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nowned for justice as to be called the "When in the chronicle of wasted time
Favourite of the Gods, and after death

I see descriptions of the fairest wights

And beauty making beautiful old rhyme made Supreme Judge in the Infernal

In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights." Regions. Dante furnishes him with a tail, thus converting him, after the

See also the “ wives and daughters of mediæval fashion, into a Christian de chieftains ” that appear to Ulysses, in mon.

the Odyssey, Book XI. 21. Thou, too, as well as Charon, to

Also Milton, Paradise Rizainel, II. whom Virgil has already made the same 357: reply, Canto VI. 22.

“And ladies of the Hesperides, that serined 28. In Canto I. 60, the sun is siient;

Fairer then feigned of old, or fabled since here the light is dumb.

Or fairy damsels met in forest wide

By knights of Logres, or of Lyones, 51. Gower, Confessio Amantis, VIII., Lancelot, or Palleas, or Pellenore. gives a similar list" of gentil folke that whilom were lovers,” seen by him as perse air. Dante, Convito, IV. 20, de

89. In the original l'aer perso, the he lay in a swound and listened to the fines perse as “a colour mixed of purple inusic

and black, but the black predominates.' Of bombarde and of clarionne

Chaucer's “ Doctour of Phisike" in the With cornemuse and shalmele,"

Canterbury Tales, Prologue 441, wore

this colour :-61. Queen Dido.

65. Achilles, being in love with “In sanguin and in perse he clad was alle, Polyxena, a daughter of Priam, went

Lined with taffata and with sendalle." unarmed to the temple of Apollo, where

The Glossary defines it,“skie-coloured, he was put to death by Paris.

of a bluish gray. The word is again Gower, Confessio Amantis, IV., used, VII. 103, and Purg. IX. 97. says :

97. The city of Ravenna. One "For I have herde tell also

reaches Ravenna,” says Ampère, Voraze Achilles left his armes so,

Dantesque, p. 311, “by journeying along
Both of himself and of his men,
At Troie for Polixenen

the borders of a pine forest, which is Upon her love when he felle,

seven leagues in length, and which That for no chaunce that berelle seemed to me an immense funereal wood, Among the Grekes or up or down

serving as an avenue to the common He wolde nought ayen the town Ben armed for the love of her.”

tomb of those two great powers, Dante

and the Roman Empire in the West. “I know not how,” says Bacon in his There is hardly room for any other Essay on Love, “but martial men are memories than theirs. But other poetic given to love; I think it is but as they names are attached to the Pine Woods are given to wine ; for perils commonly of Ravenna. Not long ago Lord Byron ask to be paid in pleasure.'

evoked there the fantastic tales borrowed 67. Paris of Troy, of whom Spenser by Dryden from Boccaccio, and now he says, Furiid Queene, III. ix. 34 : is himself a figure of the past, wandering

in this melancholy place. I thought, in Most famous Worthy of the world, by whome That warre was kindled which did Troy in- traversing it, that the singer of despair

had ridden along this melancholy shore,
And stately towres of Ilion whilome trodden before him by the graver and
Brought unto balefull ruine, was by name
Sir Paris,
far renown'd through noble fame." slower footstep of the poet of the

Tristan is the Sir Tristram of the 99. Quoting this line, Ampère re-
Romances of Chivalry. See his adven- marks, Voyage Dantesque, p. 312: "We
tures in the Mort d'Arthure. Also have only to cast our eyes upon the map
Thomas of Ercildoune's Sir Tristram, a to recognize the topographical exactitude
Metrical Romance. His amours with of this last expression. In fact, in all the
Yseult or Ysonde bring him to this upper part of its course, the Po receives
circle of the Inferno.

a multitude of affluents, which converge 71. Shakespeare, Sonnet CVI. : towards its bed. They are the Tessina



the Adda, the Olio, the Mincio, the Boccaccio's account, translated from his Trebbia, the Bormida, the Taro ;- Commentary by Leigh Hunt, Stories names which recur so often in the history from the Italian Poets, Appendix II., is of the wars of the fifteenth and sixteenth as follows:centuries."

You must know that this lady, Ma103. Here the word love is repeated, donna Francesca, was daughter of Messer as the word honour was in Canto IV. 72. Guido the Elder, lord of Ravenna and The verse murmurs with it, like the of Cervia, and that a long and grievous

moan of doves in immemorial elms." war having been waged between him St. Augustine says in his Confessions, and the lords Malatesta of Rimini, a III. 1: I loved not yet, yet I loved to treaty of peace by certain mediators was love. . . . . I sought what I might love, at length concluded between them ; the in love with loving.”

which, to the end that it might be the 104. I think it is Coleridge who more firmly established, it pleased both says: “The desire of man is for the parties to desire to fortify by relationWoman, but the desire of woman is for ship; and the matter of this relationship the desire of man.

was so discoursed, that the said Messer 107. Caïna is in the lowest circle Guido agreed to give his young and fair of the Inferno, where fratricides are daughter in marriage to Gianciotto, the punished.

son of Messer Malatesta. Now, this 116. Francesca, daughter of Guido being made known to certain of the da Polenta, Lord of Ravenna, and wife friends of Messer Guido, one of them of Gianciotto Malatesta, son of the Lord said to him : "Take care what you do ; of Rimini. The lover, Paul Malatesta, for if you contrive not matters discreetly, was the brother of the husband, who, such relationship will beget scandal. discovering their amour, put them both You know what manner of person your to death with his own hand.

daughter is, and of how lofty a spirit; Carlyle, Heroes and Hero Worship, and if she see Gianciotto before the bond

is tied, neither you nor any one else will “Dante's painting is not graphic only, have power to persuade her to marry brief, true, and of å vividness as of fire him; therefore, if it so please you, it in dark night; taken on the wider scale, seems to me that it would be good to it is every way noble, and the outcome conduct the matter thus: namely, that of a great soul. Francesca and her Gianciotto should not come hither himLover, what qualities in that! A thing self to marry her, but that a brother of Woven as out of rainbows, on a ground his should come and espouse her in his of eternal black. A small Aute-voice of name.' infinite wail speaks there, into our very

“Gianciotto was a man of great spirit, lieart of hearts.

A touch of woman- and hoped, after his father's deatli, to hond in it too: della bella persona, che become lord of Rimini; in the coutem. mi fu tolta ; and how, even in the Pit of plation of which event, albeit he was woe

, it is a solace that he will never part rude in appearance and a crippe, Messer from her! Saddest tragedy in these alti Guido desired him for a son-in-law above guai. And the racking winds, in that any one of his brothers. Discerning, uer bruno, whirl them away again, to therefore, the reasonableness of what his wail for ever !-Strange to think: Dante friend counselled, he secretly disposed was the friend of this poor Francesca's matters according to his device; and a father; Francesca herself may have sat day being appointed, Polo, a brother of upon the Poet's knee, as a bright, inno- Gianciotto, came to Ravenna with full cent little child. Infinite pity, yet also authority to espouse Madonna Francesca. infinite rigour of law: it is so Nature is Polo was a handsome man, very pleamade; it is so Dante discerned that she sant, and of a courteous breeding ; and was made."

passing with other gentlemen over the Later commentators assert that Dante's court-yard of the palace of Messer Guide, friend Guido was not the father of Fran- a damsel who knew him pointed bim out cesca, but her nephew.

to Madonna Francesca through an open

Lect. III., says :

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ing in the casement, saying, “That is he what he had not desired, --namely, that
that is to be your husband;' and so he struck the dagger into the bosom of
indeed the poor lady believed, and incon- the lady before it could reach Polo ; by
tinently placed in him her whole affec- which accident, being as one who had
tion; and the ceremony of the marriage loved the lady better than himself, he
having been thus brought about, and the withdrew the dagger and again struck at
lady conveyed to Rimini, she became Polo, and slew him ; and so leaving
not aware of the deceit till the morning them both dead, he hastily went his way
ensuing the marriage, when she beheld and betook him to his wonted affairs;
Gianciotto rise from her side; the which and the next morning the two lovers,
discovery moved her to such disdain, with many tears, were buried together in
that she became not a whit the less the same grave.
rooted in her love for Polo. Neverthe 121. This thought is from Boethius,
less, that it grew to be unlawful I never De Consolat. Philos., Lib. II. Prosa 4:
heard, except in what is written by this In omni adversitate fortuna, infelicis-
author (Dante), and possibly it might so simum genus est infortunii fuisse felicem
have become; albeit | take what he says et non esse.
to have been an invention framed on the In the Convito, II. 16, Dante speaks
possibility, rather than anything which of Boethius and Tully as having directed
he knew of his own knowledge. Be him "to the love, that is to the study,
this as it may, Polo and Madonna Fran- of this most gentle lady Philosophy.
cesca living in the same house, and from this Venturi and Biagioli infer
Gianciotto being gone into a certain that, by the Teacher, Boethius is meant,
neighbouring district as governor, they not Virgil.
fell into great companionship with one This interpretation, however, can
another, suspecting nothing ; but a ser- hardly be accepted, as not in one place
vant of Gianciotto's, noting it, went to only, but throughout the Inferno and
his master and told him how matters the Purgatorio, Dante proclaims Virgil
looked; with the which Gianciotto being as his Teacher, il mio Dottore. Lombardi
fiercely moved, secretly returned to thinks that Virgil had experience of this
Rimini ; and seeing Polo enter the room “greatest sorrow," finding himself also
of Madonna Francesca the while he him in the infernal prison ;” and that it is
self was arriving, went straight to the to this, in contrast with his happy life on
door, and finding it locked inside, called earth, that Francesca alludes, and not to
to his lady to come out ; for, Madonna anything in his writings.
Francesca and Polo having descried him, 128. The Romance of Launcelot of
Polo thought to escape suddenly through the Lake. See Delvan, Bibliotèque
an opening in the wall

, by means of Bleue : -
which there was a descent into another Chap. 39. Comment Launcelot et la
room; and therefore, thinking to conceal Reine Genièvre devisèrent de choses et
his fault either wholly or in part, he d'autres, et surtout de choses amou-
threw himself into the opening, telling reuses. :::
the lady to go and open the door. But “La Reine, voyant qu'il n'osait plus
his hope did not turn out as he expected; rien faire ni dire, le prit par le menton
for the hem of a mantle which he had on et le baisa assez longuement en pré-
caught upon a nail, and the lady open- sence de Gallehault.”
ing the door meantime, in the belief that The Romance was to these two lovers
all would be well by reason of Polo's what Galleotto (Gallehault or Sir Gala.
not being there, Gianciotto caught sight had) had been to Launcelot and Queen
of Polo as he was detained by the hem Guenever.
of the mantle, and straightway ran with Leigh Hunt speaks of the episode of
hois dagger in his hand to kill him ; where- Francesca as standing in the Inferno
upon the lady, to prevent it, ran between “like a lily in the mouth of Tartarus"
them ; but Gianciotto having lifted the 142. Chaucer, Knightes Tale:--
dagger, and put the whole force of his
arin into the blow, there came to pass

“The colde death, with mouth

gaping upright."

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went; and likewise when he was not CANTO VI.

invited by them, he invited himself; 2. The sufferings of these two, and and for this vice he was well known to the pity it excited in him. As in Shake all Florentines ; though apart from this speare, Oikello, IV. I: “But yet the he was a well-bred man according to his pity of it, lago!-O lago, the pity of it, condition, eloquent, affable, and of good lago!"

feeling; on account of which he was 7. In this third circle are punished welcomed by every gentleman.” the Gluttons. Instead of the feasts of The following story from the Decameformer days, the light, the warmth, the rone, Gior. IX., Nov. viii., translation Comfort, the luxury, and “the frolic of 1684, presents a lively picture of wine " of dinner tables, they have the social life in Florence in Dante's time, merk and the mire, and the “ rain eter- and is interesting for the glimpse it gives. nal, maledict, and cold, and heavy."; not only of Ciacco, but of Philippo Arand are barked at and bitten by the dog genti, who is spoken of hereafter, Canto in the yard.

VIII. 61. The Corso Donati here menof Gluttony, Chaucer says in The tioned is the Leader of the Neri. His Persones Tale, p. 239:

violent death is predicted, Purg. XXIV. " He that is usant to this sinne of 82 :glotunie, he ne may no sinne withstond, “ There dwelt somtime in Florence he must be in servåge of all vices, for it one that was generally called by the is the devils horde, ther he hideth him name of Ciacco, a man being the greatest and resteth Tnis sinne hath many | Gourmand and grossest Feeder as ever spices. The first is dronkennesse, that was seen in any Countrey, all his means is the horrible sepulture of mannes and procurements meerly unable to main. reson : and therefore whan a man is tam expences for filling his belly. But dronke, he hath lost his reson : and this otherwise he was of sufficient and comis dedly sinne. But sothly, whan that a mendable carriage, fairly demeaned, and man is not wont to strong drinkes, and well discoursing on any Argument: yet peraventure ne knoweth not the strength not as a curious and spruce Courtier, but of the drinke, or hath feblenesse in his rather a frequenter of rich mens Tables, hed, or hath travailled, thurgh which he where choice of good chear is seldom drinketh the more, al be he sodenly wanting, and such should have his Comcaught with drinke, it is no dedly sinne, pany, albeit not invited, he had the but venial. The second spice of glo- Courage to bid himself welcome. tonie is, that the spirit of a man wexeth At the same time, and in our City all trouble for dronkennesse, and be of Florence also, there was another man revetli a man the discretion of his wit. named Biondello, very low of stature, The thridde spice of glotonie is, whan a yet comely formed, quick witted, more man devoureth his mete, and hath not neat and brisk than a Butterflie, always rightful maner of eting. The fourthe is, wearing a wrought silk Cap on his head, whan thurgh the gret abundance of his and not a hair standing out of order, but inete, the humours in his body ben dis- the tuft flourishing above the forehead, tempered. The fifthe is, soryctfulnesse and he such another trencher flie for the by to moche drinking, for which some. Table, as our forenamed Ciacco was. time a man forgeteth by the morwe, It so fell out on a morning in the Lent what he did over eve.

time, that he went into the Fish-market, 52. It is a question whether Cincco, where he bought two goodly Lampreys Hog, is the real name of this person, or for Messer Viero de Cerchi, and was i nickname. Boccaccio gives him no espyed by Ciacco, who, coming to Bionother. He speaks of him, Comento, VI., dello, said, “What is the meaning of as a noted diner-out in Florence, “who this cost, and for whom is it?' Whereto frequented the gentry and the rich, and Biondeilo thus answered, “Yesternight particularly those who ate and drank three other Lampreys, far fairer than sumptuously. and delicately ; and when these, and a whole Sturgeon, were sent he was invited by them to dine, he unto Messer Corso Donati, and being

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not sufficient to feed divers Gentlemen, and sooner moved to Anger than any whom he hath invited this day to dine other man. • To him thou must go with him, he caused me to buy these two with this Bottle in thy hand, and say beside: Dost not thou intend to make thus to him. Sir, Biondello sent me to one of them ? Yes, I warrant thee,' you, and courteously entreateth you, replyed Ciacco, thou knowest I can that you would erubinate this glass invite


self thither, without any other Bottle with your best Claret Wine, bidding

because he would make merry with a “So parting, about the hour of dinner few friends of his. But beware he lay time Ciacco went to the house of Messer no hand on thee, because he may be Corso, whom he found sitting and talking easily induced to misuse thee, and so with certain of his Neighbours, but din- my business be disappointed.' Well, ner was not as yet ready, neither were Sir,' said the Porter, shall I say any they come thither to dinner. Messer thing else unto him?' * No,' quoth Corso demanded of Ciacco, what news Ciacco, only go and deliver this mes. with him, and whether he went ? 'Why, sage, and when thou art returned, I'll Sir,” said Ciacco, I come to dine with pay thee for thy pains.' The Porter you, and your good Company.' Whereto being gone to the house, delivered his Messer. Corso answered, That he was message to the Knight, who, being a welcome: and his other friends being man of no great civil breeding, very gone, dinner was served in, none else furious, presently conceived that Bionthereat present but Messer Corso and dello, whom he knew well enough, sent Ciacco : all the diet being a poor dish this message in mere mockage of him, of Pease, a little piece of. Tunny, and a and, starting up with fierce looks, said, few small fishes fryed, without any other. What erubination of Claret should I dishes to follow after. Ciacco seeing no send him ? and what have I to do with better fare, but being disappointed of him or his drunken friends ? Let him his expectation, as longing to feed on and thee go hang your selves together.' the Lampreys and Sturgeon, and so to So he stept to catch hold on the Porter, have made a full dinner indeed, was of but he being nimble and escaping from a quick apprehension, and apparently him, returned to Ciacco and told him perceived that Biondello had meerly the answer of Philippo. Ciacco, not a gull’d him in a knavery, which did not little contented, payed the Porter, and a little vex him, and made him vow to tarried in no place till he met Biondello, be revenged on Biondello, as he could to whom he said, When wast thou at compass occasion afterward.

the Hall of Cavicciuli ?' Not a long “Before many days were past, it was while,' answered Biondello; but why his fortune to meet with Biondello, who dost thou demand such a question : having told his jest to divers of his . Because,' quoth Ciacco, friends, and much good merryment lippo hath sought about for thee, yet made thereat : he saluted Ciacco in a know not I what he would have with kind manner, saying, “How didst thou thee.' "Is it so,' replied Biondello, like the fat Lampreys and Sturgeon then I will walk thither presently, to which thou fed'st on at the house of understand his pleasure.' Messer Corso ?' 'Well, Sir,' answered “When Biondello was thus partel Ciacco, perh: ps before Eight days from him, Ciacco followed not far off pass over my head, thou shalt meet with behind him, to behold the issue of this as pleasing a dinner as I did.' So, part. angry business ; and Signior Philippo, ing away from Biondello, he met with a because he could not catch the Porter, Porter, such as are usually sent on continued much distempered, fretting Errands; and hyring him to do a mes. and fuming, because he could not comsage for him, gave him a glass Bottle, prehend the meaning of the Porter's and bringing him near to the Hall-house message, but only surmised that Bionof Cavicciuli, shewed him there a dello, by the procureinent of some body Knight, called Signior Philippo Argenti, else, had done this in scorn of him. a man of huge stature, very cholerick, While he remained thus deeply discon

Signior Phi

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