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took the energetic and the ambitious along with the idle, the daring spirits saw a path before them, clear, save from storm and shot, all the way up to admiral of the fleet; and there cannot be a doubt, that while this was some compensation to them, for the hardship of impressment, and the taking of them forcibly away from their natural hope of ultimately rising to the command of merchant vessels, constituted the master-pulse in the heart of the navy. But if this is to be taken away; how, with the evidence of those who have been promoted, as well as of those who have not been promoted, staring them in the face, can any seamen, of any spirit, or any ambition (and without these, what is a seaman good for?) remain in the navy, if there be a possibility of escaping from the hopeless degradation to which, in consequence of the fatal system, they are subjected? It is clear, therefore, that the ultimate effect of even an apparent partiality in the naval promotions, would paralyse the spirit of every crew, down to the meanest individual, and that consequently whatever were the ability or the spirit of the injudiciously-chosen officers-the officers elevated over the heads of men of longer standing or greater experience, they would want these daring individuals, without whom the genius of a Nelson had been in vain.

But, in the event of a war breaking out (and the experience of a thousand years has shewn that, in the navy at least, such contingency ought never to be overlooked), the deterioration of the crews of our ships of war, how fatal soever it may be, will not be the worst part of the evil. Other nations have shewn that they could find sailors not very much inferior to our own, while the inferiority of their officers was proverbial; and proverbial, because it is utterly impossible to form a good naval officer in any school, save that of experience. No study of tactics, through the medium of books, how much soever the party may be disposed to such a study, can impart this ability; the naval commander must learn what he has to do, upon the element where he is to do it; and before he can successfully work a ship in battle, he must be able to work that ship as a seaman, and give orders for the trimming her to the elements, as well as for managing her fighting tackle, so that she may combat successfully with the enemy. All this is demanded, not merely in consequence of the reason of the thing itself, but in order to inspire that confidence in the commander which is necessary to the prompt discharge of so desperate a duty of fighting men upon the seas; and if he, to whom the important command is entrusted, is not able to acquit himself as a thorough seaman at all points, seamen will not, and cannot, from the whole tenor of their nature and habits, pay him the requisite degree of respect; and thus their belief in his invincibility being shaken, it will to a certainty shake their own courage.

Now, those scions of aristocracy, of short standing and no experience, who have been promoted in the room, and over the heads

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of those veterans to whom, both in distributive and national justice, the promotion belonged, must be exceedingly lame in all the better and more necessary elements of their profession. They must remain so, from the inactivity of the fleets; nor would it be possible, even although those fleets were kept in commission and at sea, at a war-expense, to make these young men at all equal to the veterans; because, even granting that they might, in time, learn something of mere seamanship, they would still be fair-weather jacks,' in the fighting sense of the words; and thus the longer that the peace continues, even although that peace were made as expensive in the navy as possible, the more would the navy be deteriorated, and the less would it be fitted for action, in the event of its being again necessary. Indeed, had the system of promotion been what it ought to have been, there should not have been a single landsman (for those of whom we speak are no better than landsmen) promoted, until the very last remaining midshipman, or even intelligent man before the mast, who had fought with Nelson, had been raised to a command. We ask, if this, or any thing like this, has been done? and for our country's sake, we turn from the answer with a mixture of sorrow and indignation-sorrow, that the strong arm of England should be thus broken in the day of peace; and indignation at those by whom the deed has been perpetrated.

ART. XI. Voyage a Madrid, (Août et Septembre, 1826). Par Adolphi Blanqui. 8vo. pp. 240. 7s. 6d. Paris: Doudey-Dupré. London: Treuttel & Würtz. 1826.

HOWEVER pleasant a journey from Paris to Madrid may be to the person who performs it, and we know of few "highways" that offer so many changes of agreeable scenery; yet we confess that little can now be told of such a tour, which we have not already learned from a multitude of travellers. Wè did not, therefore, expect any new discoveries in the volume before us, particularly as it relates to a country, that, perhaps, of all others in Europe, is the least subject to variation. We thought, however, that as Mr. Blanqui had been in Spain so recently as the autumn of the last year, he might have collected some political details not altogether unworthy of attention. In this expectation we have not been quite disappointed, as, in fact, it was his especial object to examine the actual political condition both of Spain and Portugal. Had he been permitted to carry his intention into effect, we have no doubt that he would have produced a much more important volume than that which now lies before us. But as the miserable policy of the Spanish government prevented him from proceeding farther than Madrid, we have here only such observations as a very limited survey enabled him to make.

He has, very unnecessarily, as we think, devoted a considerable portion of his work to the mere description of the towns and villages through which he passed, after crossing the Bidassoa, particu

larly as he deviated in no instance from the royal road through Toloso, Vittoria, and Burgos. We shall therefore take leave to join him at once at the barrier of Fuencarral, where we find him involved in as many difficulties, before he effects his entrance into Madrid, as if he had arrived there a declared enemy, sword in hand, to demand it. His passport had been regularly signed by all the numerous authorities that may be said to line the road from Irun to the capital, and it exhibited in clear and legible characters, the words pour voyager en Espagne et Portugal. He was told by the officer at the gate, that he could not be permitted to pass, as his passport did not contain the word Madrid! "What, sir," he asked, "is Madrid then not in Spain?" "We cannot help it," was the only reply he could get for eight hours, during which he was detained at the gate. The cabinet having been consulted, we presume, in the meantime, and all the old women of the court having deliberately considered the matter in their camarilla, the formidable Frenchman was at length admitted, and behold him in his lodgings at the Puerta del Sol, the rendezvous of all the quidnuncs of Madrid.

The severity of the inquisition, now practised at the gates of this capital, is ridiculous beyond all conception.

During these tedious hours of expectation, I examined carefully the vulgar, stupid countenance of the deputy, who affected, in a sort of box which he called an office, all the importance of a Prefect of police. Neither peasants nor travellers, riding or walking, could enter the city without shewing to this person a passport or certificate. Each had to undergo a regular inquisition, although his passport was perfectly correct. "Who are you? where do you come from? what is your business at Madrid ? where do you reside? when do you leave?" Such were the questions put by the commissary, with a magisterial air, to every person that passed; the answers being carefully taken down in a registry by the secretary. During the interval of several hours that I was compelled to remain in this den of spies, several of the poor peasants, mistaking me for an officer, came and presented their papers to me with trembling hands. Some of them poured forth an account of themselves with such profusion as to leave me no opportunity of undeceiving them; whilst I saw others eagerly pressing towards me, in the hope of having their business more speedily dispatched.' pp. 74, 75.

But this sort of personal investigation, was nothing to what Mr. Blanqui had to undergo at the office of the police, whither he went to get his passport vised for Portugal. We shall give his account of his interview with the intendant.

'On entering the office of the Intendant, I saluted him in Spanish; but, with an impatient and disdainful gesture, he referred me to his Secretary, Don Pedro Vingolas, adding, in a low voice, "There goes Lafitte's agent.' "You are known here," said M. Vingolas; "the French police sent us notice of your coming; you are not what you say you are, your passport is not regular." The Intendant then handed him the note sent from Paris. "Sir," said I, " permit me first to reply to M. Intendant, who accuses me

of being an agent of M. Lafitte. M. Lafitte has his own affairs to attend to, and, probably, takes but very little interest in your's; if the police of Paris has announced my arrival to you, it has also furnished me with a passport, inviting you to lend me assistance when necessary. This passport is perfectly regular, and I am certainly the person I declare myself to be." "You are rich?" "Sir, I have no need to ask money from any one." "You are rich; for it requires to be so to come into this country." Sir, that has nothing to do with my passport. It has been countersigned by your consul at Bayonne, and by all the authorities, from the frontiers to Madrid." "But I don't see the visa of the Spanish ambassador at Paris." "That visa is not strictly necessary; I have travelled through England and Scotland without the visa of the Spanish ambassador, and was never molested." Why have you taken the title of surgeon only, and omitted that of professor of the School of Commerce?" "These two


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titles are not incompatible. Hold out your arm, and shall see I took the one which suited me best." "You came to Spain, you say, to instruct yourself; but there is nothing here superior to what you have left behind." "Were this argument to have any weight, a Frenchman would but rarely quit his country. I have already, Sir, seen many interesting things, and have still many to see, though Madrid is not larger than one of the Fauxbourgs of Paris." "I can scarcely believe that you have come here merely to instruct yourself. You have been in the country but a short time; what have you already learned?" "I have learned that your hospitals make one shudder; that your finances are in disorder; that your custom-house officers pay more attention to their own interests than your's; and that your Castilles are greatly in want of water." "What, is that all ?" "Why, I have heard, besides, that the peasants of Andalusia are skilful in the cultivation of cotton, sugar-cane, and cochineal; my intention is to judge of this with my own eyes. I have letters for all the merchants of your southern provinces." Vagabonds are always well supplied with letters." "How, then, do you distinguish persons of probity? But, for your further security, I shall tell you, that I am a married man; that I have left my wife enceinte; and that I have need of peace, both for her interest as well as my own.' "We have nothing to do here with the interest of women with child." "Mr. Secretary, the police of France is not infallible; and if it has, through mistake or baseness, represented me to you as a dangerous and suspicious person, I warn you to reflect before you insult me. I know the respect due to your character-do not forget the laws of hospitality."-pp. 84-88.

At the close of this conversation, not less characteristic of the Spaniard than of the Frenchman, our traveller was desired to return the following day, when his hopes of being allowed to proceed to Portugal were finally extinguished. We must translate the author's note of this conversation also, as it is really curious.

'In the morning I returned to the police, and was received this time by the secretary Vingolas. "We certainly cannot, sir," said he, accosting me, "let you have a passport for Portugal.' "May I take the liberty of asking the ground of your refusal?" "Your explanations are not satisfactory." "I think that they are perfectly clear." "They should have been so, to enable you to get what you want.” "What do you charge me with?"

"Nothing." "This arbitrary proceeding, sir, terribly resembles the inquisition." "To be sure, all this is purely inquisitorial (these two words still echo in my ears), it is on account of the inquisition that we are here, what! you who are reputed to be so knowing, not to be aware of this?" "I should have done you that honour, sir." "What a youth it is! the secret is, to be strong: it costs a great deal to find it out-but once have the power you ought to use it. This was what Buonaparte did." "A pleasing patron no doubt for legitimate monarchs." Again, you shew your youth, moderate yourself-do not go to Portugal. We will return to you your papers only on condition that you state in writing the places you have frequented, and the persons you have visited." "Sir, I request to be allowed twentyfour hours to deliberate, before I submit to this insult." Thus ended our conversation.'-pp. 89, 90.

Strange to say, the French minister at Madrid, or rather his secretary, advised M. Blanqui to submit to the indignity which the police imposed upon him, of giving in a list of the places which he had frequented, and of the persons whom he had visited. But his progress to Portugal was absolutely forbidden. From all that has since occurred, no reasonable man can doubt, that the preparations then making, near the frontiers of that country, for the invasion since carried into effect, were the real cause of this extraordinary vigilance.

Our traveller, being now obliged to end his tour at Madrid, amused himself, in that dull and stately capital, as well as he could. We pass over his observations on its public buildings and general appearance; but before we come to his politial remarks, we must give a single anecdote, which speaks volumes for the wretched state of whole classes in the Peninsula.

'As I was leaving the theatre, a man approached me with evident confusion in his countenance, to beg charity. "Sir," said he, "I am an officer of artillery without any pay; I have three children to support-pray do something for me." Such applications are very common. An English traveller told me that while he was at Seville, some time ago, he was accosted by a very tall Spaniard, who told him to deliver his purse, or he would kill him if he hesitated. "There it is," said the stranger," but it is a miserable trade you drive, and that too in a dangerous place." The Spaniard, seeing that he was an Englishman, instantly altered his tone. "Sir, sir, my life is in your hands: here is my address, come and see me to-morrow it is in your power either to make me hang myself or to do me a great service; come I pray you: you have nothing to fear." The Englishman in effect went to the appointed place: there he found eight children, who were greedily devouring some fragments of coarse food, with all the appearance of distressing hunger. The father (the robber) offered to restore the purse to the stranger, who was now very much moved by what he saw; and he informed the English gentleman that he was a cashiered magistrate, whom despair had forced to this last resource.'— pp. 105, 106.

M. Blanqui confirms the views which we have always entertained of the effects likely to be produced by the presence of a French

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