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plays, like those of Menander, contained many imitations of Euripides, and he was so ardent an admirer of that poet, that he declared he would have hanged himself for the prospect of meeting Euripides in the other world, if he could have convinced himself that the departed spirits were really capable of recognizing one another'.

he was

MENANDER, the son of Diopeithes and Hegesistrata', and the nephew of the comedian Alexis", was born at Athens in B.C. 342', while his father was absent on the Hellespont station He spent his youth in the house of his uncle, and received from him and from Theophrastus instructions in poetry and philosophyo : he may have derived from the latter, in some measure, the knowledge of character for which so eminent.

In 321 B.C. his first Comedy came out'; it was called 'Opyń. He wrote in the whole 105 ' or 108 " comedies, and gained the prize eight times : 115 titles of comedies ascribed to him have come down to us; it is not certain, however, that all these are correctly attributed to him". He died at Athens in the year 291 B.c. According to one account he was drowned while bathing in the harbour of the Peiræus 's. It appears from the encomiums which are heaped upon him ", that he was by far the best writer of the Comedy






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· Fragm. 40, a. p. 48, Meineke ; Anthol. Pal. vol. ii. p. 161.

Εί ταϊς αληθείαισιν οι τεθνηκότες
Αίσθησιν είχον, άνδρες, ώς φασίν τινες,

'Aπηγξάμην αν ως ιδείν Ευριπίδην. ? Suidas, Mévavopos.

3 Suidas, 'Aletis. 4 Clinton, F. H. ii. p. 143. 5 Comp. Ulpian and Demosth. p. 54, 3, with Dionys. Dinarch. p. 666. • Proleg. Aristoph. p. xxx. Diogen. Laërt. v. 36. 7 Proleg. Aristoph. p. xxx.

8 Euseb. ad Olyn. 114, 4. Apollod. ap. Aul. Gell. xvii. 4.

Κηφισιεύς ών εκ Διοπείθεος πατρός,
Πρoς τoίσιν εκατόν πέντε γράψας δράματα

'Εξέλιπε, πεντήκοντα και δυοϊν ετων.
10 Suidas, γέγραφε κωμωδίας ρη'.
" Fabricius, ii. p. 460, 468, Harles.
12 Clinton, F. H. ii. p. 181.

13 A line in the “ Ibis," attributed to Ovid, is supposed by some to allude to this (591) :

Comicus ut mediis perit dum nabat in undis. 14 Quintil. x. 1, 69. Plutarch, tom. ix. p. 387, seqq. Reiske, and Dio Chrysost. xvii. p. 255.


of Manners among the Greeks. We have a few specimens of the ingenuity of his plots in some of the plays of Terence, whom Julius Cæsar used to call a demi-Menander'. He was an imitator of Euripides, and we may infer from what Quintilian says of him ', that his comedies differed from the tragicomedies of that poet only in the absence of mythical subjects and a chorus. Like Euripides, he was a good rhetorician, and Quintilian is inclined to attribute to him some orations published in the name of Charisius'. The every-day life of his countrymen, and manners and characters of ordinary occurrence, were the objects of his imitation'. His plots, though skilfully contrived, are somewhat monotonous; there are few of his Comedies which do not bring on the stage a harsh father, a profligate son, and a roguish slave'. In his person Menander was foppish and effeminate? He wrote several prose works'. A statue was erected to his memory in the Theatre at Athens'.


1 Donatus, Vit. Terentii.

? See the passages compared by Meineke, Fragm. Com. Gr. vol. iv. p. 705, foll. It is interesting to know that it is still doubtful whether the Senarius quoted by St. Paul in 1 Corinth. xv. 33, was not borrowed by Menander, in his Thais, from some lost play of Euripides. It is quoted in Latin by Tertullian, ad Uxor. i. 8.

x. 1, 69. 4 x. 1, 70. 5 Aristoph. Byz. ap. Schol. Hermogenis, p. 38.

Ω Μένανδρε και βίε,

Πότερος άρ' υμών πότερον έμίμησατο ;
Manilius, v. 472.

Ardentes juvenes, raptasque in amore puellas,
Elusosque senes, agilesque per omnia servos,
Quis in cuncta suam produxit sæcula vitam
Doctor in urbe sua linguæ sub flore Menander,
Qui vita ostendit vitam, chartisque sacravit.
6 Dum fallax servus, durus pater, improba lana,
Vivent, dum meretrix blanda, Menandrus erit.

Ovid, I. Amorum, xv, 18.
? In quis Menander, nobilis comodiis,

Unguento delibutus, vestitu affluens,
Veniebat gressu delicato et languido.

Quisnam cinædus ille in conspectu meo
Audet venire ? Responderunt proximi :

Hic est Menander scriptor.—Phædrus, v. i. 9.
Prorsus si quis Menandrico fluxu delicatam vestem humi protrahat.

Tertullian, c. iv. de Pallio. & Suidas, Mévavopos. 9 Pausan, i. 21, 1.

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The date of the birth of Diphilus is unknown; it is stated that he exhibited at the same time with Menander'. He was born at Sinope', and died at Smyrna. Of one hundred Comedies, which he is said to have written, the names of fortyeight are preserved'. The “Casina” of Plautus is borrowed

” from his Kingoúuevol*; and Terence tells us, that he introduced into the “ Adelphi” a literal translation of part of the Euvatoθνήσκοντες of Diphilus 5. It appears from a fragment of Machon, that he wrote prologues to his dramas ', which were probably very like the prologues of the Latin Comedians, though they were, we think, originally borrowed (like all the New Comedy) from the tragedies of Euripides.

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APOLLODORUS, of Gela', is also called a contemporary of Menander The “ Phormio” of Terence is a translation from his 'ETIOKASóuevos, and the “Hecyra," which is said in the didascalia to have been taken from Menander, was, according to Donatus, also borrowed from this poet.

PosidiPPUS, the son of Cyniscus of Cassandreia, wrote thirty comedies; the titles of fifteen of these are known, and some of them were Latinized like those of the three last mentioned poets'. He began to exhibit in 289 B.C. two years after the death of Menander.

1 Δίφιλος Σινωπεύς, κατά τον αυτόν χρόνον εδίδαξε Μενάνδρω, τελευτά δε έν Σμύρνη, δράματα δε αυτού ρ'. Ρroleg. Arist. p. Xxxi.

2 Strabo, xii. p. 546.
3 Fabricus, ii. p. 438. Harles.

4 Clerumenæ vocatur hæc comædia
Greece ; Latine Sortientes. Diphilus
Hanc Græce scripsit, post id rursum denuo
Latine Plautus cum latranti nomine.

Prolog. Casinæ, 30–32.
5 Synapothnescontes Diphili comedia 'st :

Eam Conmorientes Plautus fecit fabulam.
In Græca adolescens est, qui lenoni eripit
Meretricem in primâ fabulâ : eum Plautus locum
Reliquit integrum, eum hic locum sumpsit sibi
In Adelphos, verbum de verbo expressum extulit.

Prol. Adelph. 6–11. 6 Athen. xiii. p. 580, A.

ο Δίφιλος,
νη την Αθηνών και θεούς ψυχρόν γ',” έφη,
«Γναθαίν', έχεις τον λάκκον ομολογουμένως.
ή δ' είπε, «των σων δραμάτων γάρ επιμελώς

εις αυτόν αεί τους προλόγους εμβάλλομεν.”
7 On the two comedies of this name see Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 521–2.

The Greek Comedy properly ends with Posidippus, but there are some writers of a later date called comedians. RHINTHOy, of Tarentum, is called a comedian, by Suidas, but his plays seem to have been rather phlyacographies, or tragi-comedies. He flourished in the reign of Ptolemy. The titles of six of his plays are known'. SOPATER, of Paphos, was a writer of the same kind; and also SOTADES, of Crete, who flourished about the year 280 B.C., and wrote in the Ionic dialect“. Macho wrote comedies at Alexandria about the year

He was a Corinthian or Sicyonian by birth, and the instructor of Aristophanes of Byzantium'. APOLLODORUS, of Carystus, who is confounded with the Apollodorus of Gela mentioned above, was a contemporary of Macho. He exhibited at Athens. Of twenty-four comedies which are mentioned under the name of Apollodorus, four are ascribed to the earlier poet, six to the latter, and four to both. The remaining ten are quoted under the name Apollodorus without any ethnic distinction

230 B.C.

1 Aul. Gell. ii. 23.
3 Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 486.
5 Athenæus, vi. p. 241. E. F. xiv. 664, A.

2 Suidas, Ilogeida TTOS.
4 Ibid. p. 500.
6 Clinton, F. H. dž. p. 521.

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Institution of the Xopòs åvopāv. Heraclitus and Parmenides, the
Lasus of Hermione, the dithy- philosophers. Hecatæus, the
rambic poet.

Epicharmus perfects Comedy, Birth of Anaxagoras.
Æschylus first exhibits, and con- Ionian commences, and
tends with Charilusand Pratinas. Sardis is burnt.

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