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Burnouf in his excellent French Grammar of the Greek tongue, at p. 268, has this very appropriate observation:
“ En Français même, nous voyons le verbe réfléchi employé dans le sens passif : • Les histoires ne se liront plus,' Bossuet,” that is, will not be read.
(6) While the middle verbs, of totū and rionui, for instance, are requisite to indicate the taking or considering of any object in such or such a light, &c. ; some other verbs, such as äyw, dapßávw, in the active form so called, are found with a similar acceptation. Ipli. Aul. 607. "Ορνιθα μεν τόδ' αίσιον ποιούμεθα, κ. τ.λ.
We take this as an auspicious omen, &c.
Antigone, 34. το πράγμ' άγειν Ι ουχ ώς παρ' ουδέν.
(c) It is a distinction well deserving of remark, that while several verbs in w are used of matter and actions connected with it, those in ouat have the province of mind and its concerns instead.
Thus II. A. 607, 8. δωμα-"Ήφαιστος ποίησεν. But Thucyd. B. $ 42, 4.
αναβολήν του δεινού εποιήσατο.
he thought of delaying or eluding the danger. So too, II. A. 433.
ιστία μεν στείλαντο, θέσαν δ' εν νηί μελαίνη. Prom. V. 247. θνητούς δ' εν οίκτω προθέμενος.
(d) I. The tenses (apparently, originis ri, whatever that be) most decidedly passive in use, are the two Aorists and two Futures passive so called.
2. While the first Future middle frequently occurs (it is well known) with a passive use, the first Aorist middle on the other hand hardly ever seems to lose its proper acceptation.
Thus léget, thou shalt be reckoned; but never ypčáuny, I was ruled, nor dypátaro, it was written.
3. The idea of a preterite middle with a refleride signification is now rejected (Glasgow Greek Grammar, p. 65); and the separate form, when it does exist, is more aptly designated second preterite or falso-medium.
When the tense of any verb is wanted to express that notion, the preterperfect passive is adopted, de personá; while its common use prevails more, de re. Il. A. 238, 9.
δικασπόλοι, οι τε θέμιστας
προς Διός είρύαται.
ένθα τε νήες
(e) Verbs in the passive voice, when indicating the affections of mind or the facts of motion, are frequently so used without any reference to external cause or agent whatsoever ; that is, are not meant to signify any thing about action or the modus operandi, but the effect or state only, as it regards the subject of the verb. Thus, Il. A. 531. τώγ' ώς βουλεύσαντε διέτμαγεν.
Hecuba, 1090. ποι τράπωμαι και πορευθώ και
Medea, 1241. μηδ' αναμνησθης τέκνων. In other words, then, the passive form on occasions like these is employed, when the middle voice might naturally else be expected. Such, at any rate, is the best account we can give of this matter in particular.
But, upon the whole, may we not generally remark, that the ways in which things take place, and the relations to one another in which they require to be spoken of, seem to defy definition or number ; while the voices of the verb (essential as that is to discourse) even in Greek amount to three at the most? No wonder it should happen, that words, only in a loose manner, often very rudely, hint, that some connexion exists betwixt certain ideas, without any pretence to mark the precise mode of it. The occasion is individual : the forms of language are universal. And yet to the context with its circumstances rightly apprehended and to the vis-directrix of common sense, the rest of the operation may very safely be left.
CANONES DAWESIANI XI.
“ Voculam âv cum verbo teploide conjungi vetat Græcorum Scriptorum consuetudo.” [Miscell. Crit. p. ii. Ed. B.
The particle âv, giving the idea of a contingent or conditional event, goes with the past tenses only of the indicative mood; out of which number tepioide is excluded, as being strictly what Clarke calls the present perfect tense. [Vid. ad Iliad. A. v. 37.] 1. Čtvrtov av-I should be striking.
(Sometimes translate, I should strike.) 2. &Tetúpn äv—I should have done striking.
3. fruta, } ăv—I should have stricken.
äv—. The same, mutatis mutandis, for the past tenses of Ovnokw.
“Vocula őoy et similes, comite äv, non nisi cum altera forma MOn construuntur.” [M. C. p. 79. Ed. B. p. 82.]
The passage itself from which this remark arises, may easily be found in the Anabasis of Xenophon. (Lib. Ι. 5, 9.) Δήλος ήν ο Κύρος σπεύδων πάσαν την οδόν – νομίζων, όσω μεν αν θαττον έλθοι, τοσούτω άπαρασκευαστoτέρω βασιλεί μαχείσθαι,
κ. τ. λ.
By transposing άν, and by altering the future μαχείσθαι, which does not keep that particle's company, into μάχεσθαι, Dawes (with the approbation of Porson) has corrected the passage thus : νομίζων άν, όσω μέν θάττον έλθοι, τ. α. β. μάχεσθαι
–κ. τ. λ.
1. The position of ăv, as above, with verbs of thinking, followed by an infinitive mood to which it refers, is very common in Attic Greek; and Dawes abundantly shows it from Xenophon.
2. "Ooy and similar words are much used with âv and the subjunctive mood, it is true; but, according to circumstances which will explain themselves, they are used with the optative, and with the indicative also sometimes.
a. Whatever part you shall have acted towards your parents, your children also will act towards you; and with good reason.
Οίός περ αν περί τους γονείς γένη, τοιούτοι και οι σαυτού παίδες περί σε γενήσονται: είκότως.
B. Act such a part towards your parents, as you could wish your own children to act towards yourself.
Τοιούτος γίγνου περί τους γονείς, οίους αν εύξαιο περί σεαυτον γίγνεσθαι τους σαυτού παϊδας.
y. There is not a man living whom he would have less thought of attacking than him.
Ούκ έστιν, εφ' όντινα αν ήττον, ή επί τούτον, ήλθεν.
Of the two passages which shall be given from Demosthenes, the first shows a syntax very common and legitimate in Attic prose ; while the second exhibits two instances, the one correct,
; the other suspicious, at least to my apprehension of it.
Και γαρ ούτος άπασι τούτοις, οίς άν τις μέγαν αυτόν ηγήσαιτο, - έτ' επισφαλεστέραν αυτήν [την Μακεδονικήν δύναμιν] κατεσκεύακεν εαυτώ. Olynthiac. Α. και 5.
In the same section, The subjects of Philip, says the orator, λυπούνται και συνεχώς ταλαιπωρούσιν, ούτ' επί τοίς έργοις, ούτ' επί τοίς αυτών ιδίοις εώμενοι διατρίβειν, ούθ' όσ' άν πορίσωσιν, ούτως όπως αν δύνωνται, ταύτ' έχοντες διαθέσθαι, κεκλεισμένων των εμπορίων των εν τη χώρα διά τον πόλεμον.
Translate thus: Nor able to dispose of such articles as they MAY produce, in the way they might otherwise have it in their power to do, on account of the war, &c. &c.
And, perhaps, to preserve the Atticism, read – όπως αν δύναιντο.
3. It is well known, that the following construction, suppresso av, is favoured by the tragic writers. [R. P. ad Orest. ,
[ v. 141.] “Οπου δ' 'Απόλλων σκαιός ή, τίνες σοφοί ; Electr. Eurip. v. 972. But this suppression of âv with the optative also deserves remark.
Ουκ έστιν, ότω μείζονα μοίραν
Νείμαιμ', ή σοί. Ρrom. Vinct. νν. 299, 300.
The following passages demand a separate consideration :
'Εν σοι γάρ εσμεν άνδρα δ' ωφελείν, άφ' ών
Εική κράτιστον ζην, όπως δύναιτό τις. Ibid. V. 979. And this, Αλλ' ει βούλει, έφη, ώ πάππε, ήδέως με θηράν, άφες πάντας τους κατ' εμέ διώκειν και διαγωνίζεσθαι, όπως έκαστος τα κράτιστα δύναιτο. Cyropedia.
“ Præstandum in me recipio Sermonis Attici rationem postulare vel που τις φύγη, vel που τις αν φύγοι. Verbum utique optativum cum πού, πόθεν, πού, πώς, vel qualibet alia interrogandi particula conjunctum alteram itidem ăv comitem exigit; subjunctivum vero respuit.” [M. C. 207. Ed. B. 207.]
. Β] The meaning of Dawes will be best understood, perhaps, if we take three ways of expressing nearly the same ideas by three different moods of the verb.
a. noi tpétouai; whither shall I betake myself? ß. no toánwuat; whither must I betake myself? yo noi tis åv tpámolto; whither should one betake himself?
[M. C. 75. 341. Ed. B. 78, 333.] Under the class (B) may be placed,
’Eyù di tí 0012; Plut. But what must I do?
Must I hold my tongue for this coxcomb ?
Well, what must I give you to eat ? Dawes' account justly exhibits the first and second verbs thus used, not as of the present indicative serving instead of the future: “sed formæ subjunctivæ, quæ temporis futuri vi quodammodo non raro gaudet, vel potius significatu proprio ad iva, sive xor iva, subauditum refertur'."
Υφείλου, εγώ σε λανθάνειν εποίουν αεί. Ρlut. 1139. “ Poëseos Atticæ ratio istiusmodi hiatum, qualis in altero versu conspicitur, in versibus iambicis et trochaicis omnimodo vetat. Deinde ipsam orationem οπότε υφείλου-[When you actually had stolen some one specific thing]—molouv ae solecam esse assevero; sermonis autem indolem postulare óóre úpédoio. Itaque utraque re conspirante, rescribo 'YOEAOI', Šyú.” [M. C. 216. Ed. B. 215, 216.]
Fielding and Young thus translate the passage fairly enough :
Why, when you used to filch any vessel from your master, I always assisted you in concealing it (the theft].
1 EMENDATUM. 1836.
In Porson's Medea, 1275=1242 of Elmsley, the following passage stands thus punctuated :
παρέλθω δόμους και αρήξαι φόνον
δοκεί μοι τέκνοις, which may with our idiom be thus translated, “ Shall I not enter the house ?” dc.
Elmsley having, in his edition of the Heraclidæ, at v. 559, maintained that Trapélow dóuove was rightly read so, without interrogation, and with the meaning, “Let me enter,” &c., afterwards, when editing the Medea, u. s. in a note very satisfactory on the whole of the subject, shows that the interrogative mark is rightly added, as it was first done by Musgrave.