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Prima est : verbum fortius, in quo augmenti accessio anapæstum facit, in principio versus positum, addi augmentum postulat :

εγένοντο Λήδα θεστιάδι τρείς παρθένοι. Secunda : verbum fortius, in quo augmenti accessio non facit anapæstum, in principio versus positum, carere potest augmento:

σίγησε δ' αιθήρ"
κτύπησε μεν Ζεύς χθόνιος"
παίοντ', έθραυον

πίπτον δ' επ' αλλήλοισιν. Tertia : ejusdemmodi verbum, si incipit sententiam, videtur etiam in medio versu carere augmento posse : quale foret illud, ea, qua, supra dictum est, conditione:

γυμνούντο δε πλευραι σπαραγμούς. Quarta : verbum minus forte, sive facit augmenti accessio anapæstum, sive non facit, in principio versus positum, si ultra primum pedem porrigitur, caret augmento: yoãtoObügev.

Quinta : ejusdemmodi verbum si non ultra primum pedem porrigitur, ut detracto augmento parum numerosum, aut vitatur, ut κάνες, aut cum alia forma commutatur, ut κάλει cum καλεί.

Hermann Præfat. ad Bacch. pp. 1-lv.

6. Adjectiva composita in os. Omnia adjectiva composita, et in os terminata, apud antiquissimos Græcos per tria genera declinabantur: årópontos, åropohon, åtópontov. Femininas formas, cum jam paulatim obsolevissent, Poetæ et Attici, vel ornatus vel varietatis ergo, subinde revocabant.

Porson ad Med. 822. (cf. Lobeck Paralipom. Dissert. III. VII.)

7. Verba in ów et vul. In tironum gratiam observandum est, hac forma, ea nempe, ubi ów pro vue in fine verbi ponitur, nunquam uti Tragicos, rarissime veteres Comicos; sæpius mediæ, sæpissime novæ Comediæ poetas. Paulatim et parce adhiberi cæpta est sub mediam fere Aristophanis ætatem ; tantum enim occurrit ouvúp

Z

Av. 1611. ovurapapyvówv in ultima ejus fabula, Pluto 719. Cetera loca, ubi usurpari videtur, aut emendata sunt, aut emendanda.

Porson ad Med. 744.

8. Μνησθήσομαι et Μεμνήσομαι. Hac forma hujus verbi, ab Homero etiam adhibita, Iliad X. 390, semper utuntur Tragici, illa nunquam. Idem dici potest de κληθήσομαι et κεκλήσομαι. Sed βληθήσομαι et βεβλήσομαι promiscue usurpant.

Porson ad Med. 929.

9. Ουκούν-ούκουν. Discrimen quod inter oủkoūv et oškovv statuunt grammatici, verissimum est, si Plutarchi aut Luciani scripta pro veræ Græcitatis norma accipiantur. Apud veteres Atticos utraque particula semper propriam suam significationem servat. Ego ubique oùk oŭv scribo, adhibita, prout opus est, vel omissa interrogatione.

Elmsley ad Heracl. v. 256. (Cf. Donalds. Gr. Gr. 535.)

10.

Multa sunt nomina, quæ, cum in singulari masculina tantum aut feminina sint, in plurali neutra fiunt, ut díqpos, dippa, κύκλος, κύκλα, κέλευθος, κέλευθα, δεσμός, δεσμά, σίτος, σίτα. Vid. Musgravium ad Hel. 428.

Porson ad Med. 494.

II.

SYNT A X.

A SKETCH OF THE PRINCIPAL USAGES OF THE

MIDDLE VOICE OF THE GREEK VERB,

WHEN ITS SIGNIFICATION IS STRICTLY OBSERVED.

Qui bene dividit, bene docet.

The first four may be called usages of reflexive : the fifth the usage of reciprocal signification.

I. Where A does the act on himself or on what belongs to himself, i. e. is the object of his own action.

1. 'Annygaro, he hanged himself.
2. "Ώιμωξεν δ' ο γέρων, κεφαλήν δ' όγε κόψατο χερσίν.

Iliad. X. 33.

II. Where A does the act on some other object M, relatively to himself in the sense of the dative case put acquisitively), and not for another person B.

1. Α κατεστρέψατο τον Μήδον.

He made the Persian subject, or subdued him, to himself. Α κατέστρεψε τον Μήδον τω Β, res prorsus alia.

2. To this usage belongs the following: Kotvõ åtwoánevoi tòv Bápßapov. Thucyd. 1. 18, et similia.

απωσάμενοι τον .

III. Where A gets an act done for himself, or for those belonging to him by B.

1. Of Chryses it is said, duoóuevos Qúyarpa, to get his daughter released by Agamemnon, on the payment of a ransom, that is, briefly, to ransom his daughter.

Whereas of Agamemnon it is said, Ουδ' απέλυσε θυγατρα, sc. TÔ Xpúoy. He did not grant the release, he did not release her.

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So too Chryses to the Greeks, Παιδα δ' εμοι λύσαιτε φίλην.

To this head may be appended, διδάξασθαι τον υιόν, to get one's son instructed. Euripides has said, with a double idiom, Medea, ν. 297, παϊδας περισσως εκδιδάσκεσθαι σοφούς.

2. Aaveisw, to give a loan, to lend, as A to B.

Aavel ouai, to get a loan, to borrow, as A from B. So too in the epigram, χρήσας, having lent : χρησάμενος, having borrowed.

'Ανέρα τις λιπόγειων υπέρ νώτοιο λιπαυγής

"Ηγε, πόδας χρήσας, όμματα χρησάμενος. Again, xoñoai, to utter a response : xengaslai, to seek a response, to consult an oracle.

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IV. Where, in such verbs as κόπτομαι, Iugeo, σεύομαι,

, τιλλομαι, &c. the direct action is done by A on himself, but an accusative or other case follows of B, whom that action further regards.

είπερ αν αυτόν
Σεύωνται ταχέες τε κύνες, κ. τ. λ. Ιliad. Γ. 25.
Although fleet dogs stir themselves in pursuit of him.

Διονύσοιο τιθήνας
Σευε
z. 133.

res prorsus alia. Again,

Πρώται τον γ' άλοχός τε φίλη και πότνια μήτηρ
Τιλλέσθην. Ω. 710, 11.

Tore their hair in mourning over him.
But κείρομαι is differently used. Bion has κειράμενοι χαίτας
επ' 'Αδώνιδι, not "Αδωνιν.
To this class belong φυλάττω and φυλάττομαι.

Φυλάξαι τον παίδα.-φυλάξασθαι τον λέοντα. And so too the following:

“Ως ειπών, ού παιδός ορέξατο φαίδιμος "Εκτωρ.

Stretched out his arms to receive his son.
Thus far the reflexive uses : now the reciprocal use.

V. Where the action is reciprocal betwixt two persons or parties, and A does to B what B does to A.

As in verbs of contract, quarrel, war, reconciliation, and the like :

"Ews åv dialvoóueda tòv tólemov. Demosth. Philip. A. $ 6.Till we shall have put an end to the war in which we are engaged with Philip, by treaty mutually agreed upon.

In a very different sense, as follows, is diadīgai used: Παρώνει δε ('Αλκιβιάδης) και το Τισσαφέρνη μη άγαν επείγεσθαι TÒV Tóleuov dialvoal. Thucyd. viii. § 46.—To be in no hurry to put an end to the war between the two conflicting parties in Greece.

Remark.-Though on some occasions the active voice is used where the middle would be proper, that is, where the act is denoted without relation to the agent, though there does exist a middle verb so to denote it, yet where the two voices exist in actual use, the middle denoting the action relatively to the agent, as in No. II., is very seldom, if ever, in pure Attic

. used to denote the action when it regards another person. E. g. Ιστάναι τρόπαιον may be said of an army who erect their own trophy; for it is true, as far as it goes—they do erect a trophy. But tothoato tóralov cannot be said of him who erected a trophy for others, but tornoev only.

Mus. Crit. No. I.

pp.

102-104.

ADDENDA. 1836.

The following remarks are offered as a contribution towards rendering the sketch here given somewhat more complete.

(a) Verbum tuntojai videtur ex tribus elementis conflatum eam primitus habuisse naturam, quam lingua Anglicana sic effert simpliciter, I STRIKE ME; deinde in eum usum abiisse, ut significaret, I GET A Blow, i. e. not give one; denique sumsisse vim pure passivam.

Hanc conjecturam confirmat Latinæ linguæ ratio ; quæ apud poetas certe verba passiva cum vocibus vi mediâ præditis passim permutat.

Æn. 1. 587. scindit se ; II. 39. scinditur:
11. 401. conduntur; 1x. 39. condunt se:

707. imponere, h. e. impone te, &c.
Glasgow Greek Grammar, p. 59, 4th Ed. 1834. J. T.

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