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tented, he espyed Biondello coming perceived to his cost that he had met towards him, and meeting him by the with the worser bargain, and Ciacco got way, he stept close to him and gave him cheer without any blows; and therefore a cruel blow on the Face, causing his desired a peacefull attonement, each of Nose to fall out a bleeding. 'Alas, Sir,' them always after abstaining from floutsaid Biondello, wherefore do you strike ing one another.” me?' Signior Philippo, catching him Ginguené, Hist. Lit. de l'Italie, II. by the hair of the head, trampled his 53, takes Dante severely to task for Night Cap in the dirt, and his Cloak wasting his pity upon poor Ciacco, but also, when, laying many violent blows probably the poet had pleasant memoon him, he said, ' Villanous Traitor as ries of him at Florentine banqnets in thou art, I'll teach thee what it is to the olden time. Nor is it remarkable erubirate with Claret, either thy self or that he should be mentioned only by his any of thy cupping Companions. Am I nickname. Mr. Forsyth calls Italy a Child to be jested withal ?'

" the land of nicknames.” He says in “Nor was he more furious in words continuation, Italy, p. 145:than in stroaks also, beating him about “ Italians have suppressed the sure the Face, hardly leaving any hair on his names of their principal artists unde heal, and dragging him along in the various designations. Many are known mire, spoiling all his Garments, and he only by the names of their birthplace, as not able, from the first blow given, to Correggio, Bassano, etc. Some by speak a word in desence of himself. In those of their masters, as Il Salviati, the end Signior Philippo having ex- Sansovino, etc. Some by their father's treamly beaten him, and many people trade, as Andrea del Sarto, Tintoretto, gathering about them, to succour a man Some !y their bodily defects, as so much misused, the matter was at Guercino, Cagnacci, etc. Some by the large related, and manner of the message subjects in shich they excelled, as M. sending. For which they all did greatly Angelo delle battaglie, Agostino delle reprehend Biondello, considering he perspettive. A few (I can recollect only knew what kind of man Philippo was, four) are known, each as the prince of not any way to be jested withal. Bion- his respective school, by their Christian dello in tears maintained that he never names alone: Michael Angelo, Raphael, Sent any such message for Wine, or in- Guido, Titian.” tended it in the least degree ; so, when 65. The Bianchi are called the Parte the tempest was more mildly calmed, selvaggia, because its leaders, the Cerchi, and Biondello, thus cruelly beaten and came from the forest lands of Val di durtied, had gotten home to his own Sieve. The other party, the Neri, were house, he could then remember that led by the Donati. (questionless) this was occasioned by The following account of these [ac. Ciacco.

tions is from Giovanni Fiorentino, a “After some few days were passed writer of the fourteenth century; Il Pover, and the hurts in his face indiffer- corone, Gior. XIII. Nov. i., in Roscoe's ently cured, Biondello beginning to walk Italian Novelists, I. 327. abroad again, chanced to meet with “ In the city of Pistoia, at the time of Ciacco, who, laughing heartily at him, its greatest splendour, there flourished said, “Tell me, Biondello, how dost a noble family, called the Cancellieri, thou like the erubinating Claret of derived from Messer Cancelliere, who Signior Philippo ?' 'As well,' quoth had enriched himself with his commerBiondello, as thou didst the Sturgeon cial transactions. He had numerous and Lampreys at Messer Corso Dona- sons by two wives, and they were all ties.' Why then,' said Ciacco, let entitled by their wealth to assume the these tokens continue familiar between title of Cavalieri, valiant and worthy thee and me, when thou wouldest be- men, and in all their actions magnani stow such another dinner on me, then mous and courteous. And so fast dia will I erubinate thy Nose with a Bottle the various branches of this family of the same Claret.' But Biondello spread, that in a short time they nun.

bered a hundred men at arms, and being it happened that the Neri sought refuge superior to every other, both in wealth in the house of the Frescobaldi, and the and power, would have still increased, Bianchi in that of the Cerchi nel Garbo, but that a cruel division arose between owing to the relationship which existed them, from some rivalship in the affec- between them. The seeds of the same tions of a lovely and enchanting girl, dissension being thus sown in Florence and from angry words they proceeded to the whole city became divided, the Cerchi more angry blows. Separating into two espousing the interests of the Bianchi, parties, those descended from the first and the Donati those of the Neri. wife took the title of Cancellieri Bianchi, “So rapidly did this pestiferous spirit and the others, who were the offspring gain ground in Florence, as frequen:ly to of the second marriage, were called Can- excite the greatest tumult; and from a cellieri Neri.

peaceable and flourishing state, it speedily Having at last come to action, the became a scene of rapine and devastation. Neri were defeated, and wishing to In this stage Pope Boniface VIII. was adjust the affair as well as they yet could, made acquainted with the state of thú they sent their relation, who had offended ravaged and unhappy city, and sent the the opposite party, to entreat forgiveness Cardinal Acqua Sparta on a mission tr. on the part of the Neri, expecting that reform and pacify the enraged parties. such submissive conduct would meet But with his utmost efforts he was unable with the compassion it deserved. On to make any impression, and accord. arriving in the presence of the Bianchi, ingly, after declaring the place excommu. who conceived themselves the offended nicated, departed. Florence being thus party, the young man, on bended knees, exposed to the greatest perils, and in a appealed to their feelings for forgiveness, continued state of insurrection, Messer observing, that he had placed himself in Corso Donati, with the Spiri, the Pazzi, their power, that so they might inflict the Tosinghi, the Cavicciuli, and the what punishment they judged proper : populace attached to the Neri faction, when several of the younger members applied, with the consent of their leadof the offended party, seizing on him, ers, to Pope Boniface. They entreated dragged him into an adjoining stable, that he would employ his interest with and ordered that his right hand should the court of France to send a force to be severed from his body. In the ut- allay these feuds, and to quell the party most terror the youth, with tears in his of the Bianchi. As soon as this wai eyes, besought them to have mercy, and reported in the city, Messer Donati was to take a greater and nobler revenge, by banished, and his property forfeited, and pardoning one whom they had it in their the other heads of the sect were propower thus deeply to injure. But heed-portionally fined and sent into exile. less of his prayers, they bound his hand Messer Donati, arriving at Rome, so far by force upon the manger, and struck it prevailed with his Holiness, that he sent vif; a deed which excited the utmost an embassy to Charles de Valois, brotumult throughout Pistoia, and such ther to the king of France, declaring his indignation and reproaches from the wish that he should be made Emperor, injured party of the Neri, as to impli- and King of the Romans; under which cate the whole city in a division of persuasion Charles passed into Italy, re. nterests between them and the Bian-instating Messer Donati and the Neri Hi, which led to many desperate en- in the city of Florence. From this there Jounters.

only resulted worse evils, inasmuch as all “ The citizens, fearful lest the faction the Bianchi, being the least powerful, might cause insurrections throughout were universally oppressed and robbed, the whole territory, in conjunction with and Charles, becoming the enemy of the Guelfs, applied to the Florentines Pope Boniface, conspired his death, bein order to reconcile them ; on which cause the Pope had not fulfilled his prothe Florentines took possession of the mise of presenting him with an imperial place, and sent the partisans on both crown. From which events it may be sides to the confines of Florence, whence seen that this vile faction was the cause

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of discord in the cities of Florence and

Of deepe ymaginations Pistoia, and of the other states of Tus

And straunge interpretations,

Problemes and demaundes eke cany; and no less to the same source His wiscdom was to finde and seke was to be attributed the death of Pope Whereof he wolde in sondry wise Boniface VIII."

Opposen hem, that weren wie;

But none of hem it mighte bere 69. Charles de Valois, called Senza

Upon his word to give answere.' terra, or Lackland, brother Philip the Fair, king of France.

73. The names of these two remain But nearly all agree, I believe, in con unknown. Probably one of them was struing the strange words into a cry o Dante's friend Guido Cavalcanti.

alarm or warning to Luciser, that his. 8o. Of this Arrigo nothing whatever realm is invaded by some unusual appaseems to be known, hardly even his rition. name; for some commentators call him Of all the interpretations given, the Arrigo dei Fisanti, and others Arrigo dei most amusing is that of Benvenuto Cellini, Fifanti. Of these other men of mark in his description of the Court of Justice

who set their hearts on doing good,” in Paris, Roscoe's Memoirs of Benvenuto Farinata is among the Heretics, Canto Cellini, Chap. xxii. :X. ; Tegghiaio and Rusticucci among “I stooped down several times to ob the Sodomites, Canto XVI.; and Mosca serve what passed: the words which 1 among the Schismatics, Canto XXVIII. heard the judge utter, upon seeing two

106. The philosophy of Aristotle. The gentlemen who wanted to hear the trial, same doctrine is taught by St. Augus- and whom the porter was endeavouring tine : “Cum fiet resurrectio carnis, et to keep out, were these : ‘Be quiet, be bonorum gaudia et tormenta malorum quiet, Satan, get hence, and leave off majora crunt.

disturbing us. The terms were, Paix, !15, Plutus, the God of Riches, of paix, Satan, allez, paix. As I had by which Lord Bacon says in his Essays := this time thoroughly learnt the French "I cannot call riches better than the language, upon hearing these words, I baggage of virtue ; the Roman word is recollected what Dante said, when he better, 'impedimenta'; for as the bag. with his master, Virgil, entered the gates page is to an army, so is riches to virtue; of hell; for Dante and Giotto the painter it cannot be spared nor left behind, but were together in France, and visited Paris it hindereth the march ; yea, and the with particular attention, where the court care of it sometimes loseth or disturbeth of justice may be considered as hell. the victory; of great riches there is no Hence it is that Dante, who was likereal use, except it be in the distribution ; wise perfect master of the French, made the rest is but conceit. . . The per- use of that expression ; and I have often sonal fruition in any man cannot reach been surprised, that it was never under to feel great riches: there is a custody of stood in that sense ; so that I cannot them; or a power of dole and donative help thinking, that the commentators on of them; or a fame of them ; but no solid this author have often made him say use to the owner.”

things which he never so much as dreamed of."

Dante himself hardly seems to have

understood the meaning of the words CANTO VII.

though he suggests that Virgil did. 1. In this Canto is described the pun II. Thcoverthrow of the Rebel Angels. ishment of the Avaricious and the Pro- St. Augustine says, "Idolatria et quælibei digal, with Plutus as their jailer. His noxia superstitio fornicatio est." outery of alarm is differently interpreted 24. Must dance the Ridda, a round by different commentators, and by none dance of the olden time. It was a Rounvery satisfactorily. The curious student, delay, or singing and dancing together. groping among them for a meaning, is Boccaccio's Monna Belcolore knew like Gower's young king, of whom he better than any one how to play the says, in his Confessio Amantis : tambourine and lead the Ridila.

27. As the word honour resounds in Crist shal yeve at the day of dome to hcm Canto IV., and the word love in Canto V., that shul be dampned. so here the words rolling and turning are 68. The Wheel of Fortune was one of the burden of the song, as if to suggest the favourite subjects of art and song in the motion of Fortune's wheel, so beau- the Middle Ages. On a large square of tifully described a little later.

white marble set in the pavement of the 39. Clerks, clerics, or clergy. Boc- nave of the Cathedral at Siena, is the caccio, Comento, remarks upon this pas- representation of a revolving wheel. sage : “Some maintain, that the clergy Three boys are climbing and clinging at wear the tonsure in remembrance and the sides and below; above is a dignited reverence of St. Peter, on whom, they figure with a stern countenance, holding say, it was made by certain evil-minded the sceptre and ball. At the four corners men as a mark of madness ; because notare inscriptions from Seneca, Euripides, comprehending and not wishing to com- Aristotle, and Epictetus. The same preliend his holy doctrine, and seeing symbol may be seen also in the wheel-ofhim fervently preaching before princes fortune windows of many churches ; as, and people, who held that doctrine in for example, that of San Zeno at Verona. detestation, they thought he acted as one See Knight, Ecclesiastical Architecture, out of his senses. Others maintain that 11. plates v., vi. the tonsure is worn as a mark of dignity, In the following poem Guido Caval. as a sign that those who wear it are more canti treats this subject in very much the worthy than those who do not; and they same way that Nante does; and it is call it corona, because, all the rest of the curious to observe how at particular head being shaven, a single circle of hair times certain ideas seem to float in the should be left, which in form of a crown air, and to become the property of every surrounds the whole head."

one who chooses to make use of them. 58. In like manner Chaucer, Persones From the similarity between this poem Tale, pp. 227, 337, reproves ill-keeping and the lines of Dante, one might infor and ill-giving

that the two friends had discussed th: Avarice, after the description of Seint matter in conversation, and afterwards Augustine, is a likerousnesse in herte to that each had written out their common have erthly thinges. Som other folk sayn, thought. that avarice is for to purchase many erthly Cavalcanti's Song of Fortune, as transthinges, and nothing to yeve to hem that lated by Rossetti, Early Italian Poet's han nede. And understond wel, that p. 366, runs as follows :avarice standeth not only in land ne catel, but som time in science and in “Lo! I am she who makes the wheel to turn , glorie, and in every maner outrageous

Lo! I am she who gives and takes away;

Blamed idly, day by day, hing is avarice.

In all mine acts by you, ye humankind. “But for as moche as som folk ben For whoso smites his visage and doth mourn unmesurable, men oughten for to avoid

What time he renders back my gifts to me,

Learns then that I decree and eschue fool-largesse, the whiche men

No state which mine own arrows may not find clepen waste. Certes, he that is fool

Who clomb must fall :-this bear ye well in large, he yeveth not his catel, but he mind, leseth his catel. Sothly, what thing tha:

Nor say, because he fell, I did him wrong.

Yet mine is a vain song : he yeveth for vaine-glory, as to minstrls,

For truly ye may find out wisdom when and to folk that bere his renome ir the King Arthur's resting-pl.ce is found of me world, he hath do sinnc thereof, and non

"Ye make great marvel and astonishment almesse: certes, he leseth foule his good, What time ye see the sluggard lifted up that ne seketh with the yefte of his good And the just man to drop, nothing but sinne. He is like to an hors

And ye complain on God and on my sway. that seketh rather to drink drovy or

O humankind, ye sin in your complain:

For He, that Lord who made the world #4 troubled water, than for to drink water live, of the clere well. And for as moche as

Lets me not take or give they yeven ther as they shuld nat yeven,

By mine own act, but as he wills I may.

Yet is the mind of man so castaway, to hem apperteineth thilke malison, that That it discerns not the supreme tehest


Alas! ye wretchedest,

74. This old Rabbinical tradition of And chide ye at God also ? Shall not He Judge between good and evil righteously?

the “ Regents of the Planets" has been

painted by Raphael, in the Capella Chi. "Ah! had ye knowledge how God evermore, With agonies of soul and grievous heats,

giana of the Church of Santa Maria del As on aa anvil beats

Popolo in Rome.

See Mrs. Jameson, On then that in this carth hold high estate, Sacred and Legendary Art, I. 45. She Ye would choose little rather than much store, And solitude than spacious palaces ;

says : “As a perfect example of grand Such is the sore disease

and poetical feeling I may cite the angels Of anguish that on all their days doth wait. Regents of the Planets' in the Behold if they be not unfortunate,

Capella Chigiana. The Cupola repreWhen oft the father dares not trust the son! O wealth, with thee is won

sents in a circle the creation of the solar A xcrm to gnaw forever on his soul

system, according to the theological (or Whose abject life is laid in thy control! rather astrological) notions which then * lf also ye take note what piteous death prevailed, --a hundred years before the They ofttimes make, whosc hoards were mani- starry Galileo and his woes.' In the

fold, Who cities had and gold

centre is the Creator; around, in eight And multitudes of men beneath their hand; compartments, we have, first, the angel Then he among you that most angereth of the celestial sphere, who seems to be Shall bless me saying, “Lo! I worship thee That I was not as he

listening to the divine mandate, ‘Let Whose death is thus accurst throughout the there be lights in the firmament of land,

heaven’; then follow, in their order, the But now your living souls are held in band

Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Olavarice, shutting you from the true light Which shows how sad and slight

Jupiter, and Saturn. The name of each Are this world's treasured riches and array planet is expressed by its mythological That still change hands a hundred times a representative; the Sun by Apollo, the day.

Moon by Diana ; and over cach presides "For me, -could envy enter in my sphere, a grand, colossal winged spirit, seated or Which of all human taint is clean and quit, reclining on a portion of the zodiac as on When I behold the peasant at his toil.

a throne.Guiding his teain, untroubled, free from fear, The old tradition may be found in He leaves his perfect furrow as he goes, Stehelin, Rabbinical Literature, I. 157. And gives his field repose From thorns and tares and weeds that vex the See Purgatorio, XVI. 69. soil:

98. Past midnight. Thereto he labours, and without turmoil Entruses his work to God, content is so

103. Perse, purple-black. See Canto Such guerdon from it grow

V., Note 89. That in that year his fanily shall live :

115.“ Is not this a cursed vice ?" says Nor care nor thought to other things will Chaucer in The Persones Tule, p. 202, give.

speaking of wrath. “Yes, certes. Alas! But now ye may no more have speech of me,

it Denimmeth fro man his witte and his For this mine office craves continual use : Ye therefore deeply muse

reson, and all his debonaire lif spirituel, Upon those things which ye have heard the that shulde keepe his soule. Certes it

benimmeth also loddes clue lordship (and Yea, and even yet remember heedfully How this my whecl a motion hath so fleet,

that is mannes soule) and the love of his That in an eyelid's beat

neighbours; it reveth him the quiet of Him whom it raised it maketh low and vile. his lierte, and subverteth his soule.” None was, nor is, nor shall be of such guile,

And farther on he continues : or can, or shall, I say, at length Prevail against my strength.

the sinne of wrath, now wolle I speke But still those men that are my questioners of the sinne of accidie, or slouth; for In bitter torment own their hearts perverse. envie blindeth the herte of a man, and "Song, that wast made to carry high intent ire troubleth a man, and accidie maketh Disseinbled in the garb of humbleness, – him hevy, thoughtful, and wrawe. Envie To Master Thomas let thy course be bent.

and ire maken bitternesse in herte, Şay that a great thing scarcely may be pent which bitternesse is mother of accidic, In little rooin: yet always pray that he Cominend us, thee and me,

and benimmeth him the love of alle To them that are more apt in losty speech:,,

goodnesse; than is accidic the anguishi For truly one must learn ere lie can teach."

of a trouble herte."


Who could,

“ After

With fair and open face

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