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This can be accomplished by amplification. A good example
Vernon, Systems Analysis In Contemporary Police Management
at 6 (Traffic Digest 6 Rev April, 1969)
For example, Deutsch and Gerard define a "normative social influence" as an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. Positive expectations refer to those
expectations whose fulfillment leads to or reinforces posi
tive rather than negative feelings and whose non-fulfillment
leads to the opposite, to alienation rather than solidarity.
A Study of Normative And Informational Social Influences
at 402-11 (Basic Studies In Social Psychology 1965)
Brown, Techniques Of Persuasion at 45 (1963)
Formation of Social Norms: The Experimental Paradigm at
461-71 (Basic Studies In Social Psychology 1965)
Another experiment verifying this parameter was performed by Crutchfield. (Conformity And Character at 398-408 Current Perspectives In Social Psychology 1963).) Five
persons were seated in individual booths facing a signal
board. The experimenter faked, for each person, the judgments of the other group members concerning the lengths
The experimenter did this in order to deliver
unanimously wrong group judgments to each person. (See Krech, Crutchfield & Ballachey, Individual In Society at
The subjects were 90 men actively engaged
in a business in which leadership was a salient expected qualification. These men represented a gathering of superior individuals who could be expected to readily with
stand group pressure. A control group of 40 men were used.
The other 50 were tested as above described. The results
were startling. There was a capitulation to group pressure ranging from 30 to 79% in the situations presented.
Effects of Group Pressure On Judgments at 393-401 (Basic
Studies in Social Psychology 1965)
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pt. 18A —
Further confirmation of Parameter F was a study at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. (Kimble, Principles of General Psychology at 331-332, 352 (1956).) An economic in
centive plan gave individual workers a bonus. No increase in
production occurred. Next, six workers were selected.
worked under the following sequence of conditions:
(1) Control condition: Two weeks work in the regular shop
under normal conditions.
Adaptation period: Five weeks work in a special test
room with working conditions otherwise the same as in
Throughout the experiment the rate of production continued to
increase. The experiment was structured so that the workers were asked for their comments after each change. They felt management was interested in them. This illustrates the importance of personal contact as set forth in Parameter F.
Furthermore, the continued improvement in production, irre
spective of the nature of the change, again demonstrates the
validity of Parameter c, that behavioral change is a direct function of the number of personal contacts. (See Lewin,
Group Decision And Social Change at 427-28 (Basic Studies
In Social Psychology 1965) which also confirms Parameter F.)
Milgram, Some Conditions Of Obedience And Disobedience To
Authority at 243-62 (Current Studies In Social Behavior
1965). See also Gamson, The Management of Discontent 549
50 (Social Psychology 1969) for a summary. Other data from
these experiments demonstrate the great influence of the
physical presence of the experimenter, confirming again the
validity of Parameter F.
Moynihan, Report Of The Secretary's Advisory Committee On
Traffic Safety, at xiii, 38, 82, 101 (1968)
Sixty Percent Would Keep Auto Liability, (Minneapolis Tribune),
Sept. 8, 1968
16 · Pelz, Driver Motivations And Attitudes at 105, 110, 114, 116,
117 (2d Annual Traffic Safety Research Symposium 1968).
Similar conclusions were reached in a companion experiment with letters personalized to varying degrees. Those receiving
soft-sell personal letters had better subsequent traffic records.
Cramton, Driver Behavior and Legal Sanctions at 186-87 (2d
Annual Traffic Safety Research Symposium 1968)
Basic Protection For The Traffic Victim at 252, 253, 255,
368, 530 (1965)
Morris, New Car Insurance Would Drop Liability System (New
York Times Oct 22, 1968)
Burnham, Psychologist Says Pressures of Big City Life Are
Transforming Americans Into Potential Assassins (New York
Times April 20, 1969)