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extraordinary man the talent of wit,” he also laughed with approbation at another of his playful conceits ; which was, that 'Horace has in one line given a description of a good desirable manor :3

'Est modus ir rebus, sunt certi denique fines ; that is to say, a modus as to the tithes, anà certain fines.

He observed, “ A man cannot with propriety speak of himseif, except he relates simple facts, as, 'I was at Richmond ;' or what depends on mensuration, as, 'I am six feet high.' He is sure he has been at Richmond ; he is sure he is six feet high ; but he cannot be sure he is wise, or that he has any other excellence. Then, all censure of a man's self is oblique praise. It is in order to show how much he can spare. It has all the invidiousness of self-praise, and all the reproach of falsehood.” BOSWELL: “Sometimes it may proceed from a man's strong consciousness of his faults being observed. He knows that others would throw him down, and therefore he had better lie down softly of his own accord.”

2 See this question fully investigated in the Notes upon my "Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides,” edit. 3, p. 21, et seq. And here, as a lawyer mindful of the maxim Suum cuique tribuito, I cannot forbear to mention, that the additional Note beginning with “I find since the former edition,” is not mine, but was obligingly furnished by Mr. Malone, who was so kind as to superintend the press while I was in Scotland, and the first part of the second edition was printing. He would not allow me to ascribe it to its proper author; but, as it is exquisitely acute and elegant, I take this opportunity, without his knowledge, to do him justice.-BOSWELL.

31 Sat. i. 106. 4 This, as both Mr. Bindley and Dr. Kearney have observed to me, is the motto to “ An Enquiry into Customary Estates and Tenants' Rights, &c.—with some considerations for restraining excessive fines.” By Everard Fleetwood, Esq., 8vo., 1731. But it is probably a mere coincidence. Mr. Burke perhaps never saw that pamphlet.-MALONE.

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ON Tuesday, April 28, Johnson was engaged to dine at General Paoli's,

where, as I have already observed, I was still entertained in elegant hospitality, and with all the ease and comfort of a home. I called on him and accompanied him in a hackney-coach. We stopped first at the bottom of Hedge-lane, into which he went to leave a letter, “ with good news for a poor man in distress," as he told me. I did not question him particularly as to this. He himself often resembled Lady Bolingbroke's lively description of Pope, that "he was un politique aux chour, et aux raves." He would say,

I dine to-day in Grosvenor-square ;" this might be with a duke; or perhaps, “I dine to-day at the other end of the town;" or, “ A gentleman of great eminence called on me yesterday.” He loved thus to keep things floating in conjecture : Onne ignotum pro magnifico est. I believe I ventured to dissipate the cloud, to unveil the mystery, more freely and frequently than any of his friends. We stopped again at Wirgman's, the well-known toy-shop, in St. James's-street, at the corner of St. James's-place, to which he had been directed, but not clearly, for he searched about some time, and could not find it at first, and said, “ To direct one only to a corner shop is toying with one." I suppose he meant this as a play upon the word toy; it was the first time I knew him to stoop to such sport. After he had been sometime in the shop, he sent for me to come out of the coach, and help him to choose a pair of silver buckles, as those he had were too small. Probably this alteration in dress had been suggested by Mrs. Thrale, by associating with whom his external appearance was much improved. He got better clothes, and the dark colour, from which he never deviated, was enlivened by metal buttons. His wigs, too, were much better, and during their travels in France he was furnished with a Paris-made wig, of handsome construction. This choosing of silver buckles was a negotiation. “Sir,” said he, “I will not have the ridiculous large ones now in fashion ; and I will give no more than a guinea for a pair.” Such were the principles of the business ; and, after some examination, he was fitted. As we drove along I found him in a talking humour, of which I availed myself. BOSWELL: “I was this morning in Ridley's shop, Sir ; and was told that the collection called Johnsoniana' has sold very much.” JOHNSON : “Yet The Journey to the Hebrides' has not had a great sale."1 BOSWELL: “That is strange." JOHNSON : “Yes, Sir; for in that book I have told the world a great deal that they did not know before.”

BOSWELL: “ I drank chocolate, Sir, this morning with Mr. Eld; and, to my no small surprise, found him to be a Staffordshire Whig, a being which I did not believe had existed.” JOHNSON : “Sir, there are rascals in all countries.” BOSWELL: “Eld said, a Tory was a creature generated between a nonjuring parson and one's grandmother.” JOHNson: “And I have always said, the first Whig was the Devil.” BOSWELL : He certainly was, Sir. The Devil was impatient of subordination; he was the first who resisted power :

'Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven.'” At General Paoli's were Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mr. Langton, Marchese Gherardi of Lombardy, and Mr. John Spottiswoode the younger, of Spottiswoode," the solicitor. At this time fears of an invasion were circulated ; to obviate which, Mr. Spottiswoode observed, that Mr. Fraser, the engineer, who had lately come from Dunkirk, said that the French had the same fears of us. JOHNSON : “It is thus that mutual cowardice keeps us in peace. Were one-half of mankind brave, and one-half cowards, the brave would be always beating the cowards. Were all brave, they would lead a very uneasy life; all would be continually fighting ; but being all cowards, we go on very well.”

1 Here he either was mistaken, or had a different notion of an extensive sale from what is generally entertained : for the fact is, that four thousand copies of that excellent work were sold very quickly. A new edition has been printed since his death, besides that in the collection of his works.-BOSWELL.

Another edition has been printed since Mr. Bosweil wrote the above, besides repeated editions in the general collection of his works during the last ten years.-MALONE.

? In the phraseology of Scotland, I should have said, “ Mr. John Spottiswoode the younger, of that ilk.Johnson knew that sense of the word very well, and has thus explained it in his Dictionary, voce IlK—“It also signifies the same;' as Mackintosh of that ilk denotes a gentleman whose surname and the title of his estate are the same."--BOSWELL

We talked of drinking wine. JOHNSON : “I require wine only when I am alone. I have then often wished for it, and often taken it." SPOTTISWOODE: “What, by way of a companion, Sir?” JOHNSON : “To get rid of myself—to send myself away. Wine gives great pleasure, and every pleasure is of itself a good. It is a good, unless counterbalanced by evil. A man may have a strong reason not to drink wine : and that may be greater than the pleasure. Wine makes a man better pleased with himself. I do not say that it makes him more pleasing to others. Sometimes it does. But the danger is, that while a man grows better pleased with himself, he may be growing less pleasing to others.' Wine gives a man nothing. It neither gives him knowledge nor wit; it only animates, a man, and enables him to bring out what a dread of the company has repressed. It only puts in motion what has been locked up in frost. But this may be good or it may be bad.” SPOTTISWOODE: “So, Sir, wine is a key which opens a box; but this box may be either full or empty?" JOHNSON: “Nay, Sir, conversation is the key; wine is a pick-lock, which forces open the box, and injures it. A man should cultivate his mind so as to have that confidence and readiness, without wine, which wine gives.” BOSWELL: “The great difficulty of resisting wine is from benevolence. For instance, a good worthy man asks you to taste his wine, which he has had twenty years in his cellar.” JOHNSON: “Sir, all this notion about benevolence arises from a man's imagining himself to be of more importance to others than he really is. They don't care a farthing whether he drinks wine or not.” SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS : “ Yes, they do for the time.” JOHNSON: “For the time !if they care this minute, they forget it the next. And as for the good worthy man-how do you know he is good and worthy? No good and worthy man will insist upon another man's drinking wine. As to the wine twenty years in the cellar—of ten men, three say this, merely because they must say something ; three are telling a lie, when they say they have had the wine twenty years; three would rather save the wine; one, perhaps, cares. I allow it is something to please one's company; and people are always pleased with those who partake pleasure with them. But after a man has brought himself to relinquish the great personal pleasure which arises from drinking wine, any other consideration is a trifle. To please others by drinking wine, is something

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1 It is observed in Waller's Life, in “The Biographia Britannica," that he drank only water; and that while he sat in a company who were drinking wine "he had the dexterity to accommodate his discourse to the pitch of theirs as it sunk.” If excess in drinking be meant, the remark is acutely just. But surely a moderate use of wine gives a gaiety of spirits which water drinkers know not.-BOSWELL,

only, if there be nothing against it. I should, however, be sorry to offend worthy men:

Curst be the verse, how well soe'er it flow,
That tends to make one worthy man my foe.””

BOSWELL: “Curst be the spring, the water.” JOHNSON : “But let us consider what a sad thing it would be, if we were obliged to drink or do anything else that may happen to be agreeable to the company whero

LANGTON : “By the same rule you must join with a gang of cut-purses.” JOHNSON : “Yes, Sir; but yet we must do justice to wine ; we must allow it the power it possesses. To make a man plea sed with himself, let me tell you, is doing a very great thing :

we are.

Si patriæ volumus, si Nobis vivere cari.'"

I was at this time myself a water-drinker, upon trial, by Johnson's recommendation. JOHNSON. “Boswell is a bolder combatant than Sir Joshua: he argues for wine without the help of wine ; but Sir Joshua with it.” SIR Joshua REYNOLDS : “But to please one's company is a strong motive.” JOHNSON (who from drinking only water supposed every body who drank wine to be elevated): “I won't argue any more with you, Sir. You are too far gone.” Sir JOSHUA : “I should have thought so indeed, Sir, had I made such a speech as you have now done." JOHNSON (drawing himself in, and I really thought blushing): "Nay, don't be angry. I did not mean to offend you.” SIR JOSHUA: “At first the taste of wine was disagreeable to me; but I brought myself to drink it, that I might be like other people. The pleasure of drinking wine is so connected with pleasing your company, that altogether there is something of social goodness in it.” JOHNSON :“ Sir, this is only saying the same thing over again.” Sir Joshua: “No, this is new." JOHNSON: “You put it in new words, but it is an old thought. This is one of the disadvantages of wine, it makes a man mistake words for thoughts." BOSWELL: “I think it is a new thought; at least it is in a new attitude.” JOHNSON : “Nay, Sir, it is only in a new coat; or an old coat with a new facing. (Then laughing heartily)—It is the old dog in a new doublet. An extraordinary instance, however, may occur where a man's patron will do nothing for him, unless he will drink: there may be a good reason for drinking.”

I mentioned a nobleman, who I believed was really uneasy, if his company would not drink hard. JOHNSON: “ That is from having had people about him whom he has been accustomed to command." BOSWELL: Supposing I should be tête-à-tête with him at table.” JOHNSON : “Sir, there is no more reason for your drinking with hun, than his being sober with you.BOSWELL: “Why, that is true; for it would do him less hurt to be sober, than it would do me to get drunk.”

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