
purpose. And as he proceeded in his cha-

from its high rock. At length, in Sep- riot to the place where the bath was to tember, 1298, the Colonnas, reduced to be prepared, the mothers of these chil. the tardest extremities, became ready dren threw themselves in his way with

peace. Boniface promised largely. dishevelled hair, weeping, and crying The two Cardinals presented themselves aloud for mercy. Then Constantine was before him at Rieti, in coarse brown moved to tears, and he ordered his chadresses, and with ropes around their riot to stop, and he said to his nobles and necks

, in token of their repentance and to his attendants who were around him, submission. The Pope gave them not Far better is it that I should die, than only pardon and absolution, but hope of cause the death of these innocents!' being restored to their titles and posses. And then he commanded that the chilsions

. This was the lunga promessa dren should be restored to their mothers con l'atlender corto ;' for, while the Co with great gifts, in recompense of what lonnas were retained near him, and these they had suffered ; so they went away deceptive hopes held out to them, Boni- full of joy and gratitude, and the Empe. face sent the Bishop of Orvieto to take ror returned to his palace. possession of Palestrina, and to destroy “On that same night, as he lay asleep, i ulterly, leaving only the church to St. Peter and St. Paul appeared at his stand as a monument above its ruins. bedside : and they stretched their hands The work was done thoroughly ;-a over him and said, “Because thou hast plough was drawn across the site of the feared 10 spill the innocent blood, Jesus unhappy town, and salt scattered in the Christ has sent us to bring thee good furrow, that the land might thenceforth counsel. Send to Sylvester

, who lies be desolate. The inhabitants were re- bidden among the mountains, and he moved from the mountain to the plain, shall show thee the pool in which, hav. and there forced to build new homes for ing washed three times, thou shalt be themselves, which, in their turn, two clean from thy leprosy; and henceforth years afterwards,

were thrown down and thou shalt adore the God of the Chris. burned by order of the implacable Pope. tians, and thou shalt cease to persecute This last piece of malignity was accom- and to oppress them. Then Constanplished in 1300, the year of the Jubilee, tine, awaking from this vision, sent his the year in which Dante was in Rome, soldiers in search of Sylvester. And and in which he saw Guy of Montefeltro, when they took him, he supposed that it the counsellor of Boniface in deceit, was to lead him to death ; nevertheless

he went cheerfully; and when he ap94. The story of Sylvester and Con-peared before the Emperor, Constantine stantine is one of the legends of the arose and saluted him, and said, 'I would Legenda Aurea. The part of it relating know of thee who are those two gods

o the Emperor's baptism is thus con- who appeared to me in the visions of densed by Mrs. Jameson in her Sacred the night? And Sylvester replied,

* They were not gods, but the apostles of was born at Rome of vir- the Lord Jesus Christ.' Then Constan. luous parents; and at a time when Contine desired that he would show him the Stantine was still in the darkness of idola- effigies of these two apostles ; and Sylwry and persecuted the Christians, Sylvester sent for two pictures of St. Peter yester, who had been elected Bishop of and St. Paul, which were in the possesRome, fled from the persecution, and sion of certain pious Christians. Condwelt for some time in a cavern, near the stantine, having beheld them, saw that summit of Monte Calvo. While he lay they were the same who had appeared

to him in his dream. Then Sylvester called to him the priests of his false gods, font cured of his malady."

Gower also, Confes. Amantis, II., tells

burning in Hell."

end Legendary Art, II. 313 :



And in the while it was begunne
A light, as though it were a sunne,


Fro heven into the place come

lay promiscuously on the field, as chance Where that he toke his christendome,

had thrown them together, either in the And ever amonge the holy tales Lich as they weren fisches scales

battle, or flight. Some, whom their They fellen from him now and efte, wounds, being pinched by the morning Till that there was nothing beleste cold, had roused from their posture, were Of all this grete maladie."

put to death by the ertemy, as they were 96. Montefeltro was in the Francis rising up, all covered with blood, srom can monastery at Assisi.

the midst of the heaps of carcasses. Some 102. See Note 86 of this Canto. they found lying alive, with their thighs Dante calls the town Penestrino from its and hams cut, who, stripping their necks Latin name Præneste.

and throats, desired them to spill what 105. Pope Celestine V., who made remained of their blood. Some were “the great refusal,” or abdication of the found, with their heads buried in the papacy. See Canto III, Note 59. carth, in holes which it appeared they

118. Gower, Confes. Amantis, II. :- had made for themselves, and covering “ For shrifte stant of no value

their faces with earth thrown over then, To him, that woll him nought vertue, had thus been suffocated. The attention To leve of vice the folie, For worde is wind, but the maistrie

of all was particularly attracted by a Is, that a man himself defende

living Numidian with his nose and ears Of thing whiche is nought to commende, mangled, stretched under a dead Roman, Wherof ben fewe now a day.”

who lay over him, and who, when his

hands had been rendered unable to hold CANTO XXVIII.

a weapon, his rage being exasperated to

madness, had expired in the act of tear. The Ninth Bolgia, in which ari ing bis antagonist with his teeth." punished the Schismatics, and

When Mago, son of Hamilcar, car. " where is paid the see ried the news of the victory to Carthage, By those who sowing discord win their bur- in confirmation of his joyful intellden;"

gence,” says the same historian, XXIII. a burden difficult to describe even with 12," he ordered the gold rings taken untrammelled words, or in plain prose, from the Romans to be poured down in free from the setters of rhyme.

the porch of the senate-house, and of 9. Apulia, or La Puglia, is in the these there was so great a heap that, ac. south-eastern part of Italy, “ between the cording to some writers, on being maspur and the heel of the boot.”

sured, they filled three pecks and a hall; The people slain in the conquest but the more general account, and likeof Apulia by the Romans. Of the battle wise the more probable, is, that they of Maleventum, Livy, X. 15, says : amounted to no more than one peck.

“Here likewise ihere was more of He also explained to them, in order to flight than of bloodshed. Two thousand show the greater extent of the slaughter, of the Apulians were slain, and Decius, that none but those of equestrian ranh, despising such an enemy, led his legions and of these only the principal, into Samnium.”

this ornament.'' Ilannibal's famous battle at Can 14. Robert Guiscard, the renoutied næ, in the second Punic war. Accord - Norman conqueror of southern Italy. ing to Livy, XXII. 49, “ The number Dante places him in the Fifth Ilca vet of the slain is computed at forty thou- of Paradise, in the planet Mars. For sand foot, and two thousand seven hun an account of his character and achievedred horse."

ments see Gibbon, Ch. LVI. See also He continues, XXII. 51, Baker’s Tr. : Parad. XVIII. Note 20. “On the day following, as soon as light Matthew Paris, Giles's Tr. I. 171, appeared, his troops applied themselves A.D. 1239, gives the following account to the collecting of the spoils, and view of the manner in which he captured tha ing the carnage made, which was such monastery of Monte Cassino :as shocked even enemies; so many thou “In the same year, the monks of sand Romans, horsemen and sotmen, Monte Cassino (where St. Benedict had




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