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science. The object on the French side was the subjugation, on the British, the defence of Portugal. The force collected by the assailants on the frontiers of that kingdom, expressly for this enterprise, exceeded 100,000 men; and was commanded by Massena, reputed the most skilful, and until then the most fortunate, of the lieutenants of Bonaparte. This force, so immense for so narrow a theatre of operations, was opposed only by some 25,000 veteran British troops, and an equal number of raw Portugueze levies. By the skill of the modern Fabius, who directed the defence, 70,000 of the invaders were drawn into the heart of a country which had been deserted by its population, and bared of provisions. They were never even permitted to see the infantry of the retreating army, until they found it arrayed in the strong position which had been wisely chosen to try the courage of the young Portugueze soldiery, on the most advantageous ground. There, the first rude shock was given to the invaders. Still the retreat of the defenders was continued; and still the assailants were lured on by hope: until they found their course suddenly and unexpectedly arrested by the most stupendous chain of mountain intrenchments which the military art had ever constructed. Before these inexpugnable lines, the invaders lost above 20,000 men, without a blow being struck, by sickness and want; and when the campaign closed, the wreck of that brilliant army, wasted and dwindled to little more than the half of its original force, had been pursued to the frontiers from whence it had advanced.

In a political point of view, the campaign of 1810 was yet more important in its circumstances and event. It constituted the great crisis of the war in the Peninsula, and perhaps even in all Europe. It formed that point of re-action in the career of French conquest, from which all the subsequent reverses of Buonaparte may be dated. Up to that point, the progress of the French arms had never been decidedly arrested; but their total recoil before the lines of Torres Vedras was the commencement of a new æra. The successful maintenance of the struggle, even when the French invasion had reached the last nook of Portugal; the rolling back of the tide of war to the frontiers of that kingdom; and the evident ability of the British to hold the Peninsula as a constitutional battle-field against all the efforts of Napoleon, were auspicious and encouraging examples for the world. The constancy of the Spanish people, and the enduring energy of Britain, taught Russia in what spirit the gigantic power of Napoleon might be resisted, and awakened the subjugated nations of Germany to the earliest hope of deliverance.

ART. X. Sketches of Persia, from the Journals of a Traveller in the East. 2 vols. 8vo. 18s. London: Murray. 1827.

To the title of this little work we may, we believe, add the words By Sir John Malcolm.' We might produce abundance of internal evidence, to support the weight of our suspicions on this point, had they been at all liable to be doubted. In truth, Sir John has not evinced a great deal of anxiety, in order to conceal his identity with the author. He speaks, indeed, throughout in the third person of the Elchee; or, in other words, of the envoy from India to Persia, who is the prominent figure in these volumes; but he is so often fortunate in overhearing the communications whispered into the ear of that minister; enters so warmly into all his feelings; and appears so intimately acquainted with his most secret thoughts; that he betrays himself, unconsciously, through his thin disguise, and, more than once, throws it off entirely, as if it embarrassed him.

Except, perhaps, that it is the fashion of the day, for men of grave pursuits to send their lighter works into the world without direct acknowledgment, there is no reason why Sir John Malcolm should not have avowed his property in these sketches. They are composed of a number of little by-scenes, characteristic portraits of individuals, tales, anecdotes, and conversations, which, though they might be properly enough considered beneath the dignity of history, yet serve to advance our knowledge of the Persians and their country, more, perhaps, than all the histories that have been, or will be, written concerning them. We find here many features of that people, which have escaped the notice of even the most observant of our travellers. The author seems to be intimately acquainted with Persian life, through all its grades, having twice visited that country in the character of envoy from the governorgeneral of India, and being a complete adept in the language, the religion, and even the superstitions and prejudices of the nation. The most important, or rather, perhaps, we should say, the most epic, portions of the materials which he collected during his two missions, he has already given to the public, in his valuable History of Persia. The comic details of manners and amusements, the minor, though, perhaps, the most characteristic incidents of his journies; the peculiarities of the subordinate persons with whom he came in contact; and many pleasant discussions, literary and social, which could find no suitable place in his more extensive work, he has collected together in the volumes before us, from a number of journals, which, we are glad to hear, are still far from being exhausted. They are written in a tone of restrained, shall we say, of philosophic, humour? which renders them highly agreeable. There is something piquant in following a public functionary through the scene of his operations, conducting himself out

wardly with all the solemnity which his office requires, but at the same time keenly glancing from under his eye, as it were, upon the individuals that surround him, and deriving both amusement and instruction from the natural development of their characters. To this delightful vein of pleasantry, which pervades these volumes, the author adds, also, that best of all intellectual treasures, a copious store of good sense, founded on long experience. In the midst of his mirth, he loses no opportunity of suggesting observations useful to those who may be called upon to feel any interest in the affairs of Persia; and, now and then, he permits a chord or two of something like romantic feeling to be heard, which heightens the charm of his communications.

We shall pass over all that relates to the author's voyage from Bombay, or to his progress through the southern provinces of Persia to Teheran. This ground has been so recently described by Mr. Keppel, that we need not even allude to it, further than it is connected with the traits of manners which our author has sketched. On the arrival of the Elchee and his escort at Abusheher, the first thing they had to do, was to provide horses. We mention this, merely to introduce two anecdotes, which shew the very high value the Arabs, who abound on the Persian shore, set on their best animals:

"The Arabs place still more value on their mares than on their horses; but even the latter are sometimes esteemed beyond all price. When the envoy, returning from his former mission, was encamped near Bagdad, an Arab rode a bright bay horse, of extraordinary shape and beauty, before his tent, till he attracted his notice. On being asked if he would sell him -"What will you give me?" said he. "It depends upon his age; I suppose he is past five?" "Guess again," was the reply. "Four." "Look at his mouth," said the Arab with a smile. On examination he was found rising three, this, from his size and perfect symmetry, greatly enhanced his value. The envoy said, "I will give you fifty tomans." "A little more, if you please," said the fellow, apparently entertained. "Eighty! --a hundred!" He shook his head and smiled. The offer came at last to two hundred tomans! "Well," said the Arab, seemingly quite satisfied, "you need not tempt me any farther-it is of no use; you are a fine Elchee; you have fine horses, camels, and mules, and I am told you have loads of silver and gold: now," added he, you want my colt, but you shall not have him for all you have got." So saying, he rode off to the desert, whence he had come, and where he, no doubt, amused his brethren with an account of what had passed between him and the European envoy.

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'Inquiry was made of some officers of the Pasha of Bagdad respecting this young man; they did not know him, but conjectured that, notwithstanding his homely appearance, he was the son or brother of a chief, or perhaps himself the head of a family; and such Arabs, they said, when in comparative affluence, no money could bribe to sell a horse like the one described.

* A toman is a nominal coin, nearly the value of a pound sterling.'

'I was one day relating the above story to Abdulla Aga, the former governor of Bussorah, who was at Abusheher, having been obliged to fly from Turkey. He told me that, when in authority, he several times had great trouble in adjusting disputes among Arab tribes, regarding a horse or mare which had been carried off by one of them from another; not on account of the value of the animals, that having been often offered ten-fold, but from jealousy of their neighbour's becoming possessed of a breed of horses which they desired to remain exclusively in their own tribe. An Arab Shaikh or chief, he told me, who lived within fifty miles of Bussorah, had a favourite breed of horses. He lost one of his best mares, and could not for a long time discover whether she was stolen or had strayed. Some tîme afterwards, a young man of a different tribe, who had long wished to marry his daughter, but had always been rejected by the Shaikh, obtained the lady's consent and eloped with her. The Shaikh and his followers pursued; but the lover and his mistress, mounted on the same horse, made a wonderful march, and escaped. The old chief swore that the fellow was either mounted upon the devil, or the favourite mare he had lost. After his return he found, on inquiry, the latter was the case; that the lover was the thief of his mare as well as of his daughter, and that he had stolen the one for the purpose of carrying off the other. He was quite gratified to think he had not been beaten by a horse of another breed, and was easily reconciled to the young man in order that he might recover the mare, which appeared an object about which he was more solicitous than his daughter. vol. i., pp. 42-45.

The person above referred to, by the name of Abdulla Aga, was remarkable for the vigour of his intellect, and the frankness with which, though a Turk, he expressed his sentiments. Speaking of his own country to the Elchee, he made some disclosures which, at this moment, are not unimportant. From the Grand Seignior,' he said, 'to the lowest peasant in the empire, they are alike devoid of public virtue and patriotism; and that spirit of religion, which has long been the only bond of union that has kept this unwieldy state together, is every day becoming fainter; and, while the Wahabees are making converts of the inhabitants of Arabia and Syria, the provinces of Turkey in Europe are relaxing from their religious zeal, and becoming every day more ripe for the rule of those Christian nations, under whose power they must soon fall.' Upon being asked his opinion of Persia, he replied, that he thought it 'twenty times worse than Turkey.' The inhabitants were, to the full, as devoid of every public principle' as the Turks, and much more ignorant;' and, he added, their ignorance is so fortified by pride that there is no hope of their amendment.' Our author observes that there is much truth in the picture which Abdulla drew o Turkey, and his description of the Persians was not greatly exag gerated.'

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The knowledge of that nation is limited to what they see before them, and their ideas of other states are very indistinct and confused, and consequently liable to frequent fluctuations and changes. All ranks in Persia are brought up to admire show and parade; and they are more likely to

act from the dictates of imagination and vanity, than of reason and judgment. Their character was well drawn by Mahomed Nubbee Khan, the late amdassador to India: "If you wish my countrymen to understand you, speak to their eyes, not their ears."'- vol. i., pp. 49, 50.

The gentlemen of the mission having been detained some weeks at Abusheher, they beguiled their time chiefly in hunting and hawking. As the Persian mode of killing the game differs from that of our own country, we must give the author's animated description of these amusements, for the benefit of our sporting readers:

The huntsmen proceed to a large plain, or rather desert, near the seaside; they have hawks and grey-hounds; the former carried in the usual manner, on the hand of the huntsman; the latter led in a leash by a horseman, generally the same who carries the hawk. When the antelope is seen, they endeavour to get as near as possible; but the animal, the moment it observes them, goes off at a rate that seems swifter than the wind; the horsemen are instantly at full speed, having slipped the dogs. If it is a single deer, they at the same time fly the hawks; but if a herd, they wait till the dogs have fixed on a particular antelope. The hawks, skimming along near the ground, soon reach the deer, at whose head they pounce in succession, and sometimes with a violence that knocks it over. At all events, they confuse the animal so much as to stop its speed in such a degree, that the dogs can come up; and in an instant men, horses, dogs, and hawks, surround the unfortunate deer, against which their united efforts have been combined. The part of the chace that surprised me most was the extraordinary combination of the hawks and the dogs, which throughout seemed to look to each other for aid. This, I was told, was the result of long and skilful training.

The antelope is supposed to be the fleetest quadruped on earth, and the rapidity of the first burst of the chase I have described is astonishing. The run seldom exceeds three or four miles, and often is not half so much. A fawn is an easy victory; the doe often runs a good chace, and the buck is seldom taken. The Arabs are indeed afraid to fly their hawks at the latter, as these fine birds in pouncing frequently impale themselves on its sharp horns.

The hawks used in this sport are of a species that I have never seen in any other country. This breed, which is called Cherkh, is not large, but of great beauty and symmetry.'-vol. i., pp. 52-54.

Sometimes the antelope is hunted by dogs only, several of which are led to the field in a long silken leash, and slipped in succession until the game is overcome by fatigue. The Hubara, on the other hand, is pursued only by hawks.

I accompanied a party to a village about twenty miles from Abusheher, to see a species of hawking, peculiar, I believe, to the sandy plains of Persia, on which the Hubara, a noble species of bustard, is found on

*The Hubara usually weighs from seven to eleven pounds. On its head is a tuft of white and black feathers; the back of the head and neck are spotted black; the side of the head and throat are white, as well as the under part of the body; the breast is slate-coloured; the feathers of the

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