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figures in the memory, IS, BY EMPLOYING THE INITIAL LETTER ONLY TO REPRESENT A FIGURE; which allows a copious choice of words, so that any person, wishing to fix a date in his memory, by this system, can always select words appropriate to his subject, and consequently so much more easily impressed and retained.

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Thus, the date of the Exodus, or the escape of Moses and the Israelites from Egypt, in the year 2513, is fixed by the words, "Safety for all Jews," which is certainly very appropriate to their deliverance from the tyranny of Pharaoh. The reader must remember, that the initials of each word give the figures composing the date: S stands for 2, F. for 5, A for 1, and J for 3. Again, in the fifth Epoch, the taking of Babylon and destruction of the impious Belshazzar, by Cyrus, in the year 3468, can any words be more appropriate than these, "God Ends Belshazzar's Power," which fix the date, G. standing for 3, E for 4, B for 6, and P for 8? Also, in the Epocha of the birth of our Saviour, in the year 4004, the words, " Earth Receives Redemption Eternal," are as suitable as possible to that happy event, E. standing for 4, R R for two cyphers, and E for 4. The reader will take care to bear in mind, that, in the sentence fixing the various dates, it is the first letter only of each word that represents the figure in its proper place. I have composed sentences for the principal historical dates, which the learner must carefully commit to memory, as he peruses this book.'pp. 2-6.

It is obvious, that this plan can be applied also, where it is necessary, to recollect distances, measurements, financial statements, and, indeed, on all occasions where figures are made use of.

Whatever may be thought of the author's art of memory, his historical view of the world is a most apocryphal composition. He has no difficulty in setting it down as a fact decided, that the garden of Eden was situated in Armenia, between the Euxine and Caspian seas! There are many other statements in his compendium, which shew that he is as little acquainted with authentic history, as he is with the syntax of the English tongue. Let the following sentence speak for itself:

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Though the nations enumerated in the following tables were not all established in the second epoch, it will convey a clearer idea of the peopleing of the various parts of the earth, and the settlements of the posterity of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, to show, at one view, the countries in which they ultimately founded separate governments.'-p. 19.

A clearer idea' than what? where is the comparison? Upon what member of the sentence does the infinitive mood to shew' depend? This is but one specimen out of many others which we had marked for their gross violations of grammar. An author who professes to instruct the world, ought at least to be acquainted with the discipline of his own language.

ART. XXI. A Treatise on the Statutes of Limitation. By William Blanshard, Esq., of the Middle Temple. 8vo. pp. 240. London: Butterworth and Son. 1826.

We have not had time to take earlier notice of this little treatise, though it has been lying before us for some months. It is one of the numerous law compilations which have appeared latterly; and except the novelty of

introducing in a single volume, a subject which has been hitherto regarded rather incidentally than elaborately, by the writers and commentators on the different branches of the profession, it has no particular claim to our approbation. The subject is one of interest to the public, and therefore may plead utility as a set-off against the rigid observations of severe and learned criticism. One of the first considerations which must naturally present themselves to the mind of every one who has occasion to commence a law-suit, either as agent, advocate, or client, is, whether the case he has to sustain does in any respect violate the regulations, laid down by the legislature from time to time to assure the property and protect the liberty of the subject. These regulations, if not the principal, ought to be at least the preliminary object of deliberation, both to client and lawyer. And certainly no portion of the voluminous code of laws with which the Statute Book is loaded, gives more satisfactory or more ample information on this matter, than the Statutes of Limitation. We are therefore glad to find a treatise on them exclusively, which we think Mr. Blanshard has been tolerably successful in producing. There is a sufficiently copious index, and list of the names of cases referred to; thereby rendering the work a useful appendage to the library of the tradesman, merchant, and lawyer, to each of whom it may frequently spare the loss of much time, expense, and anxiety. We therefore think it may be ranked among the useful publications of the day.

ART. XXII. Tausend und eine Nacht. Arabisch. Nach einer Handschriftaus Tunis. Thrausgegeben von Dr. Maximilian Habicht. Vol. 1 and 2. 16mo. Breslau: Black and Young. London. 1826.

It is with high feelings of satisfaction, that we congratulate Orientialists on the appearance of the present work. It is the first complete edition of the "Thousand-and-one Nights" that has ever been printed in Europe, and the form in which it is presented is at once beautiful and commodious. It would be idle in us to enter into a criticism of the merits of these attractive tales, which are as well known in all parts of Europe as in the country that produced them. The rapid sale of numerous editions of translations, in almost all the occidental languages, vouches sufficiently fort heir merits. Mr. Habicht, the editor, is a distinguished Orientalist, and some years since he met in Paris the Tunisian envoy, Mr. M. Annagar, with whom he formed a strict friendship, and who, on his return to Tunis, sent over to Mr. Habicht, several Arabic MSS., some of which he purchased, some he got copied for him. Among these, was a copy of the Thousand-and-one Nights, in 10 vols. large 8vo., of which the last volume is dated in the year 1144 of the Hejira (A.D. 1731). The first volume, Mr. H. had the advantage of comparing with a copy made by a Syrian, which is in his possession. Of the third volume also, which contains among others the Voyages of Sindbad, he has two duplicates; so that in those parts of the work the student will find many various readings carefully noted. Mr. Habicht has likewise appended to each volume a list of such words as occur and are not found in the dictionary. He speaks in high terms of a tolerably long tale, "The history of the Saif Dzyl Jezeni," which is not in the MSS. he has seen in different parts of Europe, but of which the fifth volume of his manuscript contains a considerable portion, and he is in daily expectation

of the remainder from Tunis. The work is printed in a small, but very beautiful and legible type, and holds forth strong attractions to the lover of oriental literature. Only the two first volumes have as yet been published, and it would appear that the editors intend to bring out a volume annually, till the whole work is completed.

ART. XXIII. An Historical and Topographical view of the Wapentake of Strafford and Tickhill; intended chiefly to illustrate its Ancient State. By John Wainwright. One Volume, 4to. 24. 2s. Sheffield: Blackwell. London: Longman and Co. 1826,

MR. WAINWRIGHT has here given us the first volume of a work, which besides its local interest, promises to contribute a copious and valuable addition to those topographical memorials of the ancient condition of Eng. land, which have been lately presented from various quarters to the public. It were only to be desired, that both Mr. Wainwright, and those who in other countries are engaged in pursuits such as his, might speak of families residing within the circle of their observation, with a little more regard to the rules of good taste. The days of adulation in literature is, we hope, gone by; we had imagined that the days of fulsome dedications had also finished their course, until we opened the first page of this quarto.

There is, perhaps, no county in England which possesses so many preeious remains of former ages, or offers so many materials for useful research, as Yorkshire. So far as Mr. Wainwright has executed his design, we must admit, that he has evinced great industry, and much of that enthusiastic veneration for the labours of our ancestors, which so well becomes an antiquary. There also is a quaintness in his style, particularly suitable to a work like this: if it had not occasionally swelled into a tone of pomposity, we own, we should have liked it much better.

Opinions are much divided as to the etymology of the word Wapentake. It means a division of a county furnishing men at arms, and most probably, was derived from the ancient custom of the Germans, mentioned by Tacitus, of signifying assent to the measures proposed by their leaders, by shaking their spears. Si displicuit sententia fremity aspernantur; sin placuit, frameas concutiunt And this was considered the most honourable kind of approbation which could be paid by a subject to his sovereign. To touch the spear or weapon hence came to signify submission on one side, and authority on the other; which agrees with the Saxon word 'wæpuntac,' or touching of the weapon, as a pledge of fidelity. The expression was easily transferred from the individuals to the district in which they resided.

It is not of course our purpose to enter into any account of the contents of this volume, which are sufficiently indicated by its title. Mr. Wainwright appears to have brought a liberal and enlightened mind to his task. He writes indeed under the strong influence of a peculiar religious creed, but that does not prevent him from doing justice to the founders of those .splendid ecclesiastical structures, which are among the most interesting ornaments of our country. To persons connected with the Wapentake this volume must prove highly acceptable. The general reader will also find in it much that is curious and instructive. We are glad to hear that the secound volume is far advanced in its progress, and we sincerely hope that Mr. Wainwright will obtain every assistance from the gentry of the district which is the object of his valuable labours.



APRIL, 1827.

ART. 1. The Life of Hugo Grotius: with Brief Minutes of the Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Literary History of the Netherlands. By Charles Butler, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn. 8vo. pp. 259. 7s. 6d. London :

Murray. 1826.

THERE has always appeared to us something peculiarly graceful and enviable in the character of Mr. Butler's mind. The union of acknowledged skill and eminence in a learned profession, with an elegant taste for general literature, is, in itself, an agreeable and attractive spectacle. But the alliance is still more pleasing, when, as in the case of this gentleman, it is adorned with spotless integrity, and the most amiable qualities of private life, with the mildest spirit of philosophy, and with a generous, yet chastened, zeal in the cause of civil and religious liberty. Devoted to letters for their own sake, and evidently seeking, in their pursuit, a tranquil relaxation from the severer employments and cares of business, Mr. Butler has found time for the composition of works, so varied and numerous, as might seem to have demanded an uninterrupted and exclusive existence of learned leisure. Yet he is well known to have been, at the same time, constantly and actively engaged in one of the most abstruse departments of legal practice; and his success is, therefore, in the highest degree, instructive and encouraging, since it offers an irrefragable proof of the possibility of combining great literary attainments, with well merited professional celebrity. Of the unquestionable tendency of these blended pursuits to elevate the character, and to purify it from the sordid corruption of worldly action, we need scarcely adduce the instance before us. We may be permitted, however, for a moment to intrude into the privacy of such a man, for the inculcation of his salutary example: we shall here no more be suspected of flattery, than if we spoke not of the living; and we know not why we should repress our admiration at the beautiful retrospect of this long life of honour and usefulness, in which letters have formed the recreation and delight of all seasons, and the especial solace of declining years.

By far the greater portion of Mr. Butler's works, bear the impress

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of that enthusiastic passion for literature, the modest indulgence of which, seems to have formed the single purpose of his writing. Without obtrusion of himself, and almost, as it were, in silence, he has gone on accumulating the stores of his knowledge, compiling as hę read, and dispensing the fruits of his studies. Without ostentation, and apparently without the design of throwing his authorship into prominent observation, he has usually put together his materials, just as they offered: and their arrangement seems never to have cost him a sensible effort. He gives us the idea of having written literally for his own amusement: there is never any ambitious pretension in his periods; never any laboured composition, or straining after effect. He tells whatever he has to say, in the plainest style, and utters his reflections, evidently, in the first terms in which they happen to rise upon his mind.

But this very simplicity of intention, and the absence of much selection in his matter, must be confessed often to weaken, materially, the great weight which his various learning and research, his refined literary tastes, and his philosophical spirit of reflection, should otherwise command. His compositions are always full of instructive details: but with these are too frequently mingled, particulars of trifling importance, and of ready access and familiarity to every scholar. It is no new remark, that, in the mere business of compilation, every book must necessarily be less learned than its author; but in Mr. Butler's productions, the disparity between the real erudition of the writer, and its palpable display, is unusually great. He has not the art-or he despises its deception-to use the thoughts and learning of other men, without formal acknowledgment; and hence his practice, which we have remarked upon former occasions, of too extensively quoting whole passages from earlier authorities, of which he might, without impropriety, have compressed the essence into a few paragraphs of his own language. Whether this plan may have originated in inadvertence or fastidiousness, it begets, unfairly enough, the suspicion of a defect in originality; and the appearance of borrowing from the stores of former writers, is produced by the very candour which refuses to conceal the sources of intelligence. The world are accustomed to judge of these matters, as if history itself were anything more than the compilation of facts and materials previously accumulated.

The memoir before us is distinguished by all those peculiarities of Mr. Butler's manner to which we have been referring; and we should, with equal certainty, have recognised it at once for the production of his pen, if it had failed to bear his name upon the titlepage. Like all his former historical essays, too, it has the charm of simplicity and brevity: and this is one of the most praiseworthy characteristics of the fruits of his researches. Having, in the singular ease of his style, less reason than most writers, to fear that the reader will tire over his pages, it has, besides, been his diffident care to avoid fatiguing attention, by even the ordinary length of a

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