« PreviousContinue »
consideration of the loss by the celibacy of their males, that nobody may imagine the computation of their deficiencies should be made upon their cloistered females only. *
And yet let us take a short view of their losses upon that calculation, allowing a monk, or a priest, for an husband to each immured woman. The most exact rules in this kind of arithmetic are as follows:
1st. The people who go on in an ordinary course of propagation and morality, and are not visited with some extraordinary destructive calamity, grow double in their number in one hundred years.
2d. Thirty-three years, are a sufficient allowance for a generation, or three generations to an hundred years. Now, since the Reformation, near two hundred years are elapsed, at which time celibacy was abolished in England.
Therefore, in that time France has lost more than five generations, principal of its inhabitants, at the rate of two hundred thousand in each generation, besides the accumulated numbers of cent per cent, for each hundred years, which loss must be reckoned upon the second century as interest upon interest; so that the two hundred thousand individual persons who were under the vow in France, an hundred and eighty years ago, will twenty years hence be a negative upon their numbers to the value of eight hundred thousand people.
They who understand a little arithmetic, may divert themselves by computing the amount of all the parts of this loss of people in the five generations: to those who do not relish numbers, I fear, I have here and elsewhere been too tedious.
My aim in this chapter is to rectify the notions of some of my countrymen, upon an affair so important as our commerce; to point out the differences between a natural and an artificial trade; to instance them in our neighbors compared with ourselves; to show the industry of the French to rival us in America, in spite of their geography and their religion; and to inculcate that our strength depends on our shipping, and our shipping on our wide extended colonies, which have neither gold nor silver, and for that very reason, confirm us the more powerfully in the dominion of the seas.
If what has been offered to the public in the foregoing sheets meets a favorable reception, the author will add some farther observations hereafter on the same subject. At present he only wishes that any thing here laid down, whether fact or observation, may be of use to Great Britain.
VOYAGE TO GEORGIA,
An Account of the Settling the Town of Frederica, in the
The Rules and Orders made by the Honorable the Trustees for that Settlement, including the Allowances of Provisions, Clothing, and other Necessaries to the Families and Servants which went thither.
A Description of the Town and County of Savannah, in the
Northern Part of tlie Province; the manner of dividing
and granting the Lands, and the Improvements
there: With an Account of the Air, Soil,
Rivers and Islands in that Part.
By FRANCIS MOORE,
AUTHOR OF TRAVELS INTO THE INLAND PARTS OF AFRICA.
A VOYAGE TO GEORGIA.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, in America, ordered a new town to be built in that colony, and an embarkation to be made for that purpose. They were pleased to appoint me to be keeper of the stores. ^ The following rules were given for the embarkation, viz.:
Rules for the year 1735.
"The Trustees intend this year to lay out a county, and build a new town in Georgia.
"They will give to such persons as they send upon the charity, To every man, a watch-coat; a musket and bayonet; a hatchet; a hammer; a handsaw; a shod shovel or spade; a broad hoe; a narrow hoe; a gimlet; a drawing knife; an iron pot, and a pair of pot-hooks; a frying pan; and a public grindstone to each ward or village. Each working man will have for his maintenance in the colony for one year (to be delivered in such proportions, and at such times as the Trust shall think proper) 312 lbs. of beef or pork; 104 lbs. of rice; 104 lbs. of Indian corn or peas; 104 lbs. of flour; 1 pint of strong beer a day to a man when he works and not otherwise; 52 quarts of molasses for brewing beer; 16 lbs. of cheese; 12 lbs. of butter; 8 oz. of spice; 12 lbs. of sugar; 4 gallons of vinegar; 24 lbs. salt; 12 quarts of lamp oil, and 1 lb. spun cotton; 12 lbs. of soap.
"To the mothers, wives, sisters or children of such men for one year, that is to say, to every person of the age of 12 years and upwards, the following allowance, (to be delivered as before,) 260 lbs. of beef or pork; 104 lbs. of rice; 104 lbs. of Indian corn or peas; 104 lbs. of flour; 52 quarts of molasses for brewing beer; 16 lbs. of cheese; 12 lbs. of butter; 8 oz. of spice; 12 lbs. of sugar; 4 gallons of vinegar; 24 lbs. of salt; 6 quarts of lamp oil; half lb. of spun cotton; 12 lbs. of soap.
"For every person above the age of seven, and under the age of twelve, half the said allowance, being esteemed half a head.
"And for every person above the age of two, and under the age of seven, one third of said allowance, being esteemed one third of an head.
"The trustees pay their passage from England to Georgia; and in the voyage they will have in every week four beef days, two pork days, and one fish day; and their allowance served out daily as follows:
"On the four beef days.—Four pounds of beef for every mess of five heads, and two pounds and a half of flour, and half a pound of suet or plums.
"On the two pork days, for every five heads, five pounds of pork, and two pints and a half of peas.
"And on the fish day, for every five heads, (the whole at sixteen ounces to the pound) two pounds and a half of fish,-and half a pound of butter.
"And allow each head seven pounds of bread of fourteen ounces to the pound, by the week, and three pints of beer, and two quarts of water (whereof one of the quarts for drinking, and the other for dressing the ship provisions) each head, by the day for the space of a month; and a gallon of water (whereof two quarts for drinking, and the other two for dressing the ship provisions) each head, by the day after, during the voyage.
"The said persons are to enter into the following covenants before their embarkation, viz.
"That they will repair on board such ship as shall be provided for carrying them to the Province of Georgia; and during the voyage will quietly, soberly and obediently demean themselves, and go to such place in the said Province of Georgia, and there obey all such orders as shall be given for the better settling, establishing and governing the said colony.
"That for the first twelve months from landing in the said Province of Georgia they will work and labor in clearing their lands, making habitations and necessary defences, and in all other works for the common good and public weal of the said colony; at such times, in such manner, and according to such plan and directions as shall be given.
"And that they, from and after the expiration of the said last mentioned twelve months, will, during the two succeeding years, abide, settle, and inhabit in the said Province of Georgia, and cultivate the lands which shall be to them and their heirs male severally allotted and given, by all such ways and means, as according to their several abilities and skills they shall be best able and capable. And such persons are to be settled in the said colony, either in new towns, or new villages. Those in the towns will have each of them a lot of sixty feet in front, and ninety feet in depth, whereon they are to build an house, and as much land in the country, as in the whole shall make up fifty acres.
"Those in the villages will have each of them a lot of fifty acres, which is to lie all together, and they are to build their house upon it.
"All lots are granted in tail male, and descend to the heirs male of their bodies forever. And in case of failure of heirs male to revert to the Trust, to be granted again to such persons, as the common council of the Trustees shall think most for the advantage of the colony; and they will have a special regard to the daughters of freeholders who have made improvements on their lots, not already provided for, by having married, or marrying persons in possessions, or entitled to lands in the Province of Georgia, in possession, or remainder.
"All lots are to be preserved separate and undivided, and cannot be united, in order to keep up a number of men equal to the number of lots, for the better defence and support of the colony.
"No person can lease out his house or lot to another, without license for that purpose, that the colony may not be ruined by absentees receiving, and spending their rents elsewhere. Therefore each man must cultivate the same by himself or servants.
"And no person can alienate his land, or any part, or any term, estate, or interest therein, to any other person, or persons without special license for that purpose; to prevent the uniting or dividing the lots.
"If any of the land so granted shall not be planted, cleared or fenced with a worm fence or pales six feet high, during the space of ten years from the date of the grant; then every part thereof not planted, cleared, or fenced as aforesaid, shall belong to the Trust, and the grant, as to such parts shall be void.