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ture and design.-1. Notice of the heads or princes of tribes and families.-2.

Of the Jethronian Prefects or judges appointed by Moses.-3. Of the Senate,

or council of soventy assessors.-4. Scribes.—III. Governmont of the Judger

-IV. Regal government instituted ;-the functions and Privileges of the

Kings ;-Inauguration of the kings :-Scriptural Allusions to the courts of

sovereigns and princes explained.V. Rovennos of the kings of Israel.-VL.

CHAPTER III. Courts of. Judicature, Legal Proceeding, and Criminal

Law of the Jews.

SECTION I. Jewish Courts of Judicature, and Legal Proceedings.

Inferior judges.-II. Seat of justice.--III. Appeals.-Constitution of the San.

hedrim or Great Council.-IV. Form of Legal Proceedings among the Jews.

--l. Citation of the Parties.--2, 3. Form of Pleading in Civil and Criminal

Cases.-4. Witnesses.-5. The Lot, in what cases used judicially.-6. Forms

of Acquittal.—7. Summary Justice, sometimes clamorously demanded.—V.

Execution of Sentences, by whom, and in what manner performed. 106

Section II. Of the Roman Judicature, Manner of Trial, and Treat-

ment of Prisoners, as mentioned in the New Testament.

I. Judicial Proceedings of the Romans.-II. Privileges and Treatment of Roman

citizens, when Prisoners.—III. Appeals to the Imperial Tribunal.-IV. The

Roman method of fettering and confining criminals.-V. The Roman Tribu-

nals.-VI. The Areopagus of the Athenians.


Section III. On the Criminal Law of the Jews.

I. CRIMES AGAINST God.-1. Idolatry.—2. Blasphemy.-3. Falsely prophesying

-4. Divination.–5. Perjury.-II. CRIMES AGAINST PARENTS AND Rulers.

III. CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY.–1. Theft.–2. Man-stealing.–3. The Crime

of denying any thing taken in trust, or found.-4. Regulations concerning
Debtors.-IV. CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON.-1. Murder.-2. Homicide.-3.

Corporal Injuries.—4. Crimes of Lust.–5. CRIMES OF Malice.


Section IV. On the Punishments mentioned in the Scriptures.

Design of Punishments.-Classification of Jewish Punishments.—1. Punish-

MENTS, NOT CAPITAL.--1. Scourging.–2. Retaliation.-3. Pecuniary fines.—4.

Offerings in the nature of punishment.–5. Imprisonment.--Oriental mode

of treating prisoners.—6. Depriving them

of Sight.-7. Cutting or plucking

off the Hair -8. Excommunication.-II. CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS.-1. Slaying

with the Sword.—2. Stoning.–3. Decapitation.-4. Precipitation.-5. Drown-

ing.-6. Bruising in a mortar.-7. Dichotomy, or cutting asunder.—8. Toura-

veruos, or beating to death,-9. Exposing to Wild Beasts.-10. Burning to

Death.-11. Crucifixion.-(1.) Prevalence of this inode of punishment among

the antients.—(2.) Ignominy of Crucifixion.—(3.) The circumstances of our

Saviour's Crucifixion considered and illustrated.


Section III. Of the High Places, and Proseuche, or Óratories of

the Jews.

I. Of the High Places.-II. Of the Proseuchæ, or Oratories.

Page 233

Section IV. Of the Synagogues.

I. Nature and origin of Synagogues.— The Synagogue of the Libertines ex-

plained.—II. Form of the Synagogues.—III. The Officers or Ministers.-IV.

The service performed in the Synagogues.-V. On what days performed.—VI.

Ecclesiastical Power of the Synagogues.-VII. The Shemoneh Esreh, or

nineteen Prayers used in the Synagogue service.


CHAPTER II. Sacred Persons.

Section I. Of the Jewish Church and its Members.

I. The whole nation accounted holy.-II. Members of the Jewish Church;

Hebrews of the Hebrews.-III. Proselytes.—IV. Jews of the Dispersion.-V.

Hellenistic Jew8.–VI. The Libertines.-VII, Devout Men.-VIII. Circum-

cision.--IX. Proselytes how introduced into the Jewish Church.


Section II. On the Ministers of the Temple, and other ecclesiastical

or sacred Persons.

I. Of the Levites.-II. The Priests, their functions, maintenance, and privileges.

---III. The High Priest.-Succession to the Pontifical Dignity.--His qualifica-

tions, functions, dress, and privileges.-IV. Officers of the Synagogue.-V.

The Nazarites; nature of their vows.-VI. The Rechabites.- VII. The



Chapter III. Sacred Things.On the Sacrifices and other offerings

of the Jews.

General Classification of Sacrifices and Offerings :-I. BLOODY OFFERINGS, and

the divine origin of Sacrifices;-1. Different kinds of Victims ;-2. Selection

of Victims ;-3. Manner of presenting them ;-4. Libations ;-5. Immolation

of the Sacrifice ;–6. The Place and Time appointed for Sacrificing ;-7.

Different kinds of Fire-sacrifices ;-i. Burnt Offerings ;-ii. Peace Offerings;

-ii. Sin Offerings ;-iv. Trespass Offerings ;-National, regular, weekly,

monthly, and annual Sacrifices ;—II. UNBLOODY OFFERINGS.—III. DRINK

OFFERINGS.-IV. ORDINARY OBLATIONS.--the Shew-bread and Incense.-V.


Fruits ;-2. Tithes.


CHATPER IV. Sacred Times and seasons observed by the Jews.

I. THE SABBATH.—How observed.-Jewish worship on that day.--Their Pray-

ers, public and private; Attitudes at Prayer; Forms of Prayer.-II. Their

manner of worshipping in the temple.—III. New moons.-IV. Annual Festivals.

-V. The PASSOVER; when celebrated, and with what ceremonies; its mysti-

cal or typical reference.-VI. The Day of Pentecost.–VII. The Feast of


-X. Annual Festivals instituted by the Jews.-FEAST OF Purim.-XI. THE

Feast op DEDICATION.-Other Festivals observed at stated intervals.—XII.



Section II. On the Purifications of the Jews.

I. Materials, with which the Purifications of the Jews were performed.-II. Cere-

monies of Purification.—III. Of the persons lustrated. - IV. Account of the

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