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something in the personal history of every traveller to diversify and colour his narrative, they would have little to expect even from the youthful gallantry, enterprise, and indefatigable good humour of the writer before us.

Accompanied by Mr. Ker Baillie Hamilton, Mr. Lamb, and Captain Hart, our author sailed from Bombay in the month of January 1824, in His Majesty's ship Alligator, commanded by Captain Alexander, who kindly granted his countrymen a passage to Bussorah. Among their fellow passengers was Futteh Ali Khan, a son of the last Persian king of the Zund dynasty, who was murdered by Aga Mohummud, in 1794, and who, in the song and poetry of that country, is celebrated as one of the greatest of its heroes. The Prince was attended by a Persian Syyud, a man of some information, who paid a compliment to our nation worth mentioning for its whimsicality. It was remarked, that upon the first introduction of the steam-boat at Calcutta, the Indians called it "Sheitaun ko noo," the Devil's boat. But the Syyud was still more flattering. He observed, that, "when arts were in their infancy, it was natural to give the Devil credit for any new invention; but now so advanced are the English in every kind of improvement, that they are more than a match for the Devil himself!"

After a favourable voyage of two or three weeks, the party landed at Bussorah, where they were received very civilly by the Pasha. In visiting him they were allowed not only to wear their hats, conformably to the eastern custom of always keeping the head covered, but even to wear their shoes, a privilege exclusively granted to Englishmen. We agree perfectly with Captain Keppel, that this latter might with great propriety be dispensed with.

Without entering into the merits of that John Bull policy, which exacts from the natives of the country in which we are residing a conformity to our customs, instead of our adopting theirs, the privilege we Englishmen claim, both at Bagdad and at this place, of keeping on our shoes in the presence of the Pasha, certainly does appear an useless acquisition of privilege on our parts, and one that cannot but be highly offensive to their Asiatic feelings.

It is scarcely necessary to mention, that throughout the East, the mere act of a native entering a room with shoes on, is the greatest possible insult, as it is on the floor that all meals are eaten. Let us put the question to ourselves. Would any of us be pleased, if a foreigner were to claim the right of coming from the streets, in his dirty boots, and of dancing up and down our dinner-table?'-vol. i., pp. 55, 56.

After spending some pleasant days at Bussorah, Captain Keppel and his companions engaged a boat, and proceeded by the Euphrates and the Tigris to Bagdad. Shortly after entering the latter river, distinguished for its "arrowy course," they reached II Jezeera (the island), which is supposed to have been the seat of Paradise. It is at present a miserable, deserted, barren spot, and so indeed is the whole surrounding country, though described by

Pliny as solum orientis fertilissimum. On the banks of the Tigris, our travellers observed, of course, several Arab encampments, which they visited, and which Captain Keppel describes. He gives us also an account of the present state of the numerous ruins of cities and towns, which he and his friends examined on their approach to Bagdad. Arrived at that ancient capital, all his recollections of "The Arabian Nights," are awakened in his mind. Indeed, during the whole of his progress through Persia, the fascination of those immortál tales hang like a spell upon his faculties, and give to his narrative the only romantic tints which it exhibits. He was necessarily much disappointed in not finding the gardens of Bagdad as splendid as the Arabian novelists had painted them; but he appears to have derived some compensation for this misfortune, from being shewn a house that was said to have been the residence of the celebrated Haroun Alraschid, and a mosque, said to have been erected by that exemplary caliph. He visited also, with due devotion, the monastery of the Calendars, a sect of Mahometan dervishes, into which, it may be remembered, the three sons of kings, all blind of one eye, entered, as we find it recorded in the authentic histories above mentioned.

We look upon that part of Captain Keppel's narrative, in which he describes his visit to the ruins of Babylon, as the most interesting and valuable portion of his work. He follows, for the most part, the footsteps of Rich, and confirms the accuracy of that most able and intelligent antiquary. We must find room for his reflections on the ruins of Babel.

The total circumference has been found to be two thousand two hundred and eighty-six feet, which gives to the ruins a much greater extent of base than to the original building. The surplus is very great, when one considers the quantity that must have been removed by the Macedonian soldiers, and how much, in the course of ages, must have been taken by the workmen employed in digging for bricks. The elevation of the mound is irregular to the west it is one hundred and ninety-eight feet high. On the top is that which looked like a castle in the distance; it is a solid mass of kiln-burnt bricks, thirty-seven feet high, and twenty-eight broad. The bricks, which are of an excellent description, are laid in with a fine and scarcely perceptible cement. At regular intervals, some bricks are omitted so as to leave square apertures through the mass; these may possibly have been intended to procure a free current of air, that should prevent the admission of damp into the brickwork. The summit of the mass is much broken, and the fractures are so made as to carry conviction that violence has been used to reduce it to this state.

'Distinct from the pile of bricks just described, and lower down on the north face of the large mound, is another mass exactly similar. Pieces of marble, stones, and broken bricks, lie scattered over the ruin. The most curious of the fragments are several misshapen masses of brickwork, quite black, except in a few places where regular layers of kiln-burnt bricks are discernible these have certainly been subjected to some fierce heat, as they are completely molten-a strong presumption that fire was used in the

destruction of the Tower, which, in parts, resembles what the Scriptures prophesied it should become, 66 a burnt mountain."*

Travellers who have visited this spot, have been struck with the curious appearance of these fragments, and, having only seen the black surface, have altogether rejected the idea of their being bricks. In the denunciation respecting Babylon, fire is particularly mentioned as an agent against it. To this Jeremiah evidently alludes, when he says that it should be" as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah," on which cities, it is said, the Lord rained brimstone and fire."+ Again," I will kindle a fire in his cities, and it shall devour all round about him;" and in another place, "Her high gates shall be burned with fire, and the people shall labour in vain, and the folk in the fire, and they shall be weary.'

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'Taking into calculation the brick mass on the top of the large mound, the ruins are two hundred and thirty-five feet high, which gives nearly half the height of the Tower in its perfect state. Rich thought he could trace four stages, or stories of this building; and the united observations of our party induce the same conviction.

Wild beasts appeared to be as numerous here as at Mujillebè. Mr. Lamb gave up his examination, from seeing an animal crouched in one of the square apertures. I saw another in a similar situation, and the large foot-print of a lion was so fresh, that the beast must have stolen away on our approach. From the summit we had a view of the vast heaps which constitute all that now remains of ancient Babylon; a more complete picture of desolation could not well be imagined. The eye wandered over a barren desert, in which the ruins were nearly the only indication that it had ever been inhabited. It was impossible to behold this scene, and not to be reminded how exactly the predictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah have been fulfilled, even in the appearance Babylon was doomed to present: that "she should never be inhabited;" that "the Arabian should not pitch his tent there;" that she should" become heaps;" that her cities should be a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness!"'-vol. i., pp. 193-197. Captain Keppel had the good fortune, by the assistance of some workmen, to raise from the ruins a colossal piece of sculpture, which had been imperfectly seen by Beauchamp and Rich. It represents a lion standing over a man, and we own that we are much inclined to credit our author's suggestion, that it was intended to commemorate the miraculous preservation of Daniel in the lion's den.

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From Bagdad, Captain Keppel and his companions proceeded through Curdistan to Tehraun, the seat of the Persian government. In this part of his journal we meet nothing new or striking. following account of the high character which our countrymen bear generally throughout Persia, will, perhaps, be acceptable to our readers: :

'Mr. Lamb, wishing to draw a bill upon Bagdad for the sum of one

* Jeremiah, chap. li., ver. 25.'

+ 'Some of the Jewish Doctors say, "that God overturned the tower (Babel) by a terrible tempest, or burnt it by fire from heaven."-Hewlett's Annotations on Scripture, vol. i., p. 194.'

Jer. li. ver. 37, 43.'

hundred tomauns, for our common expenditure, sent a servant into the town, to know whether any of the shraufs (merchants) would be willing to give him money for it. After a short time, a miserable half-starved-looking wretch made his appearance, and said he should be willing to advance us any sum we might require: at first we were inclined to laugh at his proposal, thinking, from his appearance and garb, that he was more like an object of charity than a lender of money. He soon undeceived us; for, disencumbering himself of a few of his rags, he unstrapped from his body a black leathern belt, and having cut it open, counted out the hundred tomauns in gold. Mr. Lamb wrote a draft, in English, upon a merchant in Bagdad, which this man took in lieu of his money, contenting himself with merely asking the name of the merchant on whom the bill was drawn, and declaring himself to be the party obliged; "for," said he, " if I am robbed, I shall at least be spared this piece of paper." While we were wondering both at his ability to serve us, and his confidence in our honesty (for we could easily have deceived him), he said he had had too many proofs of English probity to entertain any alarm on that head. "The Feringhees (Franks) are not so worthy of being trusted, but the Ingreez (Englishmen) have never been known to deceive."

This circumstance reflects not a little on the general good conduct of our countrymen in Persia; for in this, as well as in many other examples, it might be shewn that it is to Englishmen only that this confidence is extended. Of the Feringhees, as it is their custom to distinguish other Europeans from us, the Ingreez, they are as distrustful as they are of each other. Why we should have so excellent a character, I know not, though I have heard it somewhat oddly accounted for. It is said, that some time ago, an American vessel, in a trading voyage up the Red Sea, bought a considerable quantity of coffee, and paid for it in Spanish dollars, but the ship had not long sailed, when it was discovered that the money was counterfeit, and the merchants, in their indignation, vowed they would have no dealings with the English, for (as these sailors spoke our language) such they supposed them to be. Some one said that they were not English, but Feringhee dooneaine noo, “Franks of the New World," by which name the Americans are designated in these countries. As the mart where this transaction occurred was on the road to Mecca, the story rapidly spread, and numerous pilgrims, on their return home, were of course glad to promulgate any story detrimental to the Christian character. It is not to be supposed that our countrymen are always immaculate; but now, if an Englishman misbehaves, he is not designated a native of England, but a " Frank of the New World." This is rather hard upon brother Jonathan, who is to the full as honest as John Bull; but, as in many other cases, the roguery of an individual is oftentimes felt by a multitude.'-vol. ii., pp. 112–115.

The Persian court and royal family have been so often described, that we need not dwell on that subject. At Tabreez, Captain Keppel separated from his companions, as he wished to visit the celebrated fires of Bakou. His description of them, and of their various worshippers, exactly coincides with that of the chevalier Gamba, which may be seen in our last Appendix. Having gratified his laudable curiosity on this point, our author pursued his journey to Astrakhan. We may easily suppose the feelings

which were awakened in his mind, upon accidentally discovering in that populous city, a small congregation of his countrymen. The sentiments which he expresses on this occasion, do equal honour to his head and heart.

• The Kizliar merchants had spoken of Khanee Fering, an English inn: by repeating these words, I was at last directed to a spacious house, at the door of which was playing a rosy-cheeked boy, whose features were so English that I spoke to him in our own language. He told me he was the son of the Rev. Mr. Glen, and that this was the Scotch Missionary-house. I had scarcely recovered from the satisfaction of hearing the welcome accents of my native land, when his mother, a handsome woman, begged I would come up stairs, and remain with her family during my stay. I partook of a slight refreshment, and soon after there was a general summons to prayers. The congregation consisted of twenty English persons, including women and children. Psalms were first chanted. One of the missionaries then put forth an eloquent extempore prayer to the Almighty, into which he introduced a thanksgiving for my safe arrival, and escape from so many dangers.

At no period of my life do I remember to have been impressed with so strong a feeling of devotion as on this evening. Few persons of the same general habits will understand my particular feelings. Few have ever been placed in the same situation under similar circumstances. Quitting countries once the most rich and populous, now the most desolate and lone, fulfilling in their calamities the decrees of Divine Providence; safe from the dangers of the desert, and from the barbarian tribes with whom every crime was common, I found myself in a religious sanctuary, among my own countrymen, in whose countenances, whatever were the trivial errors of their belief, might be traced the purity of their lives, and that enthusiasm in the cause of religion, which has caused them to become voluntary exiles; whose kindness promised me every comfort, and whose voices were gratefully raised to heaven in my behalf.'-vol. ii., pp. 258–260.

From the account which Captain Keppel gives of the Scotch missionaries, it appears that although they enjoy peculiar privileges from the Russian government, they have made no progress in the great object of their labours. He mentions a curious fact, that several of the missionary families had transferred themselves from Leith to Astrakhan by water. The Wolga is navigable from that city to St. Petersburgh, and may be traversed in seventy days.

We shall conclude our extracts with one or two highly characteristic traits of Russian manners.

The city (Astrakhan) contains a population of sixty thousand Russians, numerous tribes of Tartars, Armenians, Indians, Kalmucks, and natives of Bokhara. As every one retains the dress of his country, the grand square at the time of daily market has a very picturesque appearance. It was curious to observe so great a variety of costume and feature crowded into so small a space. I was delighted again to hear the fair sex enjoying one of their greatest privileges, that of speech, which they here used with noisy volubility, in haggling their wares with the natives of nearly every Asiatic country. While watching the various groups, I saw a prisoner heavily

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