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balding private intercourse with the Club, they also being all rich, together l'ope, De Vineà had many secret con- with them, not spending but squarder. kerences with Innocent, and was accused ing, in a short time he consuined all of betraying his master's interests. Yet that he had and became very poor.” Lere was iso seeming diminution in the Joining some Florentine troops sent trust placed in De Vineá. Still, to the out against the Aretines, he was in a end the Emperor's letters concerning skirmish at the parish of

0, which the disaster at Parma are by the same Dante calls a joust; "and notwithstandhand. Over the cause of his disgrace ing he might have saved himself,” conand death, even in his own day, there tinues Boccaccio, “ remembering his 975 deep doubt and obscurity. The wretched condition, and it seeming to popular rumour ran that Frederick was him a grievous thing to bear poverty, as lil

; the physician of De Vinca prescribed he had been very rich, he rushed into the
for him; the Emperor having received thick of the enemy and was slain, as
some waming, addressed De Vineâ : perhaps he desired to be."

My friend, in thee I have full trust; 125. Some commentators interpret
art thou sure that this is medicine, not these dogs as poverty and despair, still
poison?' De Vineâ replied: 'How pursuing their victims. The Ottimo
often has my physician ministered health. Comento calls them “poor men who,
ful medicines ! --why are you now afraid to follow pleasure and the kitchens of
Frederick took the cup, sternly com- other people, abandoned their homes
manded the physician to drink half of it. and fanilies, and are therefore trans-
The physician threw himself at the formed into hunting dogs, and pursue
King's feet, and, as he fell, overthrew and devour their masters.
the liquor. But what was left was 133. Jacopo da St. Andrea was a
administered to some criminals, who Paduan of like character and life as
died in agony. The Emperor wrung Lano. "Among his other squander-
his hands and wept bitterly: “Whom ings," says the Ottimo Comento, “it is
can I now trust, betrayed by my own said that, wishing to see a grand and
familiar friend? Never can I know beautiful fire, he had one of his own
security, never can I know joy more.' villas burned.”
By one account Peter de Vinea was led

143. Florence was first under the ignominiously on an ass through Pisa, protection of the god Mars; afterwards and thrown into prison, where he dashed under that of St. John the Baptist. But his lírains out against the wall. Dante's in Dante's time the statue of Mars was immortal verse has saved the fame of still standing on a column at the head De Vinea: according to the poet he was of the Ponte Vecchio. It was overthe victim of wicked and calumnious thrown by an inundation of the Arno in jealousy."

1333. See Canto XV. Note 62. See also Giuseppe de Blasiis, Vila et 149. Florence was destroyed by ToOfere di Pietro della Vigna.

tila in 450, and never by Attila. In 112. lial, XII. 146: “Like two Dante's time the two seem to have been wild boars, which catch the coming pretty generally confounded. The Ottimo tumult of men and dogs in the moun. Comento remarks upon this point,“ Some tains, and, advancing obliquely to the say that Totila was one person and At. attack, break down the wood about tila another; and some say that he was them, cutting it off at the roots."

one and the same man. Chaucer, Legendle of Goode Women : 150. Dante does not mention the Envie ys lavendere of the court alway;

name of this suicide; Boccaccio thinks, For she ne parteth neither nyght ne day

for one of two reasons ; “either out Out of the house of Cesar, thus saith Daunte." of regard to his surviving relatives, who Lano,"

says Boccaccio, Co- peradventure are honourable men, and mento,

young gentleman of therefore he did not wish to stain thein Siena, who had a large patrimony, and with the infamy of so d'ishonest a death, associa: ing himself with a club of other or else (as in those times, as if by a young Sienese, called the Spendthrift malediction sent by God upon our city,

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many hanged themselves) that each one 63. Capaneus was one of the seven might apply it to either he pleased of kings who besieged Thebes. Euripi. these many."

des, Phænissa, line 1188, thus describes

his death :CANTO XIV.

“While o'er the battlements sprang Capaneus,

Jove struck him with his thunder, and the In this third round of the seventh

earth circle are punished the Violent against

Resounded with the crack; meanwhile mari

kind Ged,

Stood all aghast ; from off the ladder's height

His limbs were far asunder hurled, his hair “In heart denying and blaspheming him, And by disdaining Nature and her bounty."

Flew to'ards Olympus, to the ground his blood,
His hands and feet whirled like Ixion's wheel,

And to the earth his flaming body fell."
15. When he retreated across the
Libyan desert with the remnant of Pom- Also Gower, Confes. Amant., I. :-
pey's army after the battle of Pharsalia.

As he the cite wolde assaile, Lucan, Pharsalia, Book IX. :

God coke him selse the bataile

Ayen his pride, and fro the sky “Foremost, behold, I lead you to the toil,

A firy thonder sudeinly My feet shall foremost print the dusty soil.” He sende and him to pouder smote." 31. Boccaccio confesses that he does 72. Like Hawthorne's scarlet letter, aot know where Dante found this tradi- at once an ornament and a punishment. tion of Alexander. Benvenuto da Imola 79. The Bulicame or Hot Springs says it is in a letter which Alexander of Viterbo. Villani, Cronica, Book I. wrote to Aristotle. lle quotes the Ch. 51, gives the following brief acpassage as follows: “In India ignited count of these springs, and of the orivapours fell from heaven like snow. I gin of the name of Viterbo :commanded my soldiers to trample them “The city of Viterbo was built by under foot."

the Romans, and in old times was called Dante perhaps took the incident from Vigezia, and the citizens Vigentians. t.lne old retrical Romance of Alexander, And the Romans sent the sick there which in some form or other was current on account of the baths which flow from in his time. In the English version of the Bulicame, and therefore it was called it, published by the Roxburghe Club, we Vila Erbo, that is, life of the sick, or city find the rain of fire, and a fall of snow ; of life.” but it is the snow, and not the fire, that 80. “The building thus approprithe soldiers trample down. So likewise ated,” says Mr. Barlow, Contributions in the French version. The English runs to the Study of the Divine Comedy, p. as follows, line 4164 :

129, “would appear to have been the " Than fandis he furth as I finde five and di Ser Paolo Benigno, situated between

large ruined edifice known as the Bagno twenti days, Come to a velanus vale thare was a vile cheele, the Bulicame and Viterbo. About half Quare faggis of the fell snawe fell fra the a mile beyond the Porta di Faule, heven,

which leads to Toscanella, we come to ? hat was a brade, sais the buke, as battes ere of wolle.

a way called Riello, after which we Than bett he many brigt fire and lest it bin arrive at the said ruined edifice, which nold,

received the water from the Bulicame And made his folk with thaire feete as flores it

by conduits, and has popularly been

regarded as the Bagno delle Meretrici Ihan fell ther fra the firmament as it ware sell alluded to by Dante; there is no other

sparkes, Ropand doune o rede fire, than any rayne with it the claim to this distinction.

building here found, which car. di pule thikir."

102. The shouts and cymbals of the 45. Canto VIII. 83.

Corybantes, drowning the cries of the 55. Mount Etna, under which, with insant Jove, lest Saturn should find him his Cyclops, Vulcan forged the thun- and devour him. derbolts of Jove.

103. The statue of Time, tuning its

to trede.

line 45.


upon the East and looking towards 5. These lines recall Goldsmith's de. Rome. Compare Daniel ii. 31.

scription in the Traveller :105. The Ages of Gold, Silver,

Methinks her patient sons before me stand, Brass, and Iron. See Ovid, Meta Where the broad ocean leans against the land, morph. I.

And sedulous to stop the coming tide, See also Don Quixote's discourse to

List the tall rampire's artificial pride.

Onward, methinks, and diligently slow the goatherds, inspired by the acorns The firm connected bulwark seems to grow ; they gave him, Book II. Chap. 3; and Spreads its long arms anidst the watery roar, Tasso's Ode to the Golden Age, in the

Scoops out an empire and usurps the shore." Aeanta.

9. That part of the Alps in which the 113. The Tears of Time, forming Brenta rises. the infernal rivers that flow into Co 29. The reading la mia seems pre. cytus.

ferable to la mano, and is justified by Milton, Parad. Lost, II. 577 :Abborred Styx, the flood of deadly hate ;

30. Brunetto Latini, Dante's friend Sail Achern of sorrow, black and deep; and teacher. Villani thus speaks of Crytris, named of lamentation loud

him, Cronica, VIII. 10: “Ir this year Heind on the rueful stream ; fierce Phlegeton, Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage: 1294 died in Florence a worthy citizen, Far off from these a slow and silent stream, whose name was Sir Brunettó Latini, Lethe, the river of oblivion, rolls

who was a great philosopher and per. Her watery labyrinth, whereof who drinks Forthwith his former state and being forgets,

sect master of rhetoric, both in speaking forgets both joy and grief, pleasure and and in writing. He commented the pain,

Rhetoric of Tully, and made the good

and useful book called the Tesoro, and 136. See Purgatorio, XXVIII.

the Tesoretto, and the Keys of the Tesoro, and many other books of philosophy,

and of vices and of virtues, and he was CANTO XV.

Secretary of our Commune. He was a 1. In this Canto is described the worldly man, but we have made men. punishment of the Violent against Na- tion of him because he was the first

master in refining the Florentines, and in " And for this reason does the smallest round

teaching them how to speak correctly, Seal with its signet Sodom and Cahors."

and how to guide and govern our Re.

public on political principles." 4. Guizzante is not Ghent, but Cad Boccaccio, Comento, speaks of him sand, an island opposite L'Ecluse, where thus : “This Ser Brunetto Latini was the great canal of Bruges enters the sea. a Florentine, and a very able man in A canal thus flowing into the sea, the some of the liberal arts, and in phi. dikes on either margin uniting with the losophy ; but his principal calling was sea-dikes, gives a perfect image of this that of Notary; and he held himself part of the Inferno.

and his calling in such great esteem, Lodovico Guicciardini in his Descrit. that, having made a mistake in a contione di tutti i Paesi Bassi (1581), p. 416, tract drawn up by him, and having speaking of Cadsand, says: This is been in consequence accused of fraud, the very place of which our great poethe preferred to be condemned for it Dante makes mention in the fifteenth rather than to confess that he had made chapter of the Inferno, calling it incor- a mistake ; and afterwards he quitted rectly, perhaps by error of the press, Florence in disdain, and leaving in Guizzanie ; where still at the present memory of himself a book composed day great repairs are continually made by him, called the Tesoretto, he went upon the dikes, because here, and in to Paris and lived there a long time, :he environs towards Bruges, the flood, and composed a book there which is or I should rather say the tide, on in French, and in which he treats of account of the situation and lowness many matters regarding the liberal arts, of the land, has very great power, par- and moral and natural philosophy, and ticularly during a north-west wind." metaphysics, which he called the To.

ture :



soro; and finally, I believe, he died in

“Mastro di storlomia Paris.”

E di filosofia. He also wrote a short poem, called It has been supposed by some comthe Favoletto, and perhaps the Pataffio, mentators that Dante was indebted to a satirical poem in the Florentine dia- the Tesoretto for the first idea of the lect, a jargon,” says Nardini, “which Commedia. “If any one is pleased to cannot be understood even with a com- imagine this,” says the Abbate Zannoni mentary." But his fame rests upon the in the Preface to his edition of the Tesoretto and the Tesoro, and more than Tesoretto, (Florence, 1824,) " he must all upon the fact that he was Dante's confess that a slight and almost invisible teacher, and was put by him into a very spark served to kindle a vast conflagra. disreputable place in the Inferno. He tion." lied in Florence, not in Paris, as Boc The Tesoro, which is written in caccio supposes, and was buried in French, is a much more ponderous and Santa Maria Novella, where his tomb pretentious volume. Hitherto it has still exists. It is strange that Boccaccio been known only in manuscript, or in should not have known this, as it was the Italian translation of Giamboni, but in this church that the “seven young at length appears as one of the volumes gentlewomen

of his Decameron met of the Collection de Documents Inédits on a Tuesday morning,” and resolved sur l'Histoire de France, under the title to go together into the country, where of Li Livres dou Tresor, edited by P. they "might hear the birds sing, and see Chabaille, Paris, 1863 ; a stately quarto the verdure of the hills and plains, and of some seven hundred pages, which it the fields full of grain undulating like would assuage the fiery torment of Ser the sea.

Brunetto to look upon, and justify him The poem of the Tesoretto, written in saying in a jingling metre, which reminds one

Commended unto thee be my Tesoro, of the Vision oj Piers Ploughman, is it

Ir. which I still live, and no more I ask." self a Vision, with the customary alle. gorical personages of the Virtues and The work is quaint and curious, but Vices. Ser Brunetto, returning from mainly interesting as being written by an embassy to King Alphonso of Spain, Dante's schoolmaster, and showing what meets on the pl of Roncesvalles a he knew and what he taught his pupil

. student of Bologna, riding on a bay I cannot better describe it than in the mule, who informs him that the Guelfs author's own words, Book I. ch. IS have been banished from Florence. “The smallest part of this Treasure Whereupon Ser Brunetto, plunged in is like unto ready money, to be exmeditation and sorrow, loses the high- pended daily in things needful ; that is, road and wanders in a wondrous forest. it treats of the beginning of time, of Here he discovers the august and gi- the antiquity of old histories, of the gantic figure of Nature, who relates to creation of the world, and in fine of him the creation of the world, and gives the nature of all things. him a banner to protect him on his “The second part, which treats of pilgrimage through the forest, in which the vices and virtues, is of precious he meets with no adventures, but with the stones, which give unto man delight Virtues and Vices, Philosophy, Fortune, and virtue ; that is to say, what things Ovid, and the God of Love, and sundry a man should do, and what he should other characters, which are sung at large not, and shows the reason why through eight or ten chapters. He then “The third part of the Treasure is emerges from the forest, and confesses of fine gold ; that is to say, it teaches a himself to the monks of Montpellier ; man to speak according to the rules of after which he goes back into the forest rhetoric, and how a ruler ouglat to again, and suddenly finds himself on the govern those beneath him. . . summit of Olympus ; and the poem ab “And I say not that this book is er ruptly leaves him discoursing about the tracted from my own poor sense and my elements with Ptolemy,

own naked knowledge, but, on the con

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, it is like a honeycomb gathered tines did not perceive it. Boccaccio remm diverse flowers ; for this book is peats the story with variations, but does *bally compiled from the wonderful not think it a sufficient reason for calling srings of the authors who before our the Florentines blind, and confesses that linze have treated of pliilosophy, each he does not know what reason there can

e according to his knowledge. be for so calling them. ** And if any one should ask why 89. The other text” is the predic. this book is written in Romarce, action of his banishment, Canto X. $1, and curling to the language of the French, the lady is Beatrice. ance we are Italian, I should say it is 96. Boileau, Epitre, V. :kur two reasons ; one, because we are ir France, and the other, because this “Qu'r son gré désormais la fortune nie joue, speech is more delectable, and inore

On me verra dormir au branle de sa rcue.' Dinmon to all people.” 62. "Afterwards,"

And Tennyson's song of “Fortune says

Brunetto and her Wheel”: Latini, Tresor, Book I. Pt. I. ch. 37, " the Romans besieged Fiesole, till at Turn, Fortune, turn thy wheel and lower the last they conquered it and brought it

proud; into subjection. Then they built upon

Turn thy wild wheel thro' sunshine, storm,

and cloud ; the plain, which is at the foot of the

Thy wheel and ::ce we neither love nor hate. high rocks on which that city stood, mother city, that is now called Florence. Turn, Fortune, turn thy wheel with smile or

frown ; And know that the spot of ground With that wild wheel we go not up or down ; where Florence stands was formerly Our hoard is little, but our hearts are great. called the House of Mars, that is to say the House of War; for Mars, who is

“ Smile and we smile, the lords of ranv lands;

Frown and we smile, the lords viour own pone of the seven planets, is called the hands; Cod of War, and as such was wor For man is man and master of his fate. shipped of old. Therefore it is no wonder that the Florentines are always in

“ Turn, turn thy wheel above the staring crowd:

Thy wheel and thou are shadows in the cloud; war and in discord, for that planet reigns Thy whcel and thee we neither love nor hate." over them. Of his Master Brunez. Latins ought to know the truth, for he 109. Priscian, the grammarian of was bom there, and was in exile on ac- Constantinople in the sixth century. coemt of war with the Florentines, when 110. Francesco d'Accorso, a distinhe composed this book.”

guished jurist and Professor at Bologna See also Villani, I. 38, who assigns in the thirteenth century, celebrated for a different reason for the Florentine dis- his Commentary upon the Code Jus. sensions, "And observe, that if the tinian. Florentines are always in war and dis 113. Andrea de' Mozzi, Bishop of sension among themselves it is not to be Florence, transferred by the Pope, the wondered at, they being descended from “ Servant of Servants,” to Vicenza; the two nations so contrary and hostile and two cities being here designated by the different in customs, as were the noble rivers on which they are respectively and virtuous Romans and the rude and situated. warlike Fiesolans.”

119. See Note 30. Again, IV. 7, he attributes the Flor 122. The Corsa del Pallio, or foot entine dissensions to both the above- races, at Verona; in which a green mentioned causes.

mantle or Pallio, was the prize. But67. Villani, IV. 31, tells the story of tura says that these foot-races are still certain columns of porphyry given by continued (1823), and that he has seen the Pisans to the Florentines for guard them more than once; but certainly not ing their city while the Pisan army had in the nude state in which Boccaccio gone to the conquest of Majorca.' The describes theni, and which renders columns were cracked by fire, but being Dante's comparison more complete and covered with crimson cloth, the Floren- striking.

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