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her; and gave him as her dowry a large

territory in Cassentino and the Alps, and In this Canto the subject of the made him Count thereof." preceding is continued.

Ampère says in his Vorare Dantesque, 4. Guidoguerra, Tegghiajo Aldo- page 242 : " Near the battle-field of brandi, and Jacopo Rusticucci.

Campaldino stands the little town of 37. The good Gualdrada a Poppi, whose castle was built in 1230 daughter of Bellincion Berti, the sim- by the father of the Arnolfo who built ple citizen of Florence in the olden some years later the Palazzo Vecchio of time, who used to walk the streets Florence. In this casue is still shown “begirt with bone and leather," as the bedroom of the beautiful and modest mentioned in the Paradise, XV. 112. Gualdrada." Villani, I. 37, reports a story of her Francesco Sansovino, an Italian nora with all the brevity of a chronicler. clist of the sixteenth century, has made Boccaccio tells the same story, as if he | Gualdrada the heroine of one of his tales, were writing a page of the Deca- but has strangely perverted ihe old trameron. In his version it runs as fol- dition. Ilis story may be found in lows.

Roscoe's Italian Norlisés, 111. p. 107. " The Emperor Otho IV., being by 41. Tegghiajo Aldobrandi was a dischance in Florence and having gone to Linguished citizen of Florence, and opthe festival of St. John, to malic it posed what Malespini calls “the ill more gay with his presence, it bop counsel of the people,” that war should pened ihat to the church with the Orier be declared against the Sienese, which city dames, as our custom is, came ire ar resulted in the battle of Monte wife of Messer Berto, and brought with Aperto and the defeat of the Florenher a daughter of hers called Gualdıada, tines. who was still unmarried. And as they 44. Jacopo Rusticucci was a rich sat there with the others, the ma'den Florentine gentleman, whose chief mis. being beautiful in face and figure, ne irly fortune seems to have been an ill-as all present turned round to look at ler, sorted marriage. Whereupon the amiand among the rest the Emperor. And able Boccaccio in his usual Decameron having much commended her beau!y style remarks: “Men ought not then to and manners, he asked Messer Berto, be over-hasty in getting married ; on the who was near him, who she was. To contrary, they should come to it with which Messer Berto smilingly answered: much precaution.”

And then he in'She is the daughter of one who, I dare dulges in five octavo pages again! say, would let you kiss her if you matrimony and woman in general. wished.' These words the young lady 45. See Macchiavelli's story of Bd. heard, being near the speaker; and fagor, wherein Minos and Rhadaman. somewliat troubled by the opinion her thus, and the rest of the infernal judges, father seemed to have of her, that, if he are greatly surprised to hear an infinite wished it, she would suffer herself to be number of condemned souls “lament kissed by any one in this free way, ris- nothing so bitterly as their folly in hav. ing, and looking a moment at her father, ing taken wives, attributing to them the and blushing with shame, said: 'Father, whole of their misfortune.' ilo not make such courteous promises at 70. Boccaccio, in his Comento, speaks The expense of my moclesty, for certainly, of Guglielmo Borsiere as a courteous unless by violence, no one shall ever kiss gentleman of good breeding and excel me, except him whom you shall give me lent manners; and in the Daamenn, :lS my husband.' The Emperor, on Gior. I. Nov. 8, tells of a sharp rebuke hearing this, much commended the administered by him to Messer Ermino words and the young lady. . . . . And de' Grimaldi, a miser of Genoa. calling forward a noble youth named “It came to pass that, whilst by Guido Beisangue, who was afterwards spending nothing he went on accumucalled Guido the Elder, who as yet had lating wealth, there came to Genoa Do wife, he insisted upon his marrying well-bred and witty gentleman called

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Gulielmo Borsiere, one nothing like the until we come to the Montone, whici. courtiers of the present day; who, to above Forli is called Acquacheta. This the great reproach of the debauched disc is the first which flows directly into the positions of such as would now be re- Adriatic, and not into the Po. At least puted fine gentlemen, should more pro- it was so in Dante's time. Now, by perly style themselves asses, brought up some change in its course, the Lamone, amidst the filthiness and sink of man- farther north, has opened itself a new kiari, rather than in courts.

outlet, and is the first to make its own “ This Gulielmo, whom I before men- way to the Adriatic. See Barlow, Con. tionel, was much visited and respected tributions to the Study of the Divine Cor.

ling the better sort of people at Genoa ; medy, p. 131. This comparison shows : olen having made some stay here, and the delight which Dante took in the

hearing much talk ci Ermino's sordid- study of physical geography. To reach ness, he became desirous of seeing him. the waterfall of Acquachetá he traverses Now Ermino had been informed of Gu- in thought the entire valley of the l'o, lielmo's worthy character, and having, stretching across the whole of Northern however covetous he was, some small Italy. sparks of gentility, he received him in a Boccaccio's interpretation of courteous manner, and, entering into this line, which has been adopted by discourse together, he took him, and most of the commentators since listine, Some Genoese who came along with him, is as follows : “I was for a long time !o see a fine house which he had lately in doubt concerning the author's mcan. bruilt; and when he had shown every ing in this line ; but being by chance at part of it, he said : Pray, sir, can you, this monastery of San Benedetto, in who have heard and seen so much, tell company with the abbot, he told me de of something that was never yet seen, that there had once been a scussiou to have painted in my hall? To whom among the Counts who owned the Gulielmo, hearing him speak so simply, mountain, about building a village near replied: 'Sir, I can tell you of nothing the waterfall

, as a convenient place for which has never yet been seen, that I a settlement, and bringing into it their know of; unless it be sneezing, or some vassals scattered on neighbouring farms; thing of that sort ; but if you please, I but the leader of the project dying, it can tell you of a thing which, I believe, was not carried into effect'; and that is you never saw. Said Ermino (little what the author says, Ove druen per mille, expecting such an answer as he received), that is, for many, esser ricello, that is, 'I beg you would let me know what home and habitation.”

Gulielmo immediately replied, Doubtless grammatically the words *Paint Liberality.' When Ermino heard will bear this meaning. But evidently this, such a sudden shame seized him, as the idea in the author's mind, and which quite changed his temper from what it he wished to impress upon the reader's, had hitherto been ; and he said: "Sir, was that of a waterfall plunging at a I will have her painted in such a man- single leap down a high precipice. To her that neither you, nor any one else, this idea, the suggestion of buildings shall be able to say, hereafter, that I am and inhabitants is wholly foreign, and unacquainted with her.' And from that adds neither force nor clearness. Wheretime such effect had Gulielmo's words as, to say that the river plunged at one upon him, he became the most liberal bound over a precipice high enough for and courteous gentleman, and was the a thousand cascades, presents at once a most respected, both by strangers and vivid picture to the imagination, and I his

own citizens, of any in Genoa." have interpreted the line accordingly, 95. Monte Veso is among the Alps, making the contrast between una scesa between Piedmont and Savoy, where and mille. It should not be forgotten the Po takes its rise. From this point that, while some editions read desea, eastward to the Adriatic, all the rivers others read dovria, and even potria. on the left or northern slope of the 106. This cord has puzzled the Apennines are tributaries to the Po, commentators exceedingly." Boccaccin

that is.


Volpi, and Venturi do not explain it. hurled down to their aç.nointed places, The anonymous author of the Oltimo, as soon as Minos doomed then. Benvenuto da Imola, Buti, Landino, Vel ferro, V. 15. lutello, and Daniello, all think it means 132. Even to a steadfast heart. fraud, which Dante had used in the pursuit of pleasure, -"the panther with the painted skin.” Lombardi is of opi. nion that, “by girding himself with the

CANTO XVII. Franciscan cord, he had endeavoured to restrain his sensual appetites, indicated

I. In this Canto is described the by the panther; and still wearing the punishment of Usurers, sinners cord as a Tertiary of the Order, he against Nature and Art. See Inf. XI. makes it serve here to deceive Geryon, 109 :--and bring him up." Biagioli under

“And since the usurer takes another way, stands by it “ the humility with which

Nature herself and in her follower a man should approach Science, because Disdains he, for elsewhere he puts his hope." it is she that humbles the proud.” Fraticelli thinks it means vigilance ; Tom The monster Geryon, here used as maseo, “the good faith with which he the symbol of Fraud, was born of Cliryhoped to win the Florentines, and now saor and Callirrhoe, and is generally wishes to deal with their fraud, so that represented by the poets as having three it may not harm him;" and Gabrielli bodies and three heads. He was in Rossetti says,

“Dante flattered himself, ancient times King of Hesperia or Spain, acting as a sincere Ghibelline, that he living on Frytheia, the Red Island of should meet with good faith from his sunset, and was slain by Hercules, Guelf countrymen, and met instead with who drove away his beautiful oxen. horrible fraud."

The nimble fancy of Hawthorne thus Dante elsewhere speaks of the cord in depicts him in his Wonder-Book, p. a good sense. In Purgatorio, VII. 114, 148:Peter of Aragon is “girt with the cord “But was it really and truly an old of

In Inferno, XXVII. man? Certainly at first sight it looked 92, it is mortification, “the cord that very like one ; but, on closer inspection, used to make those girt with it more it rather seemed to be some kind of a meagre ;” and in Paradiso, XI. 87, it creature that lived in the sea. is humility, “that family which had his legs and arms there were scales, such already girt the humble cord."

as fishes have ; he was web-footed and It will be remembered that St. Fran- web-fingered, after the fashion of a duch; cis, the founder of the Cordeliers (the and his long beard, being of a greenish wearers of the cord), used to call his tinge, had more the appearance of a body asino, or ass, and to subdue it with tust of sea-weed than of an ordinary the capestro, or halter. Thus the cord ! beard. Have you never seen a stick w! is made to symbolise the subjugation of timber, that has been long tossed about the animal nature. This renders Lom by the waves, and has got all overgrouri barili's interpretation the most intelli- with barnacles, and at last, drifting gible and satisfactory, though Virgil ashore, seems to have been thrown uji scems to have thrown the cord into from the very deepest bottom of the sea? the abyss simply because he had nothing Well, the old man would have put you in else to throw, and not with the design mind of just such a wave-tost spar." of deceiving

The three bodies and three heads, As a man does naturally in the which old poetic fable has given to the act of throwing:

monster Geryon, are interpreted by 131. That Geryon, seeing the cord, modern prose as meaning the three ascends, expecting to find some moine Balearic Islands, Majorca, Minorca, and défroqué, and carry him down, as Lom- Ivica, over which he reigned. bardi suggests, is hardly admissible; for 10. Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, XIV. that was not his office. The spirits were 87, Rose's Tr., thus depicts Fraud :

every virtue.”

For on


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Nothing agrees that's great or generous."

" With pleasing mien, grave walk, and decent greatest usurer of his day, called here Fraud rolled her eyeballs humbly in her head; in irony "the sovereign cavalier." And such benign and modest speech possest,

74. As the ass-driver did in the She might a Gabriel seem who Ave said. streets of Florence, when Dante bea Foul as she and deformed in all the rest; Bar with a mantle, long and widely spread,

him for singing his verses amiss. Sce Concealed her hideous parts; and evermore

Sacchetti, Nov. CXV. Beneath the stole a poisoned dagger wore.'

78. Dante makes as short work with

these usurers as if he had been a curious The Gabriel saying Ave is from Dante, traveller walking through the Ghetto of Purgatory, X. 40 :

Rome, or the Judengasse of Frankfort. One would have sworn that he was saying 107. Ovid, Alctantorph. II., Addi. Ate."

son's Tr. :17. Tartars nor Turks, “who are “Half dead with sudden fear he dropt the most perfect masters therein,” says Boc

Icirs ; caccio,

The horses fel: 'em !cose upon their manes, as we can clearly see in Tar

And, flying out through all the plains above, tarian cloths, which truly are so skil Ran uncontroiled where'er their fury drove : fully woven, that no painter with his Rushed on the stars, and through a pathless brush could equal, much less surpass them. The Tartars are

Or unknown regions hurried on the day.

And now above, and now below they flew, with this unfinished sentence close the And near the carth the burning chariot drew lectures upon Dante, begun by Giovanni loccaccio on Sunday, August 9, 1373,

At once from life and from the chariot driv'n,

Th' ambitious boy fell thunder-struc!: from in the church of San Stefano, in Flo

heav'n. That there were some critics The horses started with a sudden bound, among his audience is apparent from

And flung the reins and chariot to the pround:

The studded harness from their necks they this sonnet, which he addressed “to one

broke, who had censured his public Exposition Here fell a whcel, and here a silver spoke, of Dante." See D. G. Rosetti, Early

Here were the beam and axle torn away;
And, scatter'd o'er the earth, the shining frag-

ments lay. * If Dante mourns, there where soe'er he be,

The breathless Phaeton, with faming nair, That such high fancies of a soul so proud

Shot from the chariot, like a falling star, Should be laid open to the vulgar crowd,

That in a summer's ev'ning from the top As, touching my Discourse, I'm told by

Of heav'n drops down, or seems at least to

drop; This were my grievous pain; and certainly

Till on the Po his blasted corpse was hurled, My proper blame should not be disavowed ;

Far from his country, in the Western World." Theugh hereof somewhat, I declare aloud, Were due to others, not alone to me,

108. The Milky Way. In Spanish False hopes, crue poverty, and therewithal The blinded judgment of a host of friends,

El camino de Santiago; in the Northern And their entreaties, made that I did thus.

Mythology the pathway of the ghosts But of all this there is no gain at all

going to Valhalla, Unto the thankless souls with whose base ends

109. Ovid, Metamorph. VIII., Crox

all's Tr. :18. Ovid, Metamorph. VI. :

“The soft'ning wax, that felt a nearer sun,

Dissolv'd apace, and soon began to run. "One at the loom so excellently skilled That to the Goddess she refused to yield.”

The youth in vain his melting pinions shakes,

His feathers gone, no longer air he takes. 57. Their love of gold still haunting

O father, father, as he strove to cry,
Down to the sea he tumbled from on high,

And found his fate ; yet still subsists by fame, 59. The arms of the Giansigliacci of

Among those waters that retain his name.

The father, now no more a father! cries, 163. The arms of the Ubbriachi of

Ho, Icarus ! where are you? as he flics :
Where shall I seck my boy? he cries again,

And saw his feathers scattcred on the main." 64. The Scrovigni of Padua. 68. Vitaliano del Dente of Padua.

136. Lucan, Pharsal, I. :73. Giovanni Bujamonte, who seems “To him the Balearic sling is slow; to have had the ill repute of being the And the shaft loiters fion the Parthian bow."


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them in the other world.






the Apennine limestones nearly always

are ; the gray being peculiarly coid and 1. Here begins the third division of disagreeable. As we go down the very the Inferno, embracing the Eighth and hill which stretches out from Pietra-pana Ninth Circles, in which the Fraudulent towards Lucca, the stones laid by the are purished.

road-side to mend it are of this ashen “But because fraud is man's peculiar vice

gray, with efflorescences of manganese More it displeases God; and so stand lowest and iron in the fissures. The whole of The fraudulent, and greater dole assails Malebolge is made of this rock, ‘All

wrought in stone of iron-coloured grain.' The Eighth Circle is called Male 29. The year of Jubilee 1300. Mr. bolge, or Evil-budgets, and consists of Norton, in his Notes of Travel and Study ten concentric ditches, or Bolge, of in Italy, p. 255, thus describes it :stone, with dikes between, and rough “The beginning of the new century bridges running across them to the brought many pilgrims to the Papal centre like the spokes of a wheel. city, and the Pope, seeing to what

In the First Bolgia are punished Se account the treasury of indulgences posducers, and in the second Flattcrers. sessed by the Church might now be

Mr. Ruskin, Modern Painters, III. turned, hit upon the plan of promising p. 237, says :

plenary indulgence to all who, during “Our slates and granites are often the year, should visit with fit dispositions of very lovely colours; but the Asen- the holy places of Rome. He, accordnine limestone is so gray and toneless, ingly, in the most solemn manner, prothat I know not any mountain di;- claimed a year of Jubilee, to date from trict so utterly melancholy as those the Christmas of 1299, and appointed a which are composed of this rock, when similar celebration for each hundredth unwooded. Now, as far as I can disco- year thereaster. The report of the mar. ver from the internal evidence in his vellous promise spread rapidly through poein, nearly all Dante's mountain wan- Europe ; and, as the year advanced, derings had been upon this ground. He pilgrims poured into Italy from remote had journeyed once or twice among the as well as from neighbouring lands. Alps, indeed, but seems to have been The roads leading to Rome were dusty impressed chiefly by the road from Garda with bands of travellers pressing forward to "Trent, and that along the Cornice, to gain the unwonted indulgence. The both of which are either upon those Crusades had made travel familiar to limestones, or a dark serpentine, which men, and a journey to Rome seemed shows hardly any colour till it is po- easy to those who had dreamed of the lished. It is not ascertainable that he Farther East, of Constantinople, and had ever seen rock scenery of the finely Jerusalem. Giovanni Villani, who was coloured kind, aided by the Alpine among the pilgrims from Florence, de mosses : I do not know the fall at Forli clares that there were never less than (Inferno, XVI. 99), but every other two hundred thousand strangers at Rome scene to which he alludes is among during the year ; and Guglielmo Ven. these Apennine limestones ; and when tura, the chronicler of Asti, reports the he wishes to give the idea of enormous total number of pilgrims at not less than mountain size he names Tabernicch and two millions. The picture which he Pietra-pana, -the one clearly chosen draws of Rome during the Jubilee is a only for the sake of the last syllable of curious one. "Mirandum est quod pas. its name, in order to make a sound as sim ibant viri et mulieres, qui anno illo of crackling ice, with the two sequent Romæ fuerunt quo ego ibi fui et per dies rhymes of the stanza, -and the other xv. sleti. De pane, vino, carnibus, pisis an Apennine near Lucca.

cibus, et avena, bonum mercatum ibi erat; " His idea, therefore, of rock colour, fænum carissimum ibi fuit; hospitia cafounded on these experiences, is that of rissima ; taliter quod lectus meus d aqui a dull or ashen gray, more or less stained mei super fæno et avena constabat miks by the brown of iron ochre, precisely as tornesium unum grossum.

Eriens de

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