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Supreme Government declared that it was an admitted fact that Quedah had, from time immemorial, acquiesced in the paramount authority of Siam. When seated upon the throne by order of the king of Siam, the present king, it is said, misgoverned the country, disgusting his own chiefs, and causing his own brothers to revolt against him, some of whom complained to the king of Siam, who summoned the king of Quedah repeatedly to appear at Bankok, but in vain. On this account, and because he had violated some of the conditions on which he had been placed by them on the throne, the Siamese, in 1821, expelled him from Quedah. When the king fled to Penang, he was informed, by desire of the Supreme Government, that he must not turn the protection afforded him into a means of annoying the Siamese; nevertheless, he intrigued with the Burmese and others to attack them. When Mr. Crawfurd proceeded to Siam, in 1822, he was informed by the Supreme Government that it had recognized, after full inquiry, the dependence of Quedah on Siam, and he admitted it at once in his negotiations with the Siamese ministers. When Major Burney was sent to Siam, he endeavoured to procure terms for the king of Quedah, but found the resentment of the Siamese against the king too high to admit of any negotiation; they maintained their own rights of sovereignty over Quedah, and determined on no account to allow the king to return to it. The Straits' authorities attribute the attacks on Quedah, both in 1831 and 1838, to certain British inhabitants in Penang, who have no objection to be the general receivers of Quedah booty, or, as they call it, prize property. Mahomed Saad's rapacity spared neither Malays nor Siamese. Major Low says that there is not a respectable man, unconnected with the ex-rajah and the Penang party, who will not admit that the Siamese rule in Quedah is more mild and equitable than was that of the ex-rajah, who, to prevent his subjects murmuring against his evil government, was in the habit of having their mouths sewed up. Col. Burney mentions having seen some of these victims of cruelty. -EDITOR.]



SIR: In your article on the "Sugar Duties," you have taken no notice whatever of an important element in the question, namely, that East-India sugar is, in fact, slave-grown sugar, so at least we are told by those whose knowledge of India enables them to speak to the fact. In what way this fact affects the government measure, is one thing; but it is, as I have said, an important element in the question.


We did not notice this "fact," because we gave the readers of this Journal the credit of being cognizant of the "fact" being otherwise. That East-India sugar is raised by slave-labour is indeed asserted by some who do not know better, and by some, we fear, who do. Our Correspondent will see the testimony upon this point of one of the warmest antagonists of slavery, in our Asiatic Intelligence, p. 188.




I MUST here interrupt the thread of my narrative, in order to give a few particulars respecting my host and his family, which may serve as samples of the olden time of India.

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The general was the youngest of the ten sons of Sir Gerald Capsicum, a fire-eating baronet of a “rale ould ancient Irish family," and was sent to India about anno 1750, with little more than his sword, his brogue, and the family love of fighting, wherewith to assist him on in the world. The general's career had been varied, and he had gone through all the adventures, public and domestic, which usually happened to those whose lot, in respect to time and place, had been similarly cast. I have said the general was an Irishman; it follows, as a natural consequence, that he was extremely susceptible of the tenderest of passions; and as in his early days there were few white dames in the land, like many others, he e'en put up with a black oneattached himself to Sung Sittara Begum (the Queen of Stars'), one of the gazelle-eyed daughters of Hiud. No doubt, though I never saw her, she resembled many of those fascinating maids, whom I have seen; adorned with rings and chains and chaplets of Chumbalie, chewing paun and betel (“ pop and cracker," as the European soldiers call them), smoking a kulian, or talking sweet nonsense, "meetec bolee," to a pretty paroquet, cocking up his little plum-coloured head, and listening to it with all the gravity of a moonshee. This union, though not cemented by the forms of marriage, was, on the whole, more harmonious and enduring than many that are. I say on the whole; for if tradition may be depended on, the Queen of Stars more than once jootee marred* the general-a trait of vivacity sometimes exhibited by native ladies, and which is equivalent to the curtain lecture of the west. With these trifling breaks, the union long harmoniously subsisted, and was not finally dissolved till the angel of death, one fine day, summoned the Queen of Stars to her kindred seventh heaven. By the begum, the general had Major John Capsicum, an officer in the service, and commanding the forces of, his highness Ram Row Bhow Punt, the Jam of Ghurrumnugger, a Mahratta potentate of small note, whose territories it might be difficult to discover in the map. Secondly, Augustus, an indigo planter in the district of Jessore, commonly called by the general's native servants (who, like all the rest of the fraternity, were not au fait at European names) "Disgustus Sahib;" and Mrs. Colonel Yellowly, a lady of high and indomitable spirit, who died some years before the period to which I am referring, and of whom I could learn little more from record or tradition than that she was rather celebrated for the manufacture of Chutnee and Dopiajah curry, talked a good deal of a certain terra incognita called "home," and ultimately went off rather suddenly, from eating (it was supposed) too many mangofish; or, as some affirm, from chagrin in consequence of having a point of precedence decided against her, arising out of a dispute with Lady Jiggs at a presidency party as to who de jure should first come in or go out. The stickling for precedency, by the way, is a disorder very prevalent in colonial dependencies; and like gravitation, which increases with the squares of the distance, its intensity seems to be governed by a somewhat similar law, and to exist in an inverse ratio to the apparent cause for it. Long after • Jootee marna, to beat with a shoe-the most disgraceful of Indian inflictions. Asiat. Journ. N. S. VOL. 35. No. 139.


the general had passed his fiftieth year, he married the mother of the amiable widow (a nonpareil grafted on a crab), by all accounts a charming person, who, yielding to importunity, took old Capsicum to gratify the ambition of worldly parents, in whose opinion wealth and rank are all that are essential to connubial happiness. Poor thing! she gave her hand, but her heart was another's. The worm-i'-the-bud was there, and soon did the business. Opportunity offered-nature was too powerful for the colder suggestions of duty—she eloped with the man she loved; but even love cannot flourish in an atmosphere of scorn. Mankind are intensely gregarious. Shunned-deserted by her own sex, which, like birds (though from a more obvious cause), peck their wounded fellows to death-she died in a lone outpost, and the winds of the jungles pipe over her solitary grave.

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Admirable Molière ! you never penned a more striking truth. Parents, ponder it well.

The general, after the lapse of some years, with the characteristic valour of the Capsicums, boldly ventured, a short time before I knew him, on a second marriage; but here he caught a Tartar. Mrs. Capsicum the second was an Irish lady (woman I should perhaps say, the generic rather than the specific term being here most applicable), who came out to India on spec., with the full determination of marrying a good establishment, with comfortable reversionary prospects, whatever the nature of the live stock by which they might happen to be encumbered. She made play at the general, sang "Erin mavourneen " and "Cathleen O'More," talked of the Callaghans and Brallaghans, revived the general's boyish reminiscences of the green hills of Sligo, and ultimately led him, or rather had him carried, to the hymeneal altar! Of love-the proper cement of the marriage-union-there was none, on her side at least.

But to return to my narrative. The widow and I had not been long engaged in conversation (which, as I before hinted, was becoming rather interesting), when we heard the scrape of a violin outside in the passage. “Oh, here is my father," said Mrs. Delaval, "coming from his room. Now remember my caution." I was about to reply, but she laid her finger on her lip expressively, as much as to say, " Another time; he's here." The old general now entered, with a black velvet sort of nightcap stuck rakishly on his head, and playing rather jauntily "St. Patrick's Day in the Morning," to which he hummed an accompaniment-his voice displaying as usual all that vigour in its tones which, as I have before remarked, afforded so striking a contrast to his dried up and time-worn frame: as he entered with his spindle shanks, huge frill, voluminous upper works, pigtail, and velvet cap, I thought I never saw a droller figure. Still the gallant bearing and nonchalance of the little old Irishman, who evidently was unconscious of anything at all out of the way in himself, rather neutralized any feeling of disrespect which his figure was at first calculated to excite. On seeing me, he finished off the saint with a few galloping flourishes, pushed the fiddle on the table, transferred the stick to his left hand, and made a rapid advance, or rather toddle, towards me, with his right extended. "Hah, Sur, I'm glad to see you," said he; "Mr. Gernon, I believe? Very happy indeed to have your company, Sur; shall be glad to shew you ivery attintion in ivery sense of the word, Sur, for

the sake of my old friend Sir Toby; and I doubt not," he continued, with a low bow of the old school and a smile, "that I shall be able also to add on your own." As he made this courteous speech and inclination, his eye lighted on a letter laying on the table, which quickly threw the irritable old fellow off his balance, and put the courtier to flight. Why, mee heart, Cordalia," he thundered out in a voice that startled me; "by all that's good, that egragious ass, Ramdial, has gone without the letter. A man naid have the timper of an angel to dale with these fellows." Mrs. Delaval, to cut the affair short, rose immediately from her seat, and taking the letter, called a servant to the head of the stairs, and quickly rectified the omission. "Thank re, Cordalia, mee love," said the old general as she returned; "thank ye, mee darling;" and taking her hand and drawing the graceful creature towards him, he imprinted a kiss on her cheek. There's no use mincing matters-I certainly envied him the privilege.


This little interruption over, I returned to a speech which, having previously worded and fashioned in rather a superior style, I thought it a pity should be lost. I said, after a hem or two, that I felt deeply obliged for his cordial reception of me, that I should study to deserve his good opinion, and to realize the gratifying anticipations he had so obligingly expressed, &c. &c. "Ye will, Sur; ye will, Sur," said the general; "Iv'e not the laist doubt of it; and plase God, w'ell some day see you as accomplished a soldier as was your poor uncle, the colonel." "What! Sir," said I, pleased with the discovery, and with no fear that he was about to come Chattermohun over me; "did you then know my uncle, Colonel Gernon ?" "Know him!" said the general, with energy and warmth " I did, and right well too; we were in Goddard's march together and the Rohilla campaign, and in many places besides. Yes," continued he, warming as he went on, poor Pat Gernon and I have broiled under the same tint and fought under the same banner, aye, and mounted the same brache together; yes," added he, clutching his fiddlestick, and looking as fierce as if he was bursting through the fire and carnage of an assault, “I think I now hear the shouts of the inimy, and see your brave uncle lading on his gallant Sapoys through fire and smoke. Ah," said he, touched and overcome, whilst his eye moistened, " them were the days; the thought of them-it is now long, long back-and of all my old companions gone, comes over me sometimes like a faint air or a summer's drame. Know your uncle! Aye did I, and a braver soldier or a better man (though he had his faults, and who the divil has not?) never broke the bread of life." I felt a sensation of choking, whilst all the ancient blood of the Gernons mantled in my cheeks, as I listened to the veteran's animated laudation of my deceased relative.


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"Well, Sur," continued the general, suddenly changing the subject, and as if a little ashamed of the weakness and enthusiasm into which he had been betrayed," and how did you lave my old friend, Sir Toby? Is he as fond of his bottle and his rubber as he used to be? I think he played the best hand at whist of any man I ever knew." I believe, Sir," said I, "that Sir Toby's habits are unchanged in those respects; though I am unable to speak much of him from personal knowledge, having obtained the letter of introduction which I have had the honor to deliver to you through the kindness of a mutual friend." "Well, never mind how ye got it, so that ye did get it. I am extramely happy that it has been the manes of introducing to my acquaintance the nephew of my old companion in arms, to whom, by the way, you bear a strong resemblance: so now," he continued, " talk to my daughter, or amuse yourself in any way ye plase til tiffin, and I'll do the same; this is liberty hall, where every man does as he plases. Cordalia, my love, where is your


mother ?" "I have not seen Mrs. Capsicum, Sir, this morning since breakfast," replied Mrs. Delaval; "but I believe she has gone out to pay some visits.” "Has she?" said the general dryly; "well, now, I thought I noticed a remarkable stillness over the house." This was said with a wink, but in a manner I thought, which smacked of what may be termed a bitter mirth. This conversation had scarcely terminated, when we heard a loud and angry voice on the stairs or landing; and the next moment, in sailed Mrs. Capsicum Secundus, with a face that would have made a fine study for a Hecate, a Gorgon, a Fury, or any other of those celebrated characters, in whose countenances the ancients were wont to depict all the wildest play of the passions. Mrs. Delaval turned pale, the old general looked dismayed, and I, for my part, groped for my hat, thinking I might doubtless be de trop and better out of the way before the family breeze sprung up, and of which there were such alarming indications. Mrs. Capsicum seated herself majestically—her lip quivered with rage, and an unhappy poodle, who came to be caressed, received a sweeping blow from her foot, which caused him to throw a very ludicrous somerset. Now, thought I, "look out for squalls." General Capsicum knew, probably from experience, that his spouse would generally have the last word, but on the present occasion he was determined (or deemed it politic) to have the first. "Mrs. Capsicum, mee dear," said he, in a deprecating tone, you don't appear to persave our young friend here, Mr. Gernon" (wishing clearly to throw me out as a tub to the whale). The lady measured me with a momentary glance, and made the stiffest conceivable inclination, accompanied by a look the cencentrated essence of vinegar and brimstone; it was positively annihilating. After certain premonitory symptoms of Mrs Capsicum's passion, out it came :-" Ginrel Capsicum," said she, “aither I lave your house, or that rascal Khoda Buccas coachmaun laves your service." Why, mee dear Mrs. Capsicum, sure now, and what has he done?" “Done, Ginrel Capsicum, what has he done? done enough to ensure a good flogging, which I'll engage he'll get-done, why sure ye know very well, or ye ought to know at laist, that he's always doing what he ought not to do; it's now three times successfully that he has absinted himself without lave, when he ought to have been in attindence; he neglicts the horses and is for ever tomtoming and making a baste of himself in the Bazaar. I have missed an engagement this morning with Mrs. Colonel Gossipwell entirely through him, and this is the second time he has placed me in a dilemma of the kind. Oh! the villain!" she exclaimed, grinning with bitter wrath at this fresh review of Khoda Buccas's delinquencies. "I'll send him to Birchem, the magistrate, and have every bit of skin stripped off his back." Never did I see such a virago! I declare I hardly considered myself safe; I ventured cautiously to steal a look at Mrs. Delaval, in order to judge of the effect it had upon her; our eyes met, she raised her shoulders with a slight and almost imperceptible hitch, whilst her countenance - Oh! what a volume of commentary did that convey ! My deer love, now be calm, and don't discompose yourself in that way; sure the fellow shall get it and be sent out of this, if he has done auny thing wrong to displase you; come don't give it another thought, mee heart," said the general, wheedlingly, who, though as brave as a lion where men were concerned, and who would have played at short balls across three yards of green sod with any one, nevertheless felt his genius rebuked before this Gorgon. Never did one of Van Amburgh's lions crouch with more humility before the commanding eye of that tamer of brutes, than did the peppery old general before his vixen of a spouse; he felt evidently in her presence the crushing sense of a resistless power.



Khoda Buccas was now summoned to the "presence" to answer for his

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