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to make them very serviceable in carrying on, and improving the manufactures of indigo, cochineal, and several others, to the great advantage of New Spain ; and the French in their settlements about the river St. Lawrence, the great lakes, and even to the Mississippi, take a great deal of pains to instruct them in every thing which they think may contribute to their mother country. If the Spaniards and French can draw these people to be serviceable, to them, I do not see it is impossible, if kindness, justice, and good nature were shewed them, but they might be brought to be very serviceable to us also." Upon the first establishing of Georgia, the Trustees, from the dictates both of humanity and prudence, endeavored to secure the friendship of the Indians. They were treated with all the candor and gentleness imaginable. They were made sensible, that the English had no intentions to distress or disturb, but would be ready to assist and protect them upon all occasions. They were assured of redress for any injuries offered them, upon their making complaints to the magistrates; upon which in return they engaged never to take any revenge themselves, which might occasion misunderstanding between the English and them. And, as they have since found that justice has always been done them upon any complaint, they have been punctual in their engagements. They have shown an affection to the colony, and upon the first breaking out of the war with Spain, and ever since, they have been ready and earnest to defend it. They intermix with great freedom with our people, and two years ago, when a body of the Chickasaw Indians, who live at a distance from our settlements, came down to Savannah, they saw in one of the houses the silk worms feeding; they were so delighted, that they went twice a day to observe them, and when they were told the use of them, they * said that if worms should be given them, they would engage to return a great quantity of balls of silk every year, for they had many mulberry trees in their nations.
Another article which shows a great probability of succeeding, is wine. t The vines grow wild in Georgia, and in great abundance; they run up to the tops of oaks with fruit upon them. As, by the luxuriancy of their growth, the grapes are but indifferent, these will be improved by prun
ing, and a proper care of the vines; and it has been found that the grafting upon these vines has been attended with success. The Portugal and other vines also, which have been transplanted thither, thrive in a very extraordinary manner. One Abraham de Lyon, a Portuguese Jew, in the year 1736, by encouragement from the Trustees, planted about a score, which he had received from Portugal, where he had been bred among the vineyards : in the next year, by his skill in pruning and dressing them, they bore plentifully a beautiful large grape, as big as a man's thumb, almost transparent, and in great bunches. A shoot, in one year, grew from the root of a bearing vine as big as a walking cane, and ran over a few poles placed to receive it, at least twelve or fourteen feet; and he has now a very promising vineyard. If wine can be made in the colony, the advantages of it must be obvious to every one. This will not interfere with the products of our other plantations. Though therefore no more could be raised than to supply these, it would be a vast profit to Georgia as well as them. They might purchase it at a cheaper rate than they do from Spain and the Canaries. They would not be liable to be interrupted in the purchase of it in a time of war between us and the nations, which now supply them; and the money, which they are to pay for it, will still remain among the subjects of Great Britain. But this product must be a work of time, and must depend upon an increase of the people.
Other beneficial articles for trade, which it is found) can be raised there, are,
*Cochineal. The prickly pear shrubs, (upon which the fly feeds, from which is taken the cochineal,) are in abundance upon the islands in the southern part of the province; and the fly has been taken upon them, which, being squeezed by some persons between their fingers, has dyed them with the fine red color which the cochineal gives.
Indigo, Olives and Oil.
Cotton, (of which some has been brought over as a sample,) and many drugs, viz. aloes, sassafras, sumach, snakeroot, and several others, the shrubs of which grow wild and in great numbers.
The timber in the province is very fine. In the inland
* Appendix No. 8.
part of the country, some of the trees grow so high, that they would furnish* masts for men-of-war; and near the sea, where the ground is more upon a level, there is a great quantity of excellent knee timber. The laurel, cedar, cypress, and bay-trees, grow in this part to the height and size of timber trees.
The fourth objection is: 4. That the lands were granted upon improper tenures and conditions.
In the infancy of the settlement, many regulations and restrictions were thought necessary; but these have since, for the ease of the people, been either relaxed or removed. One condition in particular was, that the lands, which were granted, should in failure of issue male, revert to the Trust. The females, however, were to have the value of the improvements, and in case of marriage, the lot was intended to be given to the husband of the eldest daughter, (which was always complied with upon application,) in case he was not possessed of any lot before. The design of this restriction was to keep up a number of men equal to the number of lots, for the defence and better improvement of the province, and to preserve a proper equality among them. But this condition has since been released, and the daughter of a freeholder, or any other person, is made capable of enjoying by inheritance a devise of lands, provided that it does not increase her or his possession, to more than two thousand acres.
Another proviso in the grants was, that no person should alien his land, or any part of it, or grant any term, estate, or interest therein to any other person, without a special license. This was to prevent the effects of usury, and people's running into debt, which might incite them to idleness; and to keep the lots entire and undivided, and prevent any person's engrossing too great a quantity of land. This proviso likewise has been released, and a general license has been granted, for all possessors of land in Georgia to make leases of any part of their lots, for any term not exceeding five years, to any person residing in Georgia, and who shall continue resident there during the term of such lease.
A third condition in the grants was, That if any of the lands should not be planted, cleared, or fenced, within the space of
* Appendix No. 2 and 8
ten years from the date of the grant, every part thereof, not planted, cleared, or fenced, should revert to the Trust. This was intended only to put the people under a necessity of being early, and industrious in their improvements. But however, to remove any apprehensions, which they might have of losing their lots, a general release has since been passed, by which no advantage is to be taken against any possessors of land in Georgia, for any forfeitures incurred at any time before midsummer 1740, in relation either to the tenure or cultivation of land ; and a much longer time for cultivating is allowed on the easiest conditions, and such as were proposed by a gentleman of the province, on behalf of the freeholders.
The last and principal objection is, 5. That it will be impracticable to render the colony of any value, without the use of negroes.
This will require a more particular examination, as it has obtained a credit with many persons of understanding who have an affection for the colony. The reason, which has principally guided them in this belief, is, that our other colonies have not prohibited them, but find them necessary, and therefore they think there is no occasion for this singularity. It cannot, however, be doubted, but these persons will consider with attention the particular circumstances of this province, and the arguments which will be offered to show, that negroes are inconsistent with the constitution of it, needless for the produces which are to be raised there, and absolutely dangerous to Georgia in its present situation, as well as to the adjacent provinces.
The preamble to his Majesty's charter runs as follows:
“Whereas we are credibly informed, that many of our poor subjects are, through misfortunes, and want of employment, reduced to great necessities, insomuch as by their labor they are not able to provide a maintenance for themselves and families'; and if they had means to defray the charge of passage, and other expenses incident to new settlements, they would be glad to be settled in any of our provinces in America, where by cultivating the lands at present waste and desolate, they might not only gain a comfortable subsistence for themselves and families, but also strengthen our colonies and increase the trade, navigation, and wealth of these our realms.
“And whereas our provinces in north America have been
frequently ravaged by Indian enemies, more especially that of South Carolina, which in the late war was laid waste with fire and sword; and great number of the English inhabitants miserably massacred, and our loving subjects, who now inhabit there, by reason of the smallness of their numbers, will, in case of any new war, be exposed to the like calamity, inasmuch as their whole southern frontier continueth unsettled, and lieth open to the said savages.
“And whereas we think it highly becoming our crown and royal dignity to protect all our loving subjects, be they never so distant from us: To extend our fatherly compassion even to the meanest and most unfortunate of our people, and to relieve the wants of our above-mentioned poor subjects; and that it will be highly conducive for accomplishing these ends, that a regular colony of the said poor people be settled and established in the southern frontier of Carolina.
“Know ye,” &c.
By this Preamble it appears, that the chief purposes, for which the charter was granted, were a subsistence for those, who were indigent at home, and consequently a burden on the public; and making a barrier for South Carolina, which had suffered, and lay still exposed to danger by the smallness of the number of her English inhabitants.
If a great number of negroes could have made South Carolina secure, she would not have wanted such a barrier, for she is computed to have at least forty thousand blacks, whilst the white people are not above five thousand; and these (by the large portions of land being in the possession of but few persons) at too great a distance from one another for the public safety.
The greater number of blacks, which a frontier has, and the greater the disproportion is between them and her white people, the more danger she is liable to; for those are all secret enemies, and ready to join with her open ones upon the first occasion. So far from putting any confidence in them, her first step must be to secure herself against them.
Georgia therefore was designed to be a new frontier, and that she might be well stocked with white inhabitants, who by their property could only add a strength to it, his Majesty in the charter restrained the Trustees from granting more