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Æschylus gains his first tragic Birth of Herodotus.

prize. Euripides born.

Thermopylæ, Salamis.-- Leonidas,

Aristides, Themistocles. Pherecydes, the historian.-Gelon of Syracuse.

477

Lxxv. 3.

Epicharmi Nãooi.

Hiero succeeds Gelon, B.C. 478.

476

472

468

458

LXXVI. 1.

Phrynichus victor with his poi- Simonides gains the prize 'Avdpūv

viogai. Themistocles choragus. Xopy. Lxxvii. 1. Aschyli Πέρσαι, Φινεύς, Γλαύκος | Birth of Thucydides, B.C. 471.

Ποτνιεύς, Προμηθεύς Πυρ

φόρος.
LXXVII. 1. Sophocles gains his first tragic Socrates born.– Mycenæ destroy-
prize. Æschylus goes to Sicily. ed by the Argives.-Death of

Simonides, B.C. 467.
Lxxx. 3. Æschyli 'Oproteia. Æschylus Anaxagoras. Birth of Lysias.

again retires to Sicily.
LXXXI. 1. Æschylus dies.

Herodotus at Olympia. 2. Euripides exhibits the Peliades. End of the Messenian and Egyp

tian wars.

Empedocles and

Zeno.-Pericles.
3. Aristarchus, of Tegea, the trage-

dian, and Cratinus, the comic
poet, flourish.

456

455

454

451

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447

441

440

2. Achæus Eretriensis, the tragedian. Battle of Coronea. LXXXIV. 4. Euripides gains the first tragic Herodotus and Lysias go with the prize.

colonists to Thurium, B.c. 443. LXxxv. l. Comedy prohibited by a public The Samian war, in which Sophodecree.

cles is colleague with Pericles. 3. The prohibition of comedy re- Isocrates born, B.C. 436.

pealed. LXXXVI. 2. Phrynichus, the comic poet, first Sea-fight between the Corinthians exhibits.

and Corcyræans.

437

435

B.C.

Olympiad.

The Drama.

Contemporary Persons and Events.

434

LXXXVI. 3. Lysippus, the comic poet, is vic- Andocides, Meton, Aspasia.

torious.

431

Lxxxvi. 2. Euripidis Mødela, DidoktoTOS, Attempt of the Thebans on Pla-
Δίκτυς, θερισταί.

taa.
Aristomenes, the comic poet. Hippocrates.
3. Hermippus, the comic poet. Plague at Athens.
4. Eupolis exhibits.

Siege of Platæa.—Birth of Plato.

430

429

428

LXXxviii. 1. Euripidis 'It Tólutos.

Anaxagoras dies.

Plato, the comic poet.

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424

423

Lxxxix. 1. Aristophanes first with the '17- Xenophon at Delium.- Amphi

reis: Cratinus second with polis taken from Thucydides by the Σάτυροι : Aristomenes Brasidas.

third with the 'Olopupuoi.
- 2. Cratinus first with the IIvrivn: The year's truce with Lacedæ-

Ameipsias second with the mon.–Alcibiades begins to act
Κόννος : Aristophanes third in public affairs.

with the Νεφέλαι.
- 3. Aristophanis Eqînes et ai deú- Brasidas and Cleon killed at

τεραι Νεφέλαι. (Sed vide Amphipolis.
supra.)

422

Cratinus dies.

421

- 4.

Eupolidis Μαρικάς et Κόλακες.

Truce for fifty years with Lacedæmon.

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Eupolidis Aúrókuros et ’Aorpá- Treaty with the Argives.

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Death of Sophocles.

Ægospotamus.Conon.
Aristophanis Bátpaxoi, first ; The Thirty at Athens.

Phrynichi Μούσαι, second ;
Platonis Kleopūv, third.
Antiphanes born.
Sophoclis Οιδίπους επί Ko- Xenophon, with Cyrus.-Ctesias,

Távy exhibited by the younger the historian.Plato.
Sophocles; who first repre-
sented in his own name, B.C.
396.

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Peace of Antalcidas.

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200

cxlv. l.

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CHAPTER VII.

ON THE REPRESENTATION OF GREEK PLAYS.

Dass man auf das ganze Verhältniss der Orchestra zur Bühne keine vom heu

tigen Theater entnommenen Vorstellungen übertragen, und die alte Tragödie nicht MODERNISIREN dürfe, ist ja wohl. eine der ersten Regeln, die man bei der Beurtheilung dieser Dinge zu beobachten hat.-MÜLLER.

If the Greek plays themselves differed essentially from those of our own times, they were even more dissimilar in respect to the mode and circumstances of their representation. We have theatrical exhibitions of some kind every evening throughout the greater part of the year, and in capital cities many are going on at the same time in different theatres. In Greece the dramatic performances were carried on for a few days in the Spring; the theatre was large enough to contain the whole population, and every citizen was there, as a matter of course, from daybreak to sunset '. With us a successful play is repeated night after night, for months together : in Greece the most admired dramas were seldom repeated, and never in the same year. The theatre with us is merely a place of public entertainment; in Greece it was the temple of the god, whose altar was the central point of the semicircle of seats or steps, from which some 30,000 ’ of his worshippers gazed upon a spectacle instituted in his honour. Our theatrical costumes are intended to convey an idea of the dresses

1 ΑΕsch. κατά Κτησ.-p. 488, Bekker. και άμα τη ημέρα ηγείτο τοίς πρέσβεσιν εις το θέατρον.

The torch-races in the last plays of a trilogia (above p. 78) seem to show that the exhibitions were not over till dark.

? Plato, Sympos. p. 175, E.

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