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divisions; that to the south, extending about four hundred yards in length, and about one hundred in breadth, contained about fifty good houses, a factory, a Protestant and Popish church, and was confined entirely to the English; it was surrounded by a slender wall, defended by four batteries and four bastions; this was called the White Town, and its site is now occupied by the splendid pile of Fort St. George, from whence the establishment derives its name. On the north of this, but contiguous to it, was another division, containing some very good houses and stores belonging to Armenian and other foreign merchants trading with the Company; this quarter was called Black Town, a name it still retains. Beyond this division, and yet to the north, was the principal native town. In 1746, a century after its establishment, in consequence of the inefficiency of the English fleet, Madras was taken by the celebrated French admiral La Bourdonnais, who, however, agreed to restore it to the Company on the payment of a ransom. At this period, the eastern affairs of the Company were in a deplorable condition, and nothing saved them from utter ruin but the jealousy and collision of the French admiral and the French governor of Pondicherry. When the former had quitted the coasts of India, the latter (Dupleix) refused to confirm the terms of capitulation and restoration agreed upon by the admiral, and placed a battalion of French troops in the town to secure it. For the space of two years, hostilities were carried on between the two nations, the success being almost uniformly in favour of the French, who remained in possession of the town, but suffered the English to go on parole. Among the prisoners thus on parole was a young man of singular character, who had by several acts brought upon himself the attention of the small community; he was of a hasty and imperious disposition, brave, and impatient of control. This youth. became the celebrated Indian warrior and statesman, Lord Clive. Madras continued in possession of the French until 1749, when it was restored to the Company by a clause in the treaty of peace made at Aix la Chapelle; the French gave it up with the fortifications very much improved; and from the year 1750, the period of Lord Clive's first conquests, it has continued to increase in territory and government to its present kingly condition. The area of the Madras territory is 142,000 square miles; its population, thirteen millions and a half.

Uninitiated in the mysteries of caste, I was one day conversing with Verasawmy, the Gentoo writer at the quarters—a man with whom I subsequently formed a friendship-when he mentioned that, if a Pariar should chance to look at his curry and rice, when going to dine, he must lay it aside, and perform a complete ablution before he could venture to eat it. I asked him what actual harm the eyes of a Pariar could do his meat, and what good the ablution could do him? To which he gave me this exact reply :-"Suppose Europe gentleman not clean teeth when he come to breakfast, that yugly trick, never can do that, and so I wash off Pariar's look; it is too yugly trick to eat for European gentleman without he cleanery his hands." He gave me another excellent retort. I asked him if he would like to go to England? "What for I go to your country ?” 'Why," said I, "because there are so many fine and good things there." "What for you leave them there, and come to my country?"

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Having remained three weeks without receiving any orders as to my future destination, I began to grow tired of expecting. Every assistant surgeon, on his first arrival, is placed under the charge of some experienced medical officer, attached to a European body of troops, or at the General Hospital, with a

Aviat Journ N.S Voi 35 No 138.

view to a probationary initiation in the treatment of diseases peculiarly affecting the European frame; and he is required to send into the Medical Board a monthly report of not less than three cases of his own treating. The most disagreeable probation is generally considered that which is spent with the Madras European depôt at Poonamallee; there is then the King's regiment in the fort, the garrison hospital, and one or two more; of all which, to be attached to the European horse artillery is the most desirable. This, therefore, became an object to me; and I was fortunate enough, in about three weeks, to receive an order from the adjutant-general's office to proceed imme. diately to the Mount-St. Thomas's Mount-and to do duty under the surgeon of the horse artillery.

Now this I have ever considered as a most valuable introduction into the service. At that time, the officer in command of the Mount station was Lieut. Colonel N-e, C.B., a distinguished officer, and in every way a pattern for his juniors. Death has laid his cold hand upon him, and the memory of the dead is but of brief existence in India, so rapid are the successions of generations, the last knowing or caring but little for its predecessor. But all those who knew Colonel N. honoured him alive, and cherished his memory dead; besides which, he had fought with Wellington at Assaye.

The Mount is considered the most eligible station in Madras, excepting per. haps Bangalore. It is within reach of the sea-breeze, which it regularly receives, according to the season; it lies open, and has not too close affinity with a native town; it is within an hour's drive of Government-house, Black Town, and the beach, where all the news is to be heard, and where all the newlyarrived spinsters may be early caught. There is always a splendid European band permanently stationed at the head-quarters; plenty of changing society; a public dinner once a week; a cricket-club; a racket-court; a church; a Roman Catholic chapel; and, though last not least to a young man, a handsome uniform of blue with facings red, gold lace, and a pair of brass spurs in the heels of those attached to the horse brigade. These, however, were not all the agreeables of the Mount. I will take upon myself to say, that a more gentlemanly set of men do not exist, or a better regulated and conditioned body of men, than the officers of the corps of artillery.

And here, perhaps, I may dovetail a passing tribute to two of them; one alive, the other dead. The former is the experienced, able, cautious, and polished man who now commands the artillery force in Chusan, or rather recently attached to the China expedition; the other is poor Horne, of whom a good deal lately appeared in the public prints, connected with an extraordinary feat of horsemanship in riding the same little Arab horse four hundred miles in five days, and which he accomplished without much distress either to himself or horse. He died at Nagpoor, of fever, after being in the service about twenty years. In our early acquaintance, we were nearly coming to the duello, which was prevented, instead of being fomented, as is too often the case, by mutual friends. The best fruit seems to me to be always gathered first.

In joining the horse artillery, I found myself in possession of an income of Rs. 330 a month; a sum barely sufficient to support my necessary expenses, because, as part of this sum arose from horse-allowance, I was obliged to muster two horses, when one would have been quite enough for my use. I think it may be laid down as an established datum, that no subaltern can do more than barely sustain himself on his pay; it really seems almost difficult to make out how an ensign contrives to carry on the war, on a monthly allow

ance of Rs. 188 a month, because his capability for consuming is much greater than that of an older officer, who has been some years in the country; whereas his means of supply are infinitely more restricted. I should say, that there is very little difference in the necessary expenses between a captain on Rs. 330 a month, and an ensign with half that income. However, man's necessities and inclinations seem to be made of compressible materials, and do somehow or other expand and retract in proportion to his means.

In a very short time after joining the artillery, I was taught two lessons; one, the vicious propensities of Arab horses; the other, the cunning of an Irish culprit. I had, very soon after my arrival at Madras, met accidentally with an old schoolfellow, who chanced to be on leave at the presidency, and bought from him a strong bull-necked Arab horse, for somewhere about Rs.500. I went on his back one afternoon to attend the artillery band, which regularly played twice a week on the parade. I rode up to and stood alongside the horse of a brother officer, when, in an instant, my brute gave a tremendous squeel, and flew at the neck of the other horse. By good luck, I saved him from seizing it, yawed his head round, and stuck the spurs into his sides; he gave a sudden lunge and spring, broke through the crowd of surrounding horses, dashed off at full speed, flew over a tremendous gulley that ran on one side the parade-ground, and continued at headlong speed, blowing and snorting, for nearly three miles along the high road to Madras, when, finding his mouth, I suppose, raw from my see-sawing it with a strong bit, he pulled up, and returned very tranquilly to the place from whence he had started.

The case of the Irish culprit afforded me a lesson which I subsequently found of great service to me. This man had been taken to the colonel's quarters to be reprimanded for some misdemeanor, where, instead of expressing his contrition, he became exceedingly violent, and uttered a threat amounting to mutiny; for this he was tried by a court-martial, and sentenced to receive six hundred lashes. I was put into regimental orders to attend the punishment parade, and I confess did not appear there without some unpleasant sensations. There is something humiliating in the sight of a European bared back, and fellow-men standing by with bare arms, and lashes in their hands, ready to take their turns in laying on. The fellow richly deserved a heavy punishment; he had been daring enough to threaten bodily harm to Colonel NThe preliminary ceremony was very concise; the culprit was fastened by his wrists to the triangle; the drum-major and four of his subordinates were ranged on his left; I took my place close to him on his right, to be near to feel his pulse occasionally; the adjutant stood in the centre of the square into which the prisoner's troop had been formed, and gave the word, "Drum-major, do your duty." Upon this, the first drummer came close to the wretch's bared shoulders, gave the cat-o'ninc-tails a flourish over his head, and laid on in rapid succession five-and-twenty lashes; he was then relieved by the second drummer, who repeated the ceremony at the end of fifty strokes, the flesh became tumid and blood-shot, with very slight abrations of the skin. The third drummer now administered his dose, and whether he laid it on heavier than his predecessors, or that the parts were more sensitive, I know not, but the prisoner turned his head round to the left, towards the inflicter, and whispered, "D- your eyes-lighter!" The four drummers had each laid on five-and-twenty lashes, when Paddy, thinking it time, I suppose, to try a manœuvre, cried out, "Give me some water." This was brought to him, and while the punishment was consequently suspended, he turned to me, and said, "Doctor, plase to fale mee pulse." This of course I came close to him

to do, and while so doing, he contrived to whisper, “Ye know, docthor, ye can take me down when ye plase-for God's sake help me!" Of course, it rested with me entirely to take him down, by simply saying the word. This little scene did not occupy half a minute, when the adjutant again cried out, "Drummers, do your duty!" The first drummer again resumed the cat, and laid on his five-and-twenty; by this time the poor fellow's shoulders looked like a piece of tup-mutton, black-blooded and bruised, and thinking probably that his appeal to me had not been in vain, he dropt his head on his shoulder, stretched out his legs, gave a grunt, and assumed the attitude of a person that has fainted. Of course, he was now my property. I therefore put my hand upon his wrist, just below the manacles, but could not feel any pulse. It then struck me that these might have impeded the circulation; I therefore put my finger on the temporal artery, and found it beating quite full and regular. I also watched his eyelids, and found them tremulous, nor was there the least change or loss of colour. These symptoms convinced me that it was a sham ; and this was soon evident, for the poor fellow, still in the same fainting attitude, whispered, just audibly enough for me to hear, "God bless your honour, take me down!" The appeal I could not resist, and therefore stept back to where the adjutant was standing, and touching my cap, said, "The prisoner, sir, must be taken down." "Do you mean to say, sir, that the prisoner cannot safely bear more punishment ?" inquired the adjutant, with a most incredulous look; to which, half-ashamed, I replied, "I do, sir." Undo the prisoner," cried the adjutant. The order was of course instantly obeyed; the troops returned to barracks, the drum-major marched the culprit to the hos pital, where I soon followed him, and, as is usual, washed his marks with salt and water. For a week he was in hospital, and for a month I suspect I was a laughing-stock, although no one ever mentioned the subject.

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A short time before my joining the artillery station, a very melancholy accident happened to an excellent and popular officer of the corps, Pockingpole, who, being out riding one evening, made a trifling bet with a brother-officer that he would leap his horse over a buffalo that was lying on the ground, not far distant. The bet being taken, he accordingly ran his horse straight for the buffalo, which, disturbed by his approach, rose up just at the very moment that the horse was springing to leap; the consequence of which was, that both horse and rider fell tremendously heavy on the ground, and poor Pockingpole was killed by a fracture of the spinal column. The same period was marked, indeed, by three or four very melancholy accidents; among others, was one of a very sad, as well as singular, character. A large quantity of damaged gunpowder, which had been condemned as unfit for public service, had been thrown down into a deep abyss in the rock upon which the hill fort at Nunnydroog is built two officers, being out one evening, and quite unconscious of this act done by the ordnance officer as to the gunpowder, sat down on the edge, or rather near to the edge, of the place, to smoke their cigars; here they remained until they had finished smoking, and getting up to go away, one of them, quite unconsciously, tossed the stump of his cigar, which was not extinguished, over the edge of the precipice, and which fell among the scattered powder; in an instant, the whole place was shaken with a fearful explosion, and the two unfortunate young men were blown into a thousand pieces. The cause of this fearful and sudden accident is surmised from the circumstance of one of their servants having carried them a light to light their cigars, and having left them sitting smoking at the place.

QUEDAH, AND TUANKU MAHOMED SAAD.

THE empire of British India resembles in some of its features that of ancient Rome; the former, like the latter, contains within itself a principle of expansion, created by its relations with its immediate neighbours, and by the circumstances of its rule; and is thereby often compelled to appropriate to itself the territory of other states, and to depose independent princes. Imperial Rome, in most cases, reduced these discrowned personages to the most abject condition, exhibiting them as spectacles to the mobs of her capital; more generous Britain, sympathizing with fallen greatness, is content with divesting them of power, leaving them in other respects little reason to repine. A long catalogue might be drawn up of princes of India who, having forfeited their possessions, are pensioners upon the revenues of our territory there, and prisoners of state. To this list is now added Tuanku Mahomed Saad, a Malay prince of the royal family of Quedah, whose fate has excited much commiseration, and (we regret to say with some justice) a good deal of indignation. The case of this individual may possibly have been over-coloured by the natural tendency of human feelings, especially the generous ones, to run into extremes; but making every possible allowance for partizanship, it will be difficult to deny that he has been treated with great hardship.

Tuanku (or Prince) Mahomed Saad is a nephew of the ex-king of Quedab, a Malay state on the peninsula of Malacca. In the year 1786, Capt. Francis Light, of the country service, who had been directed by the Bengal Government to seck an eligible spot for a small settlement in that quarter, obtained from the then King of Quedah, Sultan Abdullah, whose daughter he had married, a grant of the island of Pulo Penang, on condition of an annual payment to him of 10,000 dollars, and that he should not be a sufferer by the establishment of the settlement, our Government engaging to keep an armed vessel to protect the Quedah coast. The moving motive on the part of the king to the cession was understood by Capt. Light to be a desire for the protection of England against his enemies, the Siamese: the Governor-General, however, ordered that "no act should be done or declaration made which might involve the power, credit, or troops of the Company."

The King of Siam seems to have had some claim to authority over Quedah as lord paramount, for every three years a customary offering was made from Quedah to Siam of the bunga mas (a gold and silver leaf), which was, however, merely an expression of inferiority, not of dependance or subjection: Siam herself sends the bunga mas to China, without thereby acknowledging any right of interference.

King Abdullah was succeeded by his brother, the Rajah of Purlis, by the appointment of the former (agreeably to the institutions of the Malays), to the exclusion of Abdullah's children; and by the same rule, he appointed the present king, Ahmed Tajudin Halim Shah, the son of Abdullah, to the exclusion of his own children. The present king (who succeeded in 1801)

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