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of the Church was shut: Signior Betto therefore, while we are here among the and his company came riding from Saint Graves and Monuments, it may be well Keparata, and espying Signior Guido said, that we are not far from our own among the Graves and Tombs, said, Houses, or how soon we shall be pos. "Come, let us go make some jests to sessors of them, in regard of the frailty anger him.' So putting the Spurs to attending on us.' their Horses they rode apace towards Napier, Florentine History, I. 368, him; and being upon him before hee per- speaks of Guido as “a bold, melanceived them, one of them said, “Guido, choly man, who loved solitude and thou resusest to be one of our society, literature; but generous, brave, and and seekest for that which never was: courteous, a poet and philosopher, and when thou hast found it, tells us, what one that seems to have had the respect wilt thou do with it?”

and admiration of his age.” He then “Guido seeing himself round engirt adds this singular picture of the times :with them, suddenly thus replyed : Corso Donati, by whom he was 'Gentlemen, you may use me in your feared and hated, would have had him own House as you please.' And set. murdered while on a pilgrimage to Saint ting his hand upon one of the Tombs James of Galicia ; on his return this which was somewhat great) he took became known and gained him many his rising, and leapt quite over it on the supporters amongst the Cerchi and other further side, as being of an agile and youth of Florence; he took no regular sprightly body, and being thus freed measures of vengeance, but, accidentally froin them, he went away to his own meeting Corso in the street, rode

violently towards him, casting his javelin "They stood all like men amazed, at the same time; it missed by the tripstrangely looking one upon another, and ping of his horse, and he escaped with a began afterward to

murmur among slight wound from one of Donati's themselves: That Guido was a

man attendants." without any understanding, and the Sacchetti, Nov. 68, tells a pleasant answer which he had made unto them story of Guido's having his cloak nailed *as to no purpose, neither savoured of to the bench by a roguish boy, while he any discretion, but meerly came from an was playing chess in one of the streets empty Brain, because they had no more of Florence, which is also a curious to do in the place where now they were, picture of Italian life. than any of the other Citizens, and 75. Farinata pays no attention to Signior Guido (himself) as little as any this outburst of paternal tenderness on of them; whereunto Signior Betto thus the part of his Guelfic kinsman, but replyed: “Alas, Gentlemen, it is you waits, in stern indifference, till it is ended, your selves that are void of understand and then calmly resumes his discourse. ing: for, if you had but observed the 80. The moon, called in the heavens answer which he made unto us: he did Diana, on earth Luna, and in the inhonestly, and (in very few words) not fernal regions Proserpina. only notably express his own wisdom, 86. In the great battle of Monte but also deservedly reprehend us.

Be- Aperto. The river Arbia is a few miles cause, if we observe things as we ought south of Siena. The traveller crosses it to dlo, Graves and Tombs are the Houses on his way to Rome. In this battle the of the dead, ordained and prepared to be banished Ghibellines of Florence, jointhe latest dwellings. He told us more-ing the Sienese, gained a victory over over that although we have here (in this the Guelfs, and retook the city of life) our habitations and abidings, yet Florence. Before the battle Buonaguida, liese for the like) must at last be our Syndic of Siena, presented the keys of Tlouses. To let ins know, and all other the city to the Virgin Mary in the Cathebrolishi, indiscreet, and unlearned men, dral, and made a gift to her of the city

worse than dead men, and the neighbouring country. After ili comparison of him, and other men the battle the standard of the vanquished ciqual to him in skill and leaming. And Florentines, together with their battle

that we are

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bell, the Martinella, was tied to the tail That you should return in triumph to of a jackass and dragged in the dirt. See your hearths, and we with whom you Ampère, Voyage Dantesque, 254. have conquered shculd have nothing in

94. After the battle of Monte Aperto exchange but exile and the ruin of our a diet of the Ghibellines was held at country? Is there one of you who can Empoli, in which the deputies from believe that I could even hear such Siena and Pisa, prompted no doubt by things with patience? Are you indeea provincial hatred, urged the demolition ignorant that if I have carried arms, if I of Florence. Farinata vehemently op- have persecuted my foes, I still have never posed the project in a speech, thus given ceased to love my country, and that I in Napier, Florentine History, I. 257: never will allow what even our enemies

“. It would have been better,' he have respected to be violated by your exclaimed, “to have died on the Arbia, hands, so that posterity may call them the than survive only to hear such a propo- saviours, us the destroyers of our country! sition as that which they were then dis- Here then I declare, that, although I cussing. There is no happiness in stand alone amongst the Florentines, I victory itself, that must ever be sought will never permit my native city to be defor amongst the companions who helped stroyed, and if it be necessary for her sake us to gain the day, and the injury we to die a thousand deaths, I am ready to receive from an enemy inflicts a far meet them all in her defence.' more trifling wound than the wrong that “Farinata then rose, and with angry comes from the hand of a friend. If I gestures quitted the assembly; but left now complain, it is not that I fear the such an impression on the mind of his destruction of my native city, for as long audience that the project was instantly as I have life to wield a sword Florence dropped, and the only question for the shall never be destroyed : but I cannot moment was how to regain a chief of suppress my indignation at the dis- such talent and influence." courses I have just been listening to : 119. Frederick II., son of the Emwe are here assembled to discuss the peror Henry VI., surnamed the Severe, wisest means of maintaining our in- and grandson of Barbarossa. He reigned fluence in Florence, not to debate on its from 1220 to 1250, not only as Emdestruction, and my country would in- peror of Germany, but also as King of deed be unfortunate, and I and my com- Naples and Sicily, where for the most panions miserable, mean-spirited crea- part he held his court, one of the most tures, if it were true that the fate of our brilliant of the Middle Ages. Villani, city depended on the fiat of the present | Cronica, V. I, thus sketches his chaassembly. I did hope that all former racter: “ This Frederick reigned thirty hatred would have been banished from years as Emperor, and was a man of such a meeting, and that our mutual great mark and great worth, learned in destruction would not have been trea- letters and of natural ability, universal cherously aimed at from under the false in all things ; he knew the Latin lancolours of general safety ; I did hope guage, the Italian, the German, French, that all here were convinced that counsel | Greek, and Arabic ; was copiously endictated by jealousy could never be ad-dowed with all virtues, liberal and vantageous to the general good! But courteous in giving, valiant and skilled to what does your hatred attach itself? | in arms, and was much feared. And he To the ground on which the city stands ? | was dissolute and voluptuous in many To its houses and insensible walls ? To ways, and had many concubines and the fugitives who have abandoned it ? mamelukes, after the Saracenic fashion ; Or to ourselves that now possess it ? he was addicted to all sensual delights, Who is he that thus advises? Who is and led an Epicurean life, taking no the bold bad man that dare thus give account of any other; and this was one voice to the malice he hath engendered principal reason why he was an enemy in his soul? Is it meet then that all to the clergy and the Holy Church." your cities should exist unharmed, and Milman, Lat. Christ., B. X., Chap kurs alone be devoted to destruction ? iii., says of him: “Frederick's pie


dilection for his native kingdom, for departure for Palestine. In the harbours the bright cities reflected in the blue of Sicily and Apulia he prepared a fleet Mediterranean, over the dark barbaric of one hundred galleys, and of one towns of Germany, of itself characte- hundred vessels, that were framed to rizes the man. The summer skies, the transport and land two thousand five more polished manners, the more ele. hundred knights, with horses and at. gant luxuries, the knowledge, the arts, tendants; his vassals of Naples and Gerthe poetry, the gayety, the beauty, the many formed a powerful army; and moinance of the South, were throughout the number of English crusaders was his life more congenial to his mind, than magnified to sixty thousand by the rethe heavier and more chilly climate, port of fame. But the inevitable, or the feudal barbarism, the ruder pomp, affected, slowness of these mighty prethe coarser habits of his German liege- parations consumed the strength and

... And no doubt that deli- provisions of the more indigent pil. cious climate and lovely land, so highly grims; the multitude was thinned by appreciated by the gay sovereigr., was sickness and desertion, and the sultry not without influence on the state, and summer of Calabria anticipated the even the manners of his court, to which mischiefs of a Syrian campaign. At other circumstances contributed to give length the Emperor hoisted sail at a peculiar and romantic character. It Brundusium with a fleet and army of resembled probably (though its full forty thousand men ; but he kept the splendour was of a later period) Grenada sea no more than three days ; and his in its glory, more than any other in hasty retreat, which was ascribed by Europe, though more rich and pictu- his friends to a grievous indisposition, resque from the variety of races, of was accused by his enemies as a volunmanners, usages, even dresses, which tary and obstinate disobedience. For prevailed within it."

suspending his vow was Frederick ex. Gibbon also, Decline and Fall, Chap. communicated by Gregory the Ninth; lix., gives this graphic picture :

for presuming, the next year, to ac"Frederick the Second, the grandson complish his vow, he was again excomof Barbarossa, was successively the pu- municated by the same Pope. While pil, the enemy, and the victim of the he served under the banner of the cross, Church. At the age of twenty-one a crusade was preached against him in years, and in obedience to his guardian Italy; and after his return he was Innocent the Third, he assumed the compelled to ask pardon for the injuries cross; the same promise was repeated which he had suffered.

The clergy at his royal and imperial coronations; and military orders of Palestine were and his marriage with the heiress of previously instructed to renounce his Jerusalem forever bound him to defend communion and dispute his commands ; the kingdom of his son Conrad. But and in his own kingdom the Emperor as Frederick advanced in age and au was forced to consent that the orders thority, he repented of the rash engage of the camp should be issued in the ments of his youth : his liberal sense name of God and of the Christian reand knowledge taught him to despise public. Frederick entered Jerusalem the phantoms of superstition and the in triumph ; and with his own hands frowns of Asia : he no longer enter- (for no priest would perform the office) tained the same reverence for the suc- he took the crown from the altar of the cessors of Innocent; and his ambition holy sepulchre.” was occupied by the restoration of the Matthew Paris, A.D. 1239, gives a Italian monarchy, from Sicily to the long letter of Pope Gregory IX, in Alps. But the success of this project which he calls the Emperor some very would have reduced the Popes to their hard names; "a beast, full of the primitive simplicity ; and, after the de- words of blasphemy,' wolf in lays and excuses of twelve years, they sheep's clothing," "a son of lies," "a urged the Emperor, with entreaties and staff of the impious,” and “hammer of threats, to fix the time and place of his the earth”; and finally i ccuses him of

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being the author of a work De Tribus stantinople, mutually excommunicated Impostoribus, which, if it ever existed, each other. When Anastasius II. be is no longer to be found. “ There is came Pope in 1496, “he dared," says one thing,” he says in conclusion, " at Milman, Hist. Lat. Christ., I. 349, "to which, although we ought to mourn for doubt the damnation of a bishop exa lost man, you ought to rejoice greatly, communicated by the See of Rome : and for which you ought to return "Felix and Acacius are now both bethanks to God, namely, that this man, fore a higher tribunal ; leave them to who delights in being called a fore- that unerring judgment.' He would runner of Antichrist, by God's will, no have the name of Acacius passed over longer endures to be veiled in darkness ; in silence, quietly dropped, rather than not expecting that his trial and disgrace publicly expunged from the diptychs. are near, he with his own hands under. This degenerate successor of St. Peter mines the wall of his abominations, is not admitted to the rank of a saint. and, by the said letters of his, brings The Pontifical book (its authority on his works of darkness to the light, this point is indignantly repudiated) boldly setting forth in them, that he accuses Anastasius of having commucould not be excommunicated by us, nicated with a deacon of Thessalonica, although the Vicar of Christ ; thus af- who had kept up communion with firming that the Church had not the Acacius; aid of having entertained power of binding, and loosing, which secret designs of restoring the name was given by our Lord to St. Peter and of Acacius in the services of the his successors. But as it may not Church." be easily believed by some people that 9. Photinus is the deacon of Theshe has ensnared himself by the words salonica alluded to in the preceding of his own mouth, proofs are ready, note. His heresy was, that the Holy to the triumph of the faith ; for this Ghost did not proceed from the Father, king of pestilence openly asserts that and that the Father was greater than the whole world was deceived by the Son. The writers who endeavour three, namely Christ Jesus, Moses, and to rescue the Pope at the expense of the Mahomet ; that, two of them having Emperor say that Photinus dieừ before died in glory, the said Jesus was stis- the days of Pope Anastasius. pended on the cross; and he, more. 50. Cahors is the cathedral town over, presumes plainly to affirm (or of the Department of the Lot, in the rather to lie), that all are foolish who South of France, and the birthplace of believe that God, who created nature, the poet Clément Marot and of the and could do all things, was born of the romance-writer, Calprenède. In the Virgin.

Middle Ages it seems to have been a 120. This is Cardinal Ottaviano degli nest of usurers. Matthew Paris, in his Ubaldini, who is accused of saying, Historie Major, under date of 1235, has “If there be any soul, I have lost mine a chapter entitled, Of the Usury of the for the Ghibellines.' Dante takes him Caursines, which in the translation of ai his word.

Rev. J. A. Giles runs as follows:

“In these days prozailed the horrible

nuisance of the Coursines to such a deCANTO XI.

gree that there was hardly any one 8. Some critics and commentators in all England, especially among the accuse Dante of confounding Pope Anas- bishops, who was not caught in their tasius with the Emperor of that name. net. Even the king himself was held Is is however highly probable that Dante indebted to them in an incalculable sum knew best whom he meant. Both were of money. For they circumvented the accused of heresy, though the lieresy needy in their necessities, cloaking their of the Pope seems to have been of a usury under the show of trade, and premild type.

A few years previous to tending not to know that whatever is his time, namely, in the year 484, Pope added to the principal is usury, under Felix III, and Acacius, Bishop of Con. whatever name it may be called. For

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it is manifest that their loans lie not in 242, has the following remarks upon the path of charity, inasmuch as they do Dante's idea of rocks and mountains :not hold out a helping hand to the poor "At the top of the abyss of the seto relieve them, but to deceive them; venth circle, appointed for the violent,' not to aid others in their starvation, but or souls who had done evil by force, to gratify their own covetousness; seeing we are told, first, that the edge of it wils that the motive stamps our every deed.' composed of 'great broken stones in a

70. Those within the fat lagoon, the circle;' then, that the place was ‘AlIrascible, Canto VII., VIII,

pine'; and, becoming hereupon atten71. IV hom the wind dries, the Wan- tive, in order to hear what an Alpine ton, Canto V., and whom the rain doth place is like, we find that it was 'like beat, the Gluttonous, Canto VI.

the place beyond Trent, where the rock, 72. And who encounter with such bitter either by earthquake, or failure of suptongues, the Prodigal and Avaricious, port, has broken down to the plain, so Canto VII.

that it gives any one at the top some 80. The Ethics of Aristotle, VII. i. means of getting down to the bottom.' “After these things, making another This is not a very elevated or enthusiastic beginning; it must be observed by us description of an Alpine scene; and it that there are three species of things is far from mended by the following which are to be avoided in manners, verses, in which we are told that Dante viz., Malice, Incontinence, and Bestial

'began to go down by this great un. ity.

loading of stones,' and that they moved 101. The Physics of Aristotle, Book often under his feet by reason of the new II.

weight. The fact is that Dante, by 107. Genesis, i. 28 : “And God said many expressions throughout the poem, unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, shows himself to have been a notably and replenish the earth, and subdue it.

bad climber ; and being fond of sitting 109. Gabrielle Rossetti, in the Co- in the sun, looking at his fair Baptistery, mento Analitico of his edition of the or walking in a dignified manner on Nat Divina Commedia, quotes here the lines pavement in a long robe, it puts him of Florian :

seriously out of his way when he has to

take to his hands and knees, or look to Nous ne recevons l'existence

his feet ; so that the first strong impres. Qu'afin de travailler pour nous, ou pour

sion made upon him by any Alpine De ce devoir sacré quiconque se dispense scene whatever is, clearly, that it is bad Est puni par la Providence,

walking. When he is in a fright and Par le besoin, ou par l'ennui."

hurry, and has a very steep place to go 110. The constellation Pisces pre- down, „Virgil has to carry him alto. cedes Aries, in which the sun now is. gether.” This indicates the time to be a little 5. Speaking of the region to which before sunrise. It is Saturday morning. Dante here alludes, Eustace, Classical

114. The Wain is the constellation Tour, I. 71, says :Charles's Wain, or Bootes ; and Caurus

“The descent becomes more rapid is the Northwest, indicated by the Latin between Roveredo and Ala; the river, name of the northwest wind.

which glided gently through the valley of Trent, assumes the roughness of a torrent; the defiles become narrower;

and the mountains break into rocks and CANTO XII.

precipices, which occasionally approach 1. With this Canto begins the Se- the road, sometimes rise perpendicular venth Circle of the Inferno, in which the from it, and now and then hang over it Violent are punished. In the first Girone in terrible majesty." » round are the Violent against their In a note he adds :neighbours, plunged more or less deeply “ Amid these wilds the traveller can. in the river of boiling blood.

not fail to notice a vast tract called the 2 Mr. Ruskin, Modern Painters, III. | Slavini di Marco, covered with frag.


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