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“- if I were as tedious as a king, I could find in " — we RACK the value"-i. e. We raise the estimate my heart to bestow it all of your worship"—Hazlitt re to the utmost—a sense now retained only in the phrase marks upon the quaint blundering of the inimitable rack rent. Dagberry and Verges, that they are “a standing record of that formal gravity of pretension, and total want of
" — count confect”—Beatrice gives him this title in
contempt. We still speak of caraway confects. She common understanding, which Shakespeare, no doubt,
first calls him “count," and then mentions his title, copied from real life; and which, in the course of two
“count confect"-" a sweet gallant, surely!” This is hundred years, appear to have ascended from the lowest
the old reading, which, without reason, has been changed to the highest offices of the state.” The political sar
to “a goodly count-confect." casm, as to the inheritance of the wisdom of these functionaries, has, I hope, but little application on our
SCENE II. side of the Atlantic; but the desire to bestow all their tediousness upon their friends is, unquestionably, a
“ Sexton''-He is called “town-clerk" in the old characteristic in which the public men of America are stage-directions, probably because, being able to read pot a jot behind the municipal dignitaries of the Messina
and write, he acted as clerk for the town, or for such watch.
of the inhabitants as had not his accomplishments. ACT IV.-SCENE I.
ACT V.-SCENE I. some be of laughing, as, ha! ha! he!"-Bene “Cry-sorrow wag!"-". And sorrow, wag! cry dick quotes from the “* Accidence."
hem, when he should groan,' is the reading of the old * — teord too LARGE"—“So he uses •large' jests, in
quarto, and of the folios, which may be reconciled to
sense, and therefore ought not to be disturbed. The this play, for licentious-not restrained within due bounds."'-Johnsox.
meaning is clear, though not clearly expressed. •And,
sorrow, wag,' is, and sorrow away! (for which, indeed, * Out on the seeming”-The original quarto and it may have been misprinted;) similar to the exclamafolio have, “Out on thee seeming," which Collier alone, tion, care, away!' The reading substituted by the of modern editors, retains; understanding it that Claudio commentators has usually beenaddresses Hero as the personification of " seeming," or Cry sorrow, wag! and hem, when he should groankypocrisy. Pope, followed by many others, altered which has no warrant. Heath's suggestion of— And the phrase to “Out on thy seeming;” which gives a sorrowing, cry hem, when he should groan,' is the most. good sense, and is a probable correction. We have,
plausible emendation.”—COLLIER. bowever, preferred that of Knight, as most congruous Rowe, Theobald, Hanmer, Tyrwhitt, Warton, Steto the context; and think, with him, that the sense is,
vens, Ritson, and Malone have respectively offered the “Out on the specious resemblance-I will write against following emendations:—" And hallow, wag;” “ And it;" that is, against this false representation, along with sorrow wage;" “ And sorrow waive ;' “ And sorrow this deceiving portrait
“And sorrowing, cry;"
And sorry wag;" You seem to me as Dian in her orb, etc.
* And sorrow waggery;" “ In sorrow wag.” The * True ? O God !”—This is Hero's exclamation on
emendation of Dr. JohnsonJoho's assertion—" these things are true.” It is usually
Cry, sorrow wag! and hem, when he should groanprinted as if Hero answered, True, O God !" to Ben requires merely the transposition of cry with and-a alick's observation, “This looks not like a nuptial.”
correction of a very common sort of error—and the
sense is then so clear that it has been generally adopted. "- a liberal villain”-i. e. Licentiously free; as, Knight, however, adopts Johnson's first suggestion, in OTHELLO—"Is he not a most profane and liberal which gives the same sense, though harshly expressed counsellor !"
And, sorrow wag! cry hem; when he should groan. * Fie, fie! they are not to be nam'd, my lord, " Sorrow go by !" is said to be still a common Scotism. Not to be SPOKEN of," etc.
“ With CANDLE-Wasters"-By “candle-wasters” is This is the metrical arrangement of the two original probably meant drunkards, or midnight revellers. editions, of which, until Collier, all later editors at
There is, however, a passage in Ben Jonson's "Cyntempted to make what they thought a more regular thia's Revels,” (act iii. scene 2,) which seems to show metre, by printing
that the epithet was applied, in ridicule, to students Not to be nam'd, my lord, not to be spoke of.
“Spoiled by a whoreson book-worm, a candle-waster." The quarto of 1600 has spoke, the folio (1623) spoken;
Leonato may mean to say, that a misfortune like his is which I mention as indicating the gradual increase of
not to be drugged, or made drunk, by the book-philosoattention to stricter grammatical distinctions.
phy of mere theorists. His whole speech is directed
against comforters of this description. “ The story that is printed in her blood”—“The
" - louder than ADVERTISEMENT”-i. e. Than admostory that her blushing discovers to be true."-Johnson.
nition; than moral instruction. This explanation has been doubted, but it is confirmed, as the Poet's thought, by the Friar's notice of the “ And made a push”—Pope and others print this, * blashing apparitions on her face."
* make a pish”-i. e. treat with contempt; but“ push" “ – frugal nature's Frame”-i. e. Ordinance, ar
is the reading of the old copies, that being the old mode rangement, or framing of things; as in this play it is
of spelling. Collier refers to instances in proof of
it, in Beaumont and Fletcher's “Maids' Revenge;" in said of John
Chapman's “Gentleman Usher;" and repeatedly in His spirits toil in frame of villainies.
Middleton's plays. Boswell would derive the expres* Who SMIRCHED thus"-The folio substitutes smeared sion from fencing, and tells us that, “ to make a push at for “smirched" in the quarto. “Smirched” is also found any thing is to contend against it, or defy it.” Shakein HAMLET, As You Like It, etc.; but, as Nares (Glos- speare's meaning is evident, taking “push" as an intersary) informs us, has hitherto been found in no other jection, author. Our Poet was fond of using it. We have “ Come, follow me, boy! come, sir boy, come, follow me.” * smirched" in this play in the sense of soiled.
“Stevens destroys this most characteristic linemand “- BEAT away those blushes"—We follow Collier in his reading is that of all popular editions—by his old retaining “beat," the reading of the original quarto,
fashion of metre-mongering. He reads(1600 :) printed in the folio, and all other editions,
Come, follow me, boy ; come, boy, follow me.” bear.
- your FOINING fence"-i. e. Thrusting.
- Yonder's OLD coil at home"-"Old" is the com
mon ancient augmentative: “old coil” means great " — as we do the minstrels”-i. e. As we bid min
confusion. strels draw their instruments out of their cases.
“ — in GUERDON of her wrongs"—“Guerdon,” re- he knows how to turn his girdle"-Stevens says ward. that the Irish have an expression corresponding to that
“ – virgin knight"_" Diana's knight, or "virgin quoted :—“ If he is angry, let him tie up his brogues."
knight,' was the common poetical appellation of virgins He supposes both phrases merely to mean, that the an
in Shakespeare's time. So, in the “Two Noble Kinsgry man should employ himself till he is in a better
men,' (1634:)— humour. Instances are quoted to show that it was a
O sacred, shadowy, cold, and constant queen, common expression of defiance. Mr. Holt White plau
who to thy female knights, etc." sibly accounts for the origin of the term, by saying that
MALONE. the buckle was usually worn in front of the belt; but,
“ Heavenly, HEAVENLY' _We have here, with in wrestling, it was turned behind, in order to give the adversary a fairer grasp at the girdle.
Knight, followed the reading of the folios, in preference
to the quarto, which has—“ Heavily, hearily." To " — Shall I not find a woodcock too"- A jesting allu utter is here to put out—to eject. Death is expelled sion to the supposed fact that the woodcock has no “ heavenly"-by the power of heaven. The passage brains, and is therefore easily caught; alluding to the has evidently reference to the sublime verse in “ Corinsuccess of the plot against Benedick. The joke is thians." All the other editors have read, “Heavily, common in old plays.
heavily," and understand, with Boswell, “ till death be
spoken of," or, with Stevens, "till songs of death be “ But, soft you; let me be"-Most modern editions
uttered;" and then heavily would be appropriate. The read, let be," in opposition to the older, which have,
folio reading seems to me more poetical and probable, “ let me be;" meaning merely “ let me alone.” Let be
and the sense at least as clear. is, however, good old colloquial English for“ Let things be as they are."
“ This same is she”—The old copies give this speech “ - INCENSED me to slander"-i. e. “ Incited me. The
to Leonato; but, since Theobald, it has been arbitrarily
assigned to Antonio. word is used in the same sense in RICHARD III. and HENRY VIII."-M. Mason.
“Why, no"-"Stevens rejects the “why,' upon the
old principle of its being injurious to metre.'' When “ Art thou the slave”—The folio repeats thou—“Art
Bene in the same way, replies to the question of thou, thou, the slave ?" which Knight retains, as ex Beatricepressive of passion. It may be right, but it rather
Do not you love me?seems an accidental repetition, such as often occurs. The quarto reading is as in our text, and the metre
the Poet throws a spirit and variety into the answer, by agrees with it.
Troth, no; no more than reason. “ Hang her an epitaph upon her tomb”—It was the
Stevens cuts out the “troth:” the metre (says he) is custom to attach, upon the tomb of celebrated persons, overloaded. It would matter little what Stevens did a written inscription, either in prose or verse, generally with his own edition, but he has furnished the text of in praise of the deceased. (See Bayle, in “Aretin, every popular edition of Shakespeare extant; and for [Pierre,''] note H.)
this reason we feel it a duty perpetually to protest “ And she alone is heir to both of us”—This appears
against his corruptions of the real text."-Knight. to be a lapse of memory in the author, as mention is made, in act i. scene 2, of a son of Antonio.
"- get thee a wife: there is no staff more rererend
than one tipped with horn"-The “staff" is marriage. “ — was Packed in all this wrong”—The old copies Benedick supposes it to be a welcome and respectable have packt, which Collier prints pact, and explains bar
support to so“ giddy a thing as man," although he cangain, or contract; Margaret, one party to the pact,
not avoid a final fout at the “horn," which forms the being spoken of as the contract itself. We read, with handle of the staff
, and an emblem of the destiny all the other editors, “packed,” in the sense retained in
which he has all along attributed to married men. Wit speaking of a “ packed jury," combined, an accomplice,
ness the “recheat in the forehead," etc. To this day, a sense common in SHAKESPEARE ; as, Were he not
it is common to see old-fashioned sticks, or canes, surpack'd with her,” (COMEDY OF ERRORS ;) “There's
mounted with horn handles. Stevens and Malone will packing,” etc., (TAMING OF THE SHREW.) Bacon uses
bave it, that the allusion is to the baston, or “staff tipped it in the same way.
with horn,” used by combatants in the wager of battle;
but we are not informed how the passage in the text is " — God save the foundation”—This was a custom at all explained by the use of these weapons. ary old phrase with those who received alms at the gates of religious houses.
Coleridge has selected this comedy as affording a - this lewd fellow”—“ Here 'lewd' has not the special example of a pervading characteristic of Shakecommon meaning, nor can it be used in the more un speare's dramas, which distinguishes them from those common sense of ignorant; but rather means knavish,
of all other dramatic poets. It is that of the independungracious, naughty, which are the synonymes used
ence of dramatic interest without the plot:with it in explaining the Latin pravus, in dictionaries “ The interest (says he) in the plot is on account of the of the sixteenth century."-Singer.
characters, not vice versá, as in almost all other writers;
the plot is a mere canvass, and no more. Hence arises SCENE II.
the true justification of the same stratagem being used “ - I give thee the bucklers"-To“ give the buck
in regard to Benedick and Beatrice—the vanity in each lers” was to yield the victory; by which an enemy ob
being alike. Take away from Much ADO ABOUT tained his adversary's shield, and retained his own.
Nothing all that which is not indispensable to the plot, The phrase was proverbial.
either as having little to do with it, or, at best, like Dog.
berry and his comrades, forced into the service, when “ How pitiful I deserve”—The beginning of an old any other less ingeniously absurd watchmen and nightballad by William Elderton.
constables would have answered the mere necessities
of the action ; take away Benedick, Beatrice, Dogberry, An old, an old instance”—The words “an old" are and the reaction of the former on the character of Hero repeated in the quarto, as well as in the folios, for and what will remain ? In other writers the main greater emphasis.
agent of the plot is always the prominent character; in
Sakespeare it is so, or is n: so, as the character is could I have overlooked you, my Launce, and my In itself calculated, or not calculated, to form the plot. Launce's dog, and my Dogberry? To say that Falstaff Don John is the main-spring of the plot of this play ; makes us forget Dogberry is, as Dogberry himself but he is merely shown, and then withdrawn."
would say, most tolerable and not to be endured. And Among the most original and ingenious of the Shake
yet Shakespeare, after pouncing on this ridiculous prey,
springs up, forthwith, to high dramatic effect, in making speare critics of Germany is Dr. Ulrici, whose “ Essay
Claudio, who had mistakenly accused Hero, so repenton Shakespeare's Dramatic Wit, and his Relation to Cal. deron and Goethe" is founded mainly on the idea that
ant as to consentingly marry another woman, her supShakespeare's peculiar and essential difference from
posed cousin, under a veil, which, when it is lifted, disother dramatic poets consists in a view of human life
plays his own vindicated bride, who had been supposed suggested or unfolded by Christian revelation, in oppo
to have died of grief, but who is now restored to him,'
like another Alcestis, from the grave. sition to one derived from mythological paganism or natural reason. The reader will readily acknowledge
“At the same time, if Shakespeare were looking a share of truth in this proposition; while, in the bold
over iny shoulder, I could not disguise some objections and unqualified manner in which it is announced, and
to this comedy, which involuntarily strike me as debarthe extent to which it is carried, it has much the air ring it from ranking among our Poet's most enchanting of paradoxical hypothesis. We are indebted to an ex
dramas. I am on the whole, I trust, a liberal on the cellent paper on Shakespearian literature, in the “ Edin
score of dramatic probability. Our fancy and its faith burgh Review," for 1840, for the following abridgment delighted withal; but, if I may use a vulgar saying, 'a
are no niggards in believing whatsoever they may be of Ulrici's analysis of the comedy before us :
willing horse should not be ridden too hard.' Our fan“ Ulrici's theory, as to the leading idea of Much Ado ciful faith is misused when it is spurred and impelled to ABOCT Nothing, is exceedingly ingenious. He con believe that Don John, without one particle of love for siders the play as a representation of the contrast and Hero, but out of mere personal spite to Claudio, should contradiction between life, in its real essence, and the contrive the infernal treachery which made the latter aspect which it presents to those who are engaged in its assuredly jealous. Moreover, during one half of the struggle. And ihis contradiction, he tells us, is set forth play, we have a disagreeable female character in that in an acted commentary on the title of the drama-a of Beatrice. Her portrait, I may be told, is deeply series of incidents which, in themselves neither real drawn, and minutely finished. It is; and so is that of nor strange, nor important, are regarded by the actors Benedick, who is entirely her counterpart, except that as being all these things. The war at the opening, it is he is less disagreeable. But the best-drawn portraits said, begins without reason and ends without result; by the finest masters may be admirable in execution. Don Pedro seems to woo Hero for himself, while he
though unpleasant to contemplate, and Beatrice's porgains her for his friend; Benedick and Beatrice, after trait is in this category. She is a tartar, by Shakecarrying on a merry campaign of words without real
speare's own showing, and, if a natural woman, is not a enmity, are entrapped into marriage without real love; pleasing representative of the sex. In befriending Hero, the leading story rests in a seeming faithlessness, and she almost reconciles us to her, but not entirely; for a its results are a seeming death and funeral, a challenge good heart, that shows itself only on extraordinary ocwhich produces no fighting, and a marriage in which casions, is no sufficient atonement for a bad temper, the bride is a pretender; and the weakness and shadow which Beatrice evidently shows. The marriage of the iness of human wishes and plans are exposed with yet marriage-hating Benedick and the furiously anti-nuptial more cutting irony in the means that bring about the
Beatrice is brought about by a trick. Their friends fortunate catastrophe-an accident in which the unwit. contrive to deceive them into a belief that they love ting agents, headed by Dogberry, the very representa each other, and partly by vanity--partly by a mutual tive of the idea of the piece, are the lowest and most affection, which had been disguised under the bickerings stupid characters of the whole group. The Poet's of their wit—they have their hands joined, and the conreaders may hesitate in following his speculative critic solations of religion are administered, by the priest who the whole way in this journey to the temple of abstract marries them, to the unhappy sufferers. truth; but there can be no reasonable doubt that, for a “Mrs. Jameson, in her characters of Shakespeare, long part of it, he has followed the right track. And it concludes with hoping that Beatrice will live happy is interesting to trace how that great rule of the Poet, with Benedick; but I have no such hope; and my final which Coleridge has set down as characteristic of him, anticipation in reading the play is the certainty that his general avoidance of surprises—is here, as elsewhere, Beatrice will provoke her Benedick to give her much made subservient to the immediate purpose.”
and just conjugal castigation. She is an odious woman. Campbell's remarks on this play are written in a more
Her own cousin says of herworldly spirit, and in a splenetic humour :
Disdain and scorn ride sparkling in her eyes, "I fally agree with the admirers of this play in their
Misprizing what they look on-and her wit
Values itself so highly, that to her opinion as to the most of its striking merits. The scene
All matters else seem weak. She cannot love, of the young and guiltless heroine struck speechless by
Nor take no shape nor project of affection, the accusation of her lover, and swooning at the foot of
She is so self-endeared. the nuptial altar, is deeply touching. There is eloquence
“I once knew such a pair; the lady was a perfect in her speechlessness, and we may apply the words, * Ipsa silentia terrent,' amidst the silence of those who
Beatrice; she railed hypocritically at wedlock before
her marriage, and with bitter sincerity after it. She have not the ready courage to defend her, while her
and her Benedick now live apart, but with entire recipfather's harsh and hasty belief of her guilt crowns the
rocity of sentiments, each devoutly wishing that the pathos of her desolation. At this crisis, the exclamation of Beatrice, the sole believer in her innocence, O! on
other may soon pass into a better world. Beatrice is
not to be compared, but contrasted with Rosalind, who my soul, my cousin is belied,' is a relieving and glad voice in the wilderness, which almost reconciles me to
is equally witty; but the sparkling sayings of Rosalind Beatrice's otherwise disagreeable character. I agree drops on her bright hair in the woodland forest."
are like gems upon her head at court, and like dew. also that Shakespeare has, all the while, afforded the means of softening our dismayed compassion for Hero, We extract this last criticism, partly in deference to by our previous knowledge of her innocence, and we Campbell's general exquisite taste and reverent appreare sure that she shall be exculpated. Yet who, but ciation of Shakespeare's genius, and partly as an exShakespeare, could dry our tears of interest for Hero, ample of the manner in which accidental personal assoby so laughable an agent as the immortal Dogberry? ciations influence taste and opinion. The critical poet I beg pardon for having allowed that Falstaff makes us seems to have unhappily suffered under the caprices or forget all the other comic creations of our Poet. How insolence of some accomplished but fantastical female
wit, whose resemblance he thinks he recognizes in Bea such, we doubt not, was the result shown in the married trice; and then vents the offences of the belle of Edin life of Beatrice. burgh, or London, upon her prototype of Messina, or The objection to the character of the Bastard John goes more probably of the court of Queen Elizabeth. Those deeper into the sources of human action. It denies who, without encountering any such unlucky cause of the truth of such a character, for reasons which would personal prejudice, have looked long enough upon the apply also to that of Iago. I wish, for the honour of rapidly passing generations of wits and beauties in the human nature, that the objection were well founded; gay world to have noted their characters as they first and that the Poet had here drawn an unreal characappeared, and subsequently developed themselves in ter, acting from motives such as never influence condnct after life, will pronounce a very different judgment. || in real life. But, unhappily, it is not so. Experience Beatrice's faults are such as ordinarily spring from the shows too many instances of the infliction of causeless consciousness of talent and beauty, accompanied with the land bitter injury, without any adequate personal motive, high spirits of youth and health, and the play of a lively of passion or of interest, to suffer us to doubt the truth fancy. Her brilliant intellectual qualities are associated or probability of John, or Iago. Self-generated envy with strong and generous feelings, high confidence in and hatred, the natural "strong antipathy of bad to female truth and virtue, warm attachment to her friends, good," the Satanic pleasure of making others feel pangs and quick, undisguised indignation at wrong and injus- similar to those which guilt has made familiar to their tice. There is the rich material, which the experience own breasts, the very gratification derived from the exand the sorrows of maturer life, the affection and the ercise of malignant power,- every one of these has duties of the wife and the mother, can gradually shape | prompted many deeds and plots, surpassing in guilt the into the noblest forms of matronly excellence; and || revenge or hatred of ambition, rivalry, or jealousy.