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FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER DEFINED.
A forcible entry is the act of entering, in order to take posses-
sion thereof, upon any lands in a violent manner, whether such
violence consists in actual force applied to any other person or in 5
threats, or in breaking open any house or enclosure, or in collecting
together an unusual number of persons for the purpose of making
such entry, or in other conduct of the same kind.

It is immaterial whether the person making such an entry has or
has not a right to enter, provided that a person who so enters upon 10
land of his own, but which is in the custody of his servant or
bailiff, shall not commit thereby the offence of forcible entry.

A forcible detainer is the act of detaining any lands wrongfully
entered upon by the person detaining them, in a manner which
would have rendered an entry upon them for the purpose of taking 15
possession forcible.

Everyone who forcibly enters or forcibly detains any house or land shall be guilty of an indictable offence, and shall be liable upon conviction thereof to simple imprisonment.

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UNLAWFUL OATHS, SEDITIOUS WORDS, CONSPIRACIES,

AND LIBELS.

SECTION 52.

UNLAWFUL OATHS.

OATHS TO COMMIT MURDER OR TREASON.
Everyone shall be guilty of an indictable offence, and shall

upon

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conviction thereof be liable to penal servitude for life, who-

(a.) Administers, or causes to be administered, or aids or assists
at the administering or taking, of any oath, engagement, or obliga-
tion in the nature of an oath, purporting or intending to bind the
person taking the same to commit high treason or murder or any 30
crime punishable with penal servitude for life on the first offence; or

(6.) Takes any such oath or engagement.

SECTION 53.

OTHER UNLAWFUL OATHS.

Everyone shall be guilty of an indictable offence, and shall be liable 35 upon conviction thereof to seven years penal servitude, who-

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(a.) Administers, or causes to be administered, or aids or assists at A.D. 1878. the administering or taking of any oath, or engagement, or obligation in the nature of an oath, purporting or intending to bind the

person taking the same5

(i.) To engage in any mutinous or seditious purpose ;
(ii.) To disturb the public peace ;
(iii.) To be of any association, society, or confederacy formed for

any such purpose;

(iv.) To obey the orders or commands of any committee or body 10

of men not lawfully constituted, or of any leader or com-
mander, or other person not having authority by law for that

purpose;
(v.) Not to inform or give evidence against any associate, con-

federate, or other person ; 15

(vi.) Not to reveal or discover any unlawful combination or con

federacy, or any illegal act done or to be done; or any illegal
oath or engagement or obligation which may have been admi-
nistered or tendered to or taken by any person, or the import of

any such oath or engagement or obligation; or who 20 (6.) Takes any such oath or engagement or obligation.

This and the last preceding section shall extend to acts done by Her Majesty's natural born and naturalized subjects in any part of the world.

SECTION 54.

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COMPULSION, HOW FAR A DEFENCE.

Provided that any person who takes any such oath or engagement as is referred to in either of the last two preceding sections under compulsion, shall be excused from all punishment in respect

thereof if within fourteen days after the taking thereof, he declares 30 the same, and what he knows touching the same, and the persons

by whom, and in whose presence, and when and where such oath or engagement was administered or taken, by information on oath before one of Her Majesty's justices of the peace, or one of Her

Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, or Her Majesty's Privy 35 Council; or if he is in actual service in Her Majesty's forces by sea

or land, either by such information on oath as aforesaid, or by information to his commanding officer, and if he makes such declaration within fourteen days after the taking of the oath, or if he is

hindered from making it by actual force or sickness then within four 40 days of the cessation of such hindrance.

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SEDITIOUS INTENTION, SEDITIOUS WORDS, SEDITIOUS LIBELS, AND SEDITIOUS

CONSPIRACIES DEFINED.
A seditious intention is an intention-

To bring into hatred or contempt, or to excite disaffection against 5
the person of Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, or the Government
and Constitution of the United Kingdom, or of any part of it, as by
law established, or either House of Parliament, or the administration
of justice ;

Or to excite Her Majesty's subjects to attempt to procure, other- 10
wise than by lawful means, the alteration of any matter in Church
or State by law established ;

Or to raise discontent or disaffection amongst Her Majesty's sub-
jects ;

Or to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different 15 classes of such subjects:

Provided that

No one shall be deemed to have a seditious intention only because he intends to show that Her Majesty has been misled or mistaken in her measures ;

20 Or to point out errors or defects in the Government or Constitution of the United Kingdom, or of any part of it, as by law established, or in the administration of justice, with a view to the reformation of such alleged errors or defects;

Or to excite Her Majesty's subjects to attempt to procure by lawful 25 means the alteration of any matter in Church or State by law established;

Or to point out, in order to their removal, matters which are producing, or have a tendency to produce, feelings of hatred and ill-will between different classes of Her Majesty's su bjects.

Seditious words are words expressive of or intended to carry into execution a seditious intention.

A seditious libel is a libel expressive of or intended to carry into
execution a seditious intention.

A seditious conspiracy is an agreement between two or more 35
persons to do anything to give effect to or to carry into execution
a seditious intention.

SECTION 56.

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PUNISHMENT OF SEDITIOUS OFFENCES.

Everyone who speaks any seditious words or publishes any 40 seditious libel, or is a party to any seditious conspiracy, shall be

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guilty of an indictable offence, and shall be liable upon conviction A.D. 1878. thereof to simple imprisonment.

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CHAPTER VIII.
OFFENCES RELATING TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

SECTION 57.
VIOLATIONS OF AMBASSADORS' PRIVILEGES.
Everyone shall be guilty of an indictable offence, and shall upon
conviction thereof be liable to imprisonment, who does any act in
violation of any privilege protecting from arrest any ambassador or
other public minister of any foreign prince or state authorised and
received as such by Her Majesty or any servant of such person
registered in the office of a Principal Secretary of State or in the
office of the Sheriff of London and Middlesex.

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SECTION 58.

LIBELS ON FOREIGN POWERS.

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Everyone shall be guilty of an indictable offence, and shall upon conviction thereof be liable to imprisonment, who publishes any libel tending to degrade, revile, or expose to hatred and contempt

any foreign prince, ambassador, or foreign dignitary, or any body of
20 persons exercising public authority in any foreign country, with

intent to disturb peace and friendship between the United Kingdom
and the country to which any such person belongs.

Provided that nothing shall be deemed to be an offence against
this section which would not be deemed to be an offence under the
25 provisions of this Act relating to libels if the persons libelled were

subjects of Her Majesty.

CHAPTER IX.
OFFENCES AGAINST PERSONS ON THE HIGH SEAS.

SECTION 59.

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PIRACY BY THE LAW OF NATIONS DEFINED.

Piracy by the law of nations is

(a.) The act of doing any of the following things without public authority, and under such circumstances that the act if done in England would have been robbery as herein-after defined ; that is to

35 say,

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A.D. 1878.

(i.) Taking a ship on the high seas or within the jurisdiction of

the Admiral from the possession or control of a person lawfully
entitled to it, and carrying away either the ship itself or any
of its goods, tackle, furniture, or apparel, or any person on board

of it without his consent;
(ii.) Carrying away, throwing overboard, or destroying any part

of the goods or merchandise on board of any such vessel :
(b.) The act of cruising on the high seas or in any place where
the Admiral has jurisdiction without public authority, and with
intent to do any of the things specified in sub-section (a).

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SECTION 60.

PUNISHMENT OF PIRACY.

Every one who commits piracy shall be guilty of an indictable
offence, and shall be liable upon conviction thereof to the following
punishments :

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(a.) He shall suffer death if, with intent to commit, or at the time
of, or immediately before or immediately after committing piracy,
he assaults with intent to murder any person, or stabs, cuts, or
wounds any person or unlawfully does any act by which the life of
any person may be endangered.

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(b.) In all other cases he shall be liable to penal servitude for life.

This section extends to all persons whatever, whether they are or are not svhjects of Her Majesty.

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Everyone shall be guilty of an indictable offence, and shall be liable upon conviction thereof to penal servitude for life :

(a.) Who fraudulently misappropriates any ship, vessel, or boat, arms, ammunition, or merchandize, with intent that they should be employed in committing piracy; or

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(b.) Who incites any person to commit piracy, or brings to any
person any seducing message from any pirate; or

(c.) Who knowingly trades with any pirate in any way whatever,
or knowingly furnishes any pirate with stores of any sort, or know-
ingly fits out any vessel intended to be used for the purpose of 35
committing piracy, or of trading or corresponding with any pirate;

or

(d.) Knowingly consults or corresponds with any pirate.

This section extends to all acts done by any natural born or naturalized subject of Her Majesty in any part of the world. 40

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