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316

one of the “blue-points” referred to at p. 414? I think it is, and that it means to tie more loosely, or to allow more

latitude.) Cæsar when landing in Africa, fell as he went out of

the ship, which chance he turned to the better part

and said I haue thee fast in my hands, O Africa!" 310 A similar tale is told of William the Conqueror when he

landed in England, as every school-boy knows. Philip and cheinie

311 Equivalent to a mere mob or rabble ; tag-rag and bob-tail.

“ Loiterers I kept so many

Both Philip, Hob, and Cheany.
That, that way nothing geany,
Was thought to make me thrive."

Tusser (1812 Reprint) p. vi.
More propense

...313, 314 Had more propensity to; or was more inclined and disposed to. To cry at the high crossse

To talk of openly at the market-place, which often had a tall cross in the centre of a raised platform, with six or eight rows of steps on every side, on which the market women set themselves with their baskets and goods, and from which public announcements were made. Talked at rouers ...

320 At random, as the following passage shows most conclusively:

“ And out of these haue I pieked suche puinctes as semed to be moste effectuall and moste helping to the feith, and to the deuout godlynesse of the ghospell : not geuying it a slendre litell touch here & there as it were at rouers, and as men gather floures here and there one at auenture as thei come to hand : but folowyng the ordre of the tyme and the due course or processe of matiers.”Paraphrase of Erasmus, Luke, f. 2. The "people" seldom led by reason, and never to be relied on ...

...163, 324
“O stormy people, unsad and ever untrewe,
And undiscret, and chaunging as a fane,
Delyting ever in rombel that is newe,
For lik the moone ay wax ye and wane;
Ay ful of clappyng, dere y-nough a jane,

(*a farthing]
Youre doom is fals, your constaunce yvel previth,
A ful gret fool is he that on you leevith.”

Chaucer,-- The Clerke's Tale, Vol. 11., p. 154.

“ Popular errors are more nearly founded upon an erroneous inclination of the people ; as being the most deceptable part of mankind, and ready with open arms to receive the encroachments of Error. . They commonly affect no man any further than he deserts his reason, or complies with their aberrancies. Hence they embrace not Vertue for itself, but its rewards. . . . Their individual imperfections being great, they are moreover enlarged by their aggregation; and being erroneous in their single numbers, once huddled together, they will be Error it self. For being a confusion of Knaves and Fools, it is but natural if their

determinations be monstrous, and many ways inconsistent with truth. It had overcome the patience of Job, as it did the meekness of Moses, and would surely have mastered any but the lasting sufferance of God; had they beheld the mutiny in the Wilderness after ten great Miracles. . . . . . It is the greatest example of Lenity in our Saviour, when he desired of God forgiveness unto those, who having one day brought him into the City in Triumph, did presently after, act all dishonour upon him, and nothing could bee heard but Crucifige, in their Courts. Certainly, he that considereth these things in God's peculiar people will easily discern how little of truth there is in the wayes of the Multitude; and though sometimes they are flattered with that Aphorism, will hardly believe, The voice of the People to be the voice of God.”—Sir T. Browne's Vulgar Errors (1686)

P. 7-8.
Beeyng set agog to thinke all the worlde otemele

329 A singular saying, of which this is an early instance. The memorie of these [great kings and generals) actes is

now cleane extincted, the memorie of Cicero by
reason of his most noble bokes is immortall, and
shall neuer die while the worlde shall stande

339 See this great truth eloquently enforced by Lord Bacon, at the conclusion of the First Book of his Advancement of Learning.

“ Lastly, leaving the vulgar arguments, that in learning man excelleth man in that wherein man excelleth beasts; that by learning man ascendeth to the heavens and their motions, where in body he cannot come, and the like ; let us conclude with the dignity and excellency of knowledge and learning in that whereunto man's nature doth most aspire, which is, immortality and continuance: for to this tendeth generation, and raising of houses and families; to this buildings, foundations, and monuments; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, and celebration, and in effect the strength of all other human desires. We see then how far the monuments of wit and

learning are more durable than the monuments of power or of the hands. For have not the verses of Homer continued twenty-five hundred years, or more, without the loss of a syllable or letter ; during which time, infinite palaces, temples, castles, cities, have been decayed and demolished ? It is not possible to have the true pictures of Cyrus, Alexander, Cæsar; no, nor of the kings or great personages of much later years; for the originals cannot last, and the copies cannot but leese of the life and truth. But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and cast their seeds in the minds of others, provoking and causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding ages : so that, if the invention of the ship was thought so noble, which carrieth riches and commodities from place to place, and consociateth the most remote regions in participation of their fruits, how much more are letters to be magnified, which, as ships, pass through the vast seas of time, and make ages so distant to participate of the wisdom, illuminations, and inventions, the one of the other? Nay further, we see some of the philosophers which were least divine, and most immersed in the senses and denied generally the immortality of the soul, yet came to this point, that whatsoever motions the spirit of man could act and perform without the organs of the body, they thought might remain after death, which were only those of the understanding, and not of the affection ; so immortal and incorruptible a thing did knowledge seem unto them to be.”

He then goes on to show that, as sows will wallow in the mire, mean and little-minded men will prefer grovelling pursuits, and thus concludes :

“Nevertheless, I do not pretend, and I know it will be impossible for me, by any pleading of mine, to reverse the judgment, either of Æsop's Cock, that preferred the barleycorn before the gem; or of Midas, that being chosen judge between Apollo, president of the Muses, and Pan, god of the flocks, judged for plenty: or of Paris, that judged for beauty and love against wisdom and power; nor of Agrippina, Occidat matrem, modo imperet, that preferred empire with conditions never so detestable; or of Ulysses, Qui vetulam prætulit immortalitati, being a figure of those which prefer custom and habit before all excellency; or of a number of the popular judgments. For these things continue as they have been : but so will that also continue whereupon learning hath ever relied, and which faileth not: Justificata est sapientia a filiis suis.Lord Bacon's Advancement of Learning, Book I., Pp. 89-92.

Yes, wisdom is justified of her children. This note cannot better conclude than with Lord Houghton's beautiful sonnet :

...

“Because the few with signal virtue crowned,

The heights and pinnacles of Human mind,
Sadder and wearier than the rest are found,

Wish not thy soul less wise or less refined.
True, that the dear delights that every day

Cheer and distract the pilgrim are not theirs;
True, that, though free from passion's lawless sway,

A loftier being brings severer cares;
Yet have they special pleasures—even mirth-

By those undreamed of who have only trod
Life's valley smooth; and if the rolling earth

To their nice ear have many a painful tone,

They know man does not live by joy alone,
But by the presence of the power of God.”

Lord Houghton.
By hooke or crooke

340 In one way or another. An allusion to the custom of gathering such wood in forests as could be got with a hook or a crook : that is, the dry and withered branches which might be broken off with a long hooked stick, somewhat like a shepherd's crook; and such branches and underwood as might be cut with a hook, somewhat like a reaper's sickle, but broader in the blade and stronger; it is yet as common as the sickle, and nothing is more usual in rural districts than to hear a man told to “ go and hook out” such a bank or corner.

“ Nor will suffer this boke,

By hooke or by crooke,
Prynted for to be.”

Dyce's Skelton's Colin Clout.
“One couetous and ynsatiable cormaraunte and verye plage
of his natyue contrey may compasse abowte and inclose
many thousad acres of grouude to gether within one pale or
hedge, the husbandmen be thrust owte of their owne, orels
other by coueyne or fraude, or by vyolent oppression they be
put besydes it, or by wronges and iniuries they be so weried
that they be compelled to sell all : by one means therfore
or by other, other by howke or crooke they must nedes departe
awaye, pore sylie, wretched soules men, women, husbandes,
wyues, fatherles chyldren, widdowes, woful mothers with their
yonge babes, and their householde smal in substance, and
muche in nombre, as husbandrie requireth many handes."

-Raphe Robynson's trans. More's Utopia, 1551, sig. c vii. On a time bragging and cocking with Antonius, he craked and made vaunte

340, 367 Crakers and bosters, with Courtiers aduenterous,

Baudes and pollers, with common extortioners,

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Are taken nowe adayes in the world moste glorious :
But the giftes of grace and all wayes gratious
We haue excluded thus live we carnally,
Utterly subdued to all lewdnes and folly.”

Barclay's Ship of Fooles, (1570) " Proeme."
Worse ende of the staffe ...

340 Father of the modern "he has got hold of the wrong end of the stick." Vse to crie out as if they were in a mylne or a roode lofte

340 A humorous comparison which needs no explanation, but is interesting as a colloquialism used so long ago. Wise as a capon

341 The above remarks apply to this phrase also. Oule faced doudes ...

344 This word yet survives as dowdy," and means vulgar, or

rather, gaudy and "dirty-fine." Easie and soso

348 It is but “SO-SO or “very middling," a common saying. Fest of the wine bearing its age well

348 A joke 2,000 years old, which has, in modern days, been

attributed successively to a number of “good fellows." The well known jest of the man who was tied to a sword

349 Another specimen of Roman Wit, now to be found in all collections of the “Newest Jests and Witticisms, and generally

attributed to the popular "funny man" of the day. Good example of a Latin pun

353 The fondness of the Romans for puns has before been pointed

out. Yet another well-known joke of the woman who had said

she was thirty years old for the last twenty years... 354 Either Cicero was the author of a great many of the puns

and jokes yet current and falsely attributed to modern sayers of

good things," or all the floating witticisms of the time were fathered upon him then, as in modern days, they have been successively, upon Sheridan, Theodore Hook, Douglas Jerrold, &c.

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