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ments of rock torn from the sides of the 39. Christ's descent into Limbo,
neighbouring mountains by an earth- and the earthquake at the Crucifix-
quake, or perhaps by their own unsup- ion.
ported weight, and hurled down into the 42. This is the doctrine of Empedo-
plains below. They spread over the cles and other old philosophers. See
whole valley, and in some places con- Ritter, History of Ancient Philosopar,
tract the road to a very narrow space. Book V., Chap. vi. The following
A few firs and cypresses scattered in the passages are from Mr. Morrison's trans.
intervals, or sometimes rising out of the lation :-
crevices the rocks, cast a partial and Empedocles proceeded from the
melancholy shade amid the surrounding Eleatic principle of the oneness of all
nakedness and desolation. This scene truth. In its unity it resembles a ball ;
of ruin seems to have made a deep im- he calls it the sphere, wherein the an
pression upon the wild imagination of cients recognized the God of Empedo-
Dante, as he has introduced it into the cles. .
twelfth canto of the Inferno, in order to “ Into the unity of the sphere ail
give the reader an adequate idea of one elementary things are combined by
of his infernal ramparts.

love, without difference or distinction : 12. The Minotaur, half bull, half man. within it they lead a happy life, replete See the infamous story in all the classical with holiness, and remote from disdictionaries.

18. The Duke of Athens is Theseus. Chaucer gives him the same title in The

They know no god of war nor the spirit of

battles, Knightes Tale :-

Nor Zeus, the sovereign, nor Chronos, nor ye!

Poseidon,
“Whilom, as olde stories tellen us,

But Cypris the queen.
Ther was a duk that highte Theseus.
Of Athenes he was lord and governour,
That greter was ther non under the sonne.

“ The actual separation of the eleFul many a rich contree had he wonne. ments one from another is produced by What with his wisdom and his

chevalrie, discord ; for originally they were bound He conquerd all the regne of Feminie, That whilom was ycleped Scythia ;

together in the sphere, and therein conAnd wedded the freshe quene Ipolita, tinacd perfectly unmovable. Now in And brought hire home with him to his this Empedocles posits different periods With mochel glorie and great solempnitee,

and different conditions of the world; And eke hire yonge suster Emelie.

for, according to the above position, And thus with victorie and with melodie originally all is united in love, and then Let I this worthy duk to Athenes ride,

subsequently the elements and living And all his host, in armes him beside."

essences are separated. Shakespeare also, in the Midsummer

“His assertion of certain mundane Night's Dream, calls him the Duke of periods was taken by the ancients liter. Athens.

ally ; for they tell us that, according 10 20. Ariadne, who gave Theseus the his theory, All was originally one by silken thread to guide him back through love, but afterwards many and at enthe Cretan labyrinth after slaying the mity with itself through discord." Minotaur. Hawthorne has beautifully

56. The Centaurs are set to guard told the old story in his Tanglewooit this Circle, as symbolizing violence, Tales. “Ah, the bull - headed vil. with some form of which the classic lain !” he says.

"And O my good poets usually associate them. little people, you will perhaps see, one

68. Chaucer, The Monkes Tale :of these days, as I do now, that every human being who suffers anything evil

“ A lemman had this noble champion,

That highte Deianire, as fresh as May: to get into his nature, or to remain there,

And as thise clerkes maken mention, is a kind of Minotaur, an enemy of his She hath him sent a sherte fresh and gay: fellow-creatures, and separated from all Alas! this sherte, alas and wala wa ! good companionship, as this poor mon.

Envenimed was sotilly withalle,

That or that he had wered it half a day, ster was.

It made his flesh all from his boues falle.

contree

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Chiron was a son of Saturn ; Pholus, of arrow before he can speak, is a thing Silenus ; and Nessus, of Ixion and the that no mortal would ever have thought Cloud.

of, if he had not actually seen the Ce!. 71. Homer, Iliad, XI. 832, “Whom taur do it. They might have com. Chiron instructed, the most just of the posed handsome bodies of

men and Centaurs.” Hawthorne gives a humor- horses in all possible wio's, through a ous tum to the fable of Chiron, in the whole life of pseudo-idealism, and yet Tanglervood Tales, p. 273 :

never dreamed of any such thing. But "I have sometimes suspected that the real living Centaur actually trotted Master Chiron was not really very dif- across Dante's brain, and he saw him serent from other people, but that, be do it." ing a kind-hearted and merry old fel. 107. Alexander of Thessaly and low, he was in the habit of making Dionysius of Syracuse. believe that he was a horse, and scram 110. Azzolino, or Ezzolino di Ro bling about the school-room on all fours, mano, tyrant of Padua, nicknamed the and letting the little boys ride upon Son of the Devil. Ariosto, Orlando his back. And so, when his scholars Furioso, III. 33, describes him as had grown up, and grown old, and were trotting their grandchildren on

"Fierce Ezelin, that most inhuman lord,

Who shall be deemed by men a child of hell.' their knees, they told them about the sports of their school days; and these His story may be found in Sismondi's young folks took the idea that their Histoire des Republiques Italiennes, Chap. grandfathers had been taught their let XIX. He so outraged the religious ters by a Centaur, half man and hall sense of the people by his cruelties, horse.

that a crusade was preached against “Be that as it may, it has always him, and he died a prisoner in 1259, been told for a fact, (and always will tearing the bandages from his wounds, be told, as long as the world's lasts,) and fierce and defiant to the last. that Chiron, with the head of a school “ Ezzolino was small of stature,” says master, had the body and legs of a horse. Sismondi, but the whole aspect of his Just imagine the grave old gentleman person, all his movements, indicated clattering and stamping into the school. the soldier. His language was bitter, room on his four hoofs, perhaps tread his countenance proud; and by a single ing on some little fellow's toes, flou- look, he made the bollest tremble. rishing his switch tail instead of a rod, His soul, so greedy of all crimes, selt and, now and then, trotting out of no attraction for sensual pleasures. doors to eat a mouthful of grass !”

Never had Ezzolino loved women; and 77. Mr. Ruskin refers to this line this perhaps is the reason why in his in confirmation of his theory that “all punishments he was as pitiless against great art represents something that it them as against men.

lle was in his sees or believes in; nothing unseen or sixty-sixth year when he died; and his uncredited." The passage is as fol. reign of blood had lasted thirty-four lows, Modern Painters, III. 83 : years.”

“And just because it is always some Many glimpses of him are given in thing that it sees or believes in, there the Centò Novelle Antiche, as if his is the peculiar character above noted, memory long haunted the minds of almost unmistakable, in all high and men. Here are

two of them, from true ideals, of having been as it were Novella 83. studied from the life, and involving Once upon a time Messer Azzolino pieces of sudden familiarity, and close da Romano made proclamation, through specific painting which never would his own territories and elsewhere, that have been admitted or even thought he wished to do a great charity, and of, had not the painter drawn either therefore that all the beggars, both from the bodily life or from the life of men and women, should assemble in his faith. For instance, Dante's Centaur, meadow, on a certain day, and to each Chiron, dividing his beard with his he would give a new gown, and abun

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dance of food. The news spread among proceedings Prince Henry, while takthe servants on all hands. When the ing the sacrament in the church of San day of assembling came, his seneschals Silvestro at Viterbo, was stabbed to went among them with the gowns and the heart by his own cousin, Guy de the food, and made them strip naked Montfort, in revenge for the Earl of one by one, and then clothed them with Leicester's death, although Henry was new clothes, and fed them. They then endeavouring to procure his par. asked for their old rags, but it was all don. This sacrilegious act threw Vi. in vain; for he put them into a heap terbo into confusion, but Montfort had and set fire to them. Afterwards he many supporters, one of whom asked found there so much gold and silver him what he had done. I have taken melted, that it more than paid the ex- my revenge,' said he. But your father's pense, and then he disinissed them with body was trailed!' At this reproach, his blessing.

De Montfort instantly re-entered the To tell you how much he was church, walked straight to the altar, feared, would be a long story, and and, seizing Henry's body by the hair, many people know it. But I will re- dragged it through the aisle, and left it, call how he, being one day with the still bleeding, in the open street: he Emperor on horseback, with all their then retired unmolested to the castle people, they laid a wager as to which of his father-in-law, Count Rosso of of them had the most beautiful sword, the Maremma, and there remained in The Emperor drew from its sheath his security!" own, which was wonderfully garnished “The body of the Prince," says with gold and precious stones. Then Barlow, Study of Dante, p. 125, said Messer Azzolino: 'It is very brought to England, and interred at beautiful; but mine, without any great Hayles, in Gloucestershire, in the Abornament, is far more beautiful; '--and bey which his father had there built he drew it forth. Then six hundred for monks of the Cistercian order ; but knights, who were with him, all drew his heart was put into a golden vase, theirs. When the Emperor beheld this and placed on the tomb of Edward cloud of swords, he said: “Yours is the the Confessor, in Westminster Abbey; most beautiful.

most probably, as stated by some writers, Obizzo da Esti, Marquis of in the hands of a statue." Ferrara. He was murdered by Azzo, 123. Violence in all its forms was “whom he thought to be his son,” says common enough in Florence in the age Boccaccio, “though he was not. The of Dante. Ottimo Comento remarks: “Many call 134. Attila, the Scourge of God. themselves sons, and are step-sons." Gibbon, Decline and Fall, Chap. 39,

119. Guido di Monforte, who mur-describes him thus :dered Prince Henry of England "in “ Attila, the son of Mundzuk, dethe bosom of God," that is, in the duced his noble, perhaps his regal, de church, at Viterbo. ' The event is thus scent from the ancient Huns, who had narrated by Napier, Florentine History, formerly contended with the monarchs I. 283:

of China. His features, according to ' Another instance of this revenge the observation of a Gothic historian, ful spirit occurred in the year 1271 at bore the stamp of his national origin; Viterbo, where the cardinals had as- and the portrait of Attila exhibits the sembled to elect a successor to Clement genuine deforinity of a modern Calthe Fourth, about whom they had been muk; a large head, a swarthy long disputing: Charles of Anjou and plexion, small

, deep-seated eyes, a flat Philip of France, with Edward and nose, a few hairs in the place of a Henry, sons Richard, Duke of Corn- beard, broad shoulders, and a short, wall, had repaired there, the two first square body, of to hasten the election, which they though of

a disproportioned form. finally accomplished by the elevation The haughty step and demeanour of of Gregory the Tenth. During these the King of the Huns expressed the

III.

com.

nervous

strength,

butions continued to lessen its popula- plague and scourge of the gods more

he inspired.”

con

tine.

Maremına, thus described by Forsyth, cattle: and here they sow corn, make Maremma certainly formed part of that Etruria which was called from its har. of Populonium are still visible in the name, are islands situated in the great Tuscany into enormous latifundia for table, which they formerly haunted. his disbanded soldiers. Similar distri- No monster more fell than they, no

consciousness of his superiority above Pliny's time the climate was pestilen. the rest of mankind ; and hé had a tial.' The Lombards gave it a new as. custom of fiercely rolling his eyes, as pect of misery. Wherever they found ii he wished to enjoy the terror which culture they built castles, and in each

castle they allotted a “bandita' or mili. 135. Which

Pyrrhus and which tary hef.' Hence baronial wars which Sexty, the commentators cannot de have left so many picturesque ruins on termine ; but incline to Pyrrhus of the hills, and such desolation round Epirus, and Sextus Pompey, the cor- them. Whenever a baron was air of the Mediterranean.

quered, his vassals escaped to the cities, 137. Nothing more is known of these and the vacant fief was annexed to the oghwaymen than that the first infested victorious. Thus stripped of men, the the Roman sea-shore, and that the second lands returned into a state of nature: kaj of a noble family of Florence. some were flooded by the rivers, others

grew into horrible forests, which enclose

and concentrate the pestilence of the CANTO XIII.

lakes and marshes. 1. In this Canto is described the “In some parts the water is brackish, punishment of those who had laid vio and lies lower than the sea : in others it lent hands on themselves or their pro- oozes full of tartar from beds of traverperty.

At the bottom or on the sides of 2. Chaucer, Knightus Tale, 1977:

bills are a multitude of hot springs,

which form pools, called Lagoni. A First on the wall was peinted a forest, In which ther wonncth neyther man ne best,

few of these are said to produce borax : With knotty knarry barrein trees old

some, which are called jumache, exhale Of stubbes sharpe and hidous to behold;

sulphur; others, called bulicami, boil In which there ran a romble and a swough with a mephitic gas. The very air As though a storme shuld bresten every above is only a pool of vapours, which bough."

sometimes undulate, but seldom Aow off. 9. The Cecina is a small river run. It draws corruption from a rank, unming into the Mediterranean not many shorn, rotting vegeta:ion, from reptiles miles south of Leghorn ; Corneto, a and fish both living and dead. village in the Papai States, north of “All nature conspires to drive man Civita Vecchia

. The country is wild away from this fatal region; but man and thinly peopled, and studded with will ever return to his bane, if it be well thickets, the haunts of the deer and the baited. The Casentine peasants still This region is the fatal migrate hither in the winter to feed their

charcoal, saw wood, cut hoops, and Farther south is the Maremma, a peel cork. When summer returns they rezion which, though now worse than decamp, but often too late ; for many a elemeit, is supposed to have been an leave their corpses on the road, or bring ciently both fertile and healthy. The home the Maremmian disease.

11. Æneid, HII., Davidson's Tr. :

“ The shores of the Strophaues first Old Roman cis-receive me rescued from the waves. bons may still be traced, and the ruins The Sirophades, so called by a Greek eyelimand man seem to have conspired the other Warpies inhabit, from what

time Phinens' palace was closed against sesilla threw this maritime part of them, and they were frighted from his

wild boar.

Italy, p. 150:

vests the annonaria.

tion during

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waves.

was

They are fowls with virgin with guilt thy pious hands : Troy faces, most loathsome is their bodily brought me forth no stranger to you ; nischarge, hands hooked, and looks nor is it from the trunk this blood ever pale with famine. Hither con- distils.' veyed, as soon as we entered the port, 40. Chaucer, K’nightes Tale, 2339,lo! we observe joyous herds of cattle “ And as it queinte, it made a whisteling roving up and down the plaiz's and As don these brondes wet in hir brenning, flocks of goats along the meadows with And at the brondes ende outran anon

As it were blody dropes many on." out a keeper. We rush upon them with our swords, and invoke the gods and See also Spenser, Faerie Queene, I. ii. 30. Jove himself to share the booty. Then 58. Pietro della Vigna, Chancellor along the winding shore we raise the of the Emperor Frederick II. Napier's couches, and feast on the rich repast. account of him is as follows, Florentine But suddenly, with direful swoop, the History, I. 197 :Harpies are upon us from the mountains, “The fate of his friend and minister, shake their wings with loud din, prey Piero delle Vigne of Capua, if truly upon our banquet, and defile everything told, would nevertheless impress us with with their touch: at the same time, toge- an unfavourable idea of his mercy and ther with a rank smell, hideous screams magnanimity : Piero

sent with arise.”

Taddeo di Sessa as Frederick's advocate 21. His words in the Æneid, III., and representative to the Council of Davidson's Tr. :

Lyons, which was assembled by his “Near at hand there chanced to be a friend Innocent the Fourth, nominally rising ground, on whose top were young to reform the Church, but really to im. cornel-trees, and a myrtle rough with part more force and solemnity to a fresh thick, spear-like branches. I came up sentence of excommunication and depoto it, and attempting to tear from the sition. There Taddeo spoke with force earth the verdant wood, that I might and boldness for his master; but Piero cover the altars with the leafy boughs, I was silent; and hence he was accused of observe a dreadful prodigy, and won being, like several others, bribed by the drous to relate. For from that tree Pope, not only to desert the Emperor, which first is torn from the soil, its but to attempt his life; and whether he rooted fibres being burst asunder, drops were really culpable, or the victim of of black blood distil, and stain the court intrigue, 'is still doubtful. Freground with gore: cold terror shakes derick, on apparently good evidence, my limbs, and my chill blood is con- condemned him to have his eyes burned gealed with fear. I again essay to tear out, and the sentence was executed at off a limber bough from another, and San Miniato al Tedesco: being afterthoroughly explore the latent cause : and wards sent on horseback to Pisa, where from the rind of that other ‘he purple he was hated, as an object for popular blood descends. Raising in my mind derision, he died, as is conjectured, from many an anxious thought, I with reve the effects of a fall while thus cruelly rence besought tbe rural nymphs, and exposed, and not by his own hand, is father Mars, who presides over the Dante believed and sung.' Thracian territories, kindly to prosper Milman, Latin Christianity, V. 49), the vision and avert evil from the omen. gives the story thus:But when I attempted the boughs a “ Peter de Vineâ had been raised by third time with a more vigorous effort, the wise choice of Frederick to the and on my knees struggled against the highest rank and influence. opposing mould, (shall I speak, or shall acts of Frederick were attributed to his I forbear?) a piteous groan is heard Chancellor. De Vinea, like his master, from the bottom of the rising ground, was a poet; he was one of the coun and a voice sent forth reaches my ears: sellors in his great scheme of legislation. • Æneas, why dost thou tear an un- Some rumours spread abroad that at the nappy wretch? Spare me, now that I Council of Lyons, though Frederick had am in my grave; forbear to pollute forbidden alí his representatives from

All the

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