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And Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, “How many great ones may remenbered be,

Who in their days most famously did flourish, I. 3. i. 3, speaking of that kind of melan

Of whom no word we have, nor sign now see, choly which proceeds from “ humors But as things wiped out with a sponge do adust,” says: ** For example, if it pro perish." ceeds from flegm (which is seldom, and not so frequent as the rest) it stirs up 51. Chaucer's “sclandre of his cisdull symptomes, and a kind of stupidity, fame." or impassionate hurt; they are sleepy, 61. Of Philippo Argenti little is known, saith Savanarola, dull, slow, cold, block- and nothing to his credit. Dante seems sh, ass - like, asininam melancholiam to have an especial personal hatred of Melancthon calls it, they are much given him, as is in memory of some disagreeto weeping, and delight in waters, ponds, able passage between them in the streets pools, rivers, fishing, fowling, &c. They of Florence. Boccaccio says of him in are pale of colour, slothful, apt to sleep, his Comento: This Philippo Argenti, neavy, much troubled with the head- as Coppo di Borghese Domenichi de' ache, continual meditation and muttering Cavicciuli was wont to say, was a very to themselves, they dream of waters, that rich gentleman, so rich that he had the they are in danger of drowning, and fear horse he used to ride shod with silver, such things.

and from this he had his surname ; he See also Purg. XVII. 85.

was in person large, swarthy, muscular, of marvellous strength, and at the slightest

provocation the most irascible of men; CANTO VIII.

nor are any more known of his qualities

than these two, each in itself very blame1. Boccaccio and some other com-worthy." He was of the Adimari family, mentators think the words “I say, con- and of the Neri faction; while Dante was tinuing,” are a confirmation of the theory of the Bianchi party, ind in banishment. that the first seven cantos of the Inferno Perhaps this fact may explain the bitterwere written before Dante's banishment ness of his invective. from Florence. Others maintain that the This is the same Philippo Argenti who words suggest only the continuation of figures in Boccaccio's tale. See Inf. VI., the subject of the last canto in this. note 52. The Ottimo Comento says of

4. These two signal fires announce the him: “He was a man of great pomp, arrival of two persons to be ferried over and great ostentation, and much expenthe wash, and the other in the distance is diture, and little virtue and worth; and on the watch-tower of the City of Dis, therefore the author says, "Goodness is answering these.

none that decks his memory. 19. Phlegyas was the father of Ixion And this is all that is known of the and Coronis. He was-king of the La- “ Fiorentino spirito bizzaro," forgotten pithæ, and burned the temple of Apollo by history, and immortalized in song. at Delphi to avenge the wrong done by What a barbarous strength and conthe god to Coronis. His punishment in fusion of ideas,” exclaims Leigh Hunt, the infernal regions was to stand beneath Italian Poets, p. 60, "is there in this a huge impending rock, always about to whole passage about him! Arrogance fall upon him. Virgil, Æneid, VI., says punished by arrogance, a Christian of him : “Phlegyas, most wretched, is mother blessed for the unchristian disa monitor to all, and with loud voice dainfulness of her son, revenge boasted proclaims through the shades, ‘Being of and enjoyed, passion arguing in a warned, learn righteousness, and not to circle." contemn the gods.'”

The word

mosques" paints at 27. Virgil, Æneid, VI. : “The boat once to the imagination the City of Un. of sewn hide groaned under the weight, belief. and, being leaky, took in much water 78. Virgil, Æneid, VI., Davidson's from the lake."

Translation: 49. Mr. Wright here quotes Spenser, Æneas on a sudden looks back, and Ruins of T'ime ;

under a rock on the left sees vast pris.



ons inclosed with a triple wall, which magne and their ten thousand men at Tartarean Phlegethon's rapid Mood en arms. Archbishop Turpin, in his savirons with torrents of flame, and whirls mous llistory of Charles the Great, voaring rocks along. Fronting is a huge XXX., Rodd's' Translation, I. 52, gate, with columns of solid adamant, says :that no strength of men, nor the gods After this the King and his army themselves, can with steel demolish. An proceeded by the way of Gascony and iron tower rises aloft; and there wakeful | Thoulouse, and came to Arles, where Tosiphone, with her bloody robe tucked we found the army of Burgundy, which up around her, sits to watch the vestible had left us in the hostile valley, bring: both night and day.”

ing their dead by the way of Morbihan 124. This arrogance of theirs; tra- and Thoulouse, to bury them in the im.inza, oltracotanca; Brantome's outre- plain of Arles. Here we performed the cuidance; and Spenser's surquerie.

rites of Estolfo, Count of Champagne; 1.5. The gate of the Inferno. of Solomon;Sampson, Dukeof Burgundy; 130. The coming of the Angel, Arnold of Berlanda; Alberic of Burgundy; whose approach is described in the next Gumard, Esturinite, Hato, Juonius, Ber: canto, beginning at line 64.

ard, Berengaire, and Naaman, Duke of Bourbon, and of ten thousand of their

soldiers." CANTO IX.

Boccaccio comments upon these tombs 1. The flush of anger passes from as follows: Virgil's cheek on seeing the pallor of “ At Arles, somewhat out of the city, Dante's, and he tries to encourage him are many tombs of stone, made of old with assurances of success; but betrays for sepulchres, and some are large, and bis own apprehensions in the broken some are small, and some are better phrase, “If not," which he immediately sculptured, and some not so well, peradcovers with words of cheer.

venture according to the means of those 8. Such, or so great a one, is Bea- who had them made; and upon some of trice, the “fair and saintly Lady” of them appear inscriptions after the ancient

custom, I suppose in indication of those 9. The Angel who will open the who are buried within. The inhabitants gates of the City of Dis.

of the country repeat a tradition of them, 16. Dante seems to think that he has affirming that in that place there was already reached the bottom of the in- once a great battle between William of fernal conch, with its many convolu- Orange, or some other Christian prince, tions.

with his forces on one side, and infidel 52. Gower, Confessio Amantıs, I.:- barbarians from Africa (on the other]; "Cast not thin cye upon Meduse

and that many Christians were slain in That thou be turned into stone.

it; and that on the following night, by

divine miracle, those tombs were brought Hawthome has beautifully told the story there for the burial of the Christians, and of “The Gorgon's Head,” as well as so on the following morning all the dead many more of the classic fables, in his Christians were buried in them.” Wonder-book.

113. Pola is a city in Istria. “Near 54. The attempt which Theseus and Pola,” says Benvenuto da Imola, Pirithous made to rescue Proserpine from seen many tombs, about seven hundred, the infernal regions.

and of various forms." 62. The hidden doctrine seems to Quarnaro is a gulf of the northern be, that Negation or Unbelief is the extremity of the Adriatic. Gorgon's head which changes the heart to stone; after which there is

CANTO X. retuming upward.” The Furies display it from the walls of the City of Heretics. 1. In this Canto is described the

112. At Arles lie buried, according punishment of Heretics. to old tradition, the Peers of Charle. Brunetto Latini, Tesoretto, XIII. :~.

Canto 11. 53.


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not become a Ghibelline till alter his 2er lo cammino stretto."

banishment. Boccaccio in his Life of 14. Sir Thomas Browne, Urn Burial, Dante makes the following remarks upon Chap. IV., says: “They may sit in the his party spirit. I take the passage as orchestra and noblest seats of heaven given in Mrs. Bunbury's translation of who have held up shaking hands in the Balbo's Life and Times of Dante, II. fire, and humanly contended for glory. 227. Meanwhile Epicurus lies deep in Dante's He was,” says Boccaccio, "a most hell, wherein we meet with tombs en excellent man, and most resolute in ad. closing souls, which denied their im- versity. It was only on one subject mortalities. But whether the virtuous that he showed himself, I do not know heathen, who lived better than he spake, whether I ought to call it impatient, or or, erring in the principles of himself, spirited, -—it was regarding anything reyet lived above philosophers of more lating to Party; since in his exile he was specious maxims, lie so deep as he is more violent in this respect than suited placed, at least so low as not to rise his circumstances, and more than he was against Christians, who, believing or willing that others should believe. And knowing that truth, have lastingly de in order that it may be seen for what nied it in their practice and conversa party he was thus violent and pertination,-were a query too sad to insist on. cious, it appears to me I must go further

Also Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, back in my story. I believe that it was l'art II. Sec. 2. Mem. 6. Subs. 1, thus the just anger of God that permitted, it vindicates the memory of Epicurus: “A is a long time ago, almost all Tuscany quiet mind is that voluptas, or summum and Lombardy to be divided into two bonum of Epicurus; non dolere, curis parties; I do not know how they vacareanimo iranquillo esse, not to grieve, acquired those names, but one party out to want cares, and have a quiet soul, was called Guelf and the other party is the only pleasure of the world, as Ghibelline. And these two names were Seneca truly recites his opinion, not so revered, and had such an effect on the that of eating and drinking, which in- folly of many minds, that, for the sake jurious Aristotle maliciously puts upon of defending the side any one had chosen him, and from which he is still mistaken, for his own against the opposite party, mala audit et vapulat, slandered without it was not considered hard to lose pro. a cause, and lashed by all posterity.” perty, and even life, if it were necessary.

32. Farinata degli Uberti was the And under these nanies the Italiau cities most valiant and renowned leader of the many times suffered serious grievances Ghibellines in Florence. Boccaccio, and changes; and among the rest our Comento, says: He was of the opinion city, which was sometimes at the head of Epicurus, that the soul dies with the of one party, and sometimes of the other, body, and consequently maintained that according to the citizens in power; so human happiness consisted in temporal much so that Dante's ancestors, being pleasures; but he did not follow these in Guelfs, were twice expelled by the the way that Epicurus did, that is by Ghibellines from their home, and he making long fasts to have afterwards likewise under the title of Guelf held the pleasure in eating dry bread: but was reins of the Florentine Republic, from fond of good and delicate viands, and which he was expelled, as we have shown, ate them without waiting to be hungry; not by the Ghibellines, but by the Guelfs; and for this sin he is damned as a Heretic and seeing that he could not return, he in this place.

so much altered his mind that there Farinata led the Ghibellines at the never was a fiercer Ghibelline, or a famous battle of Monte Aperto in 1260, bitterer enemy to the Guelfs, than he where the Guelfs were routed, and was. And that which I feel most driven out of Florence. He died in ashamed at for the sake of his memory 1264.

is, that it was a well-known thing in 46. The ancestors of Dante, and Romagna, that if any hoy or girl, talk: Dante himself, were Guelss. He did | ing to him on party matters, condemned

Our young

the Ghibelline side, he would become Guelfs, the Emperor having already em. frantic, so that if they did not be silent braced that of the Ghibellines. It is he would have been induced to throw thus that the apostolic see became constones at them; and with this violence nected with the former, and the empire of party feeling he lived until his death. with the latter faction; and it was ihus I am certainly ashamed to tarnish with that a vile hound became the origin of a any fault the fame of such man; but deadly hatred between the two noble the order of my subject in some degree families. Now it happened that in the demands it, because if I were silent in year of our dear Lord and Redeemer those things in which he was to blame, 1215, the same pestiferous spirit spread I should not be believed in those things itself into parts of Italy, in the following I have already related in his praise manner. Messer Guido Orlando being Therefore I excuse myself to himself, at that time chief magistrate of Florence who perhaps looks down from heaven there likewise resided in that city a noblo with a disdainful eye on me writing." and valiant cavalier of the family of

51. The following account of the Buondelmonti, one of the most distinGuelfs and Ghibellines is from the guished houses in the state. Pecorone of Giovanni Fiorentino, a Buondelmonte having already plighted writer of the fourteenth century. It his troth to a lady of the Amidei family, forms the first Novella of the Eighth the lovers were considered as betrotheil

, Day, and will be found in Roscoe's with all the solemnity usually observed Italian Novelists, I. 322.

on such occasions. But this unfortu“There formerly resided in Germany nate young man, chancing one day to two wealthy and well-born individuals, pass by the house of the Donati, was whose names were Guelfo and Ghibel- stopped and accosted by a lady of the lino, very near neighbours, and greatly name of Lapaccia, who ́ moved to him attached' to each other. But returning from her dcor as he went along, say. together one day from the chase, there ing: 'I am surprised that a gentleman unfortunately arose some difference of of your appearance, Signor, should think opinion as to the merits of one of their of taking for his wife a woman scarcely hounds, which was maintained on both worthy of handing him his boots. There sides so very warmly, that, from being is a child of my own, whom, to speak almost inseparable friends and com- sincerely, I have long intended for you, panions, they became each other's dead- and whom I wish you would just venture liest enemics. This unlucky division to see. And on this she called out for between them still increasing, they on her daughter, whose name was Ciulla, either side collected parties of their one of the prettiest and most enchanting followers, in order more effectually to girls in all Florence. Introducing her to annoy each other. Soon extending its Messer Buondelmonte, she whispereri, malignant influence among the neigh- This is she whom I have reserved for bouring lords and barons of Germany, you'; and the young Florentine, sulwho divided, according to their motives, denly becoming enamoured of her, thus either with the Guelf or the Ghibelline, replied to her mother, “I am quite it not only produced many serious affrays, ready, Madonna, to meet your wishes”; but several persons fell victims to its rage and before stirring from the spot he Ghibellino, finding himself hard pressed placed a ring upon her finger, and, by his enemy, and unable longer to keep / wedding her, received her there as his the field against him, resolved to apply wise. for assistance to Frederick the First, “ The Amidei, hearing that young the reigning Emperor. Upon

Upon this, Buondelmonte bad thus espoused anGuelfo, perceiving that his adversary other, immediately met together

, and sought the alliance of this monarch, took counsel with other friends and reapplied on his side to Pope Honorius lations, how they might best avengo 11., who being at variance with the themselves for such an insult offered io former, and hearing how the affair stood, their house. There were present among immediately joined the cause of the the rest Lambertuccio Amidei, Schiatta


Ruberti, and Mosca Lamberti, one of 60. This question recalls the scene whom proposed to give him a box on in the Odyssey, where the shade of the ear, another to strike him in the Agamemnon appears to Ulysses and face; yet they were none of them able to asks for Orestes. Book XI. in Chap agree about it among themselves. On man's translation, line 603: observing this, Mosca hastily rose, in a “Doth my son yet survive great passion, saying, 'Cosa fatta capo In Orchomen or Pylos? Or doth live ha,' wishing it to be understood that a In Sparta with his uncle! Yet I see

Divine Orestes is not here with me. dead man will never strike again. It was therefore decided that he should be

63. Guido Cavalcanti, whom Benput to death, a sentence which they pro- venuto da Imola calls "the other eye ceeded to execute in the following manner. of Florence,”alter oculus Florentia

“M. Buondelmonte returning one tempore Dantis. It is to this Guido Easter morning from a visit to the Casa that Dante addresses the sonnet, which Bardi, beyond the Arno, mounted upon is like the breath of Spring, begin a snow-white steed, and dressed in a ning inantle of the same colour, had just “Guido, I wish that Lapo, thou, and I reached the foot of the Ponte Vecchio,

Could be by spells conveyed, as it were now, or old bridge, where formerly stood a Upon a barque, with all the winds that blow, statue of Mars, whom the Florentines Across all seas at our good will to hic." in their Pagan state were accustomed to worship, when the whole party issued

He was a poet of decided mark, as out upon him, and, dragging him in the may be seen by his “ Song of Fortune," scuffle from his horse, in spite of the quoted in Note 68, Canto VII., and the gallant resistance he made, despatched

Sonnet to Dante, Note 136, Purgatorio,

XXX. But he seems not to have him with a thousand wounds. The tidings of this affair seemed to throw all and to have been more given to the study

shared Dante's admiration for Virgil, Florence into confusion; the chief per- of philosophy than of poetry. Like sonages and noblest families in the place Lucentio in "The Taming of the Shrew" everywhere meeting, and dividing them

he is selves into parties in consequence;

the one party embracing the cause of the

“So devote to Aristotle's ethics Buondelmonti, who placed themselves at

As Ovid be an outcast quite abjured." the head of the Guelfs; and the othe Boccaccio, Decameron, VI. 9, praises taking part with the Amidei, who sup- him for his learning and other good ported the Ghibellines.

qualities; “ for over and beside his “In the same fatal manner, nearly being one of the best Logitians, as those all the seigniories and cities of Italy times not yielded a better," were involved in the original quarrel old translation, "he was also a most between these two German families : absolute Natural Philosopher, a very the Guelfs still supporting the interest friendly Gentleman, singularly well of the Holy Church, and the Ghibel- spoken, and whatsoever else was comlines those of the Emperor. And thus mendable in any man was no way want: I have made you acquainted with the ing in him.” In the same Novella he origin of the Germanic faction, between tells this anecdote of him :two noble houses, for the sake of a vile “It chanced upon a day that Signior cur, and have shown how it afterwards Guido, departing from the Church of disturbed the peace of Italy for the sake Saint Michael å Horta, and passing of a beautiful woman.

along by the Adamari, so far as to Saint For an account of the Bianchi and Jolin's Church, which evermore was his Neri factions see Canto XXIV. note 143. customary walk: many, goodly Marlie

53. Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti, father Tombs were then about the saiá Church, of Dante's friend, Guido Cavalcanti. as now adays are at Saint Reparata, and He was of the Guelf party; so that here divers more beside. He entring among are Guelf and Ghibelline buried in the the Columns of Porphiry, and the other same tomb,

Sepulchers being there, because the door

so rurs the

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