## General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications |

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Page 39

particular, the second principle of

a certain quantity, called entropy, must increase to a maximum, and eventually ...

**Thermodynamics**expressly declares that its laws apply only to closed systems. Inparticular, the second principle of

**thermodynamics**states that, in a closed system,a certain quantity, called entropy, must increase to a maximum, and eventually ...

Page 151

Unsolved Problems At present, we do not have a

would define the steady state in open systems in a similar way as maximum

entropy defines equilibrium in closed systems. It was believed for some time that

such ...

Unsolved Problems At present, we do not have a

**thermodynamic**criterion thatwould define the steady state in open systems in a similar way as maximum

entropy defines equilibrium in closed systems. It was believed for some time that

such ...

Page 163

The concepts of information theory— particularly in the equivalence of

information and negative entropy—correspond therefore to “closed”

systems. However ...

The concepts of information theory— particularly in the equivalence of

information and negative entropy—correspond therefore to “closed”

**thermodynamics**(thermostatics) rather than irreversible**thermodynamics**of opensystems. However ...

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### Contents

Introduction | 3 |

On the History of Systems Theory | 10 |

Trends in Systems Theory | 17 |

Copyright | |

11 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

allometric animals appears applied approach aspects atoms basic Bertalanffy biological catabolism causality cell characteristics chemical classical closed systems complex components concept consideration considered constant contrast cultural cybernetics defined differential dynamic elements energy entities entropy equations equifinality equilibrium essentially evolution example existence experience expressed fact feedback fields formulation function game theory growth curves homeostasis homeostatic human behavior important increase individual information theory interaction isomorphic kinetics language laws living organism Lotka machine mathematical means mechanisms mechanistic mental metabolic rate modern nature º º open systems organismic phenomena philosophy physical chemistry physics physiological possible present principle problems processes protein psychology psychophysical quantitative reaction reality regulations relations scheme schizophrenia scientific sense servomechanisms similar so-called sociology specific steady structure symbolic system theory teleology theoretical theory of open thermodynamics tion vitalistic Volterra whole world picture