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FOOTNOTES

i

This can be accomplished by amplification. A good example
is the operation of a triode vacuum tube circuit. An increase
in the grid bias (a greater negative charge), will decrease
the flow of current in the circuit. The decreased current
activity confirms the blocking effect of the negative grid

bias.

Vernon, Systems Analysis In Contemporary Police Management

at 6 (Traffic Digest 6 Rev April, 1969)

For example, Deutsch and Gerard define a "normative social influence" as an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. Positive expectations refer to those

expectations whose fulfillment leads to or reinforces posi

tive rather than negative feelings and whose non-fulfillment

leads to the opposite, to alienation rather than solidarity.

A Study of Normative And Informational Social Influences

at 402-11 (Basic Studies In Social Psychology 1965)

Brown, Techniques Of Persuasion at 45 (1963)

Formation of Social Norms: The Experimental Paradigm at

461-71 (Basic Studies In Social Psychology 1965)

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Another experiment verifying this parameter was performed by Crutchfield. (Conformity And Character at 398-408 Current Perspectives In Social Psychology 1963).) Five

persons were seated in individual booths facing a signal

board. The experimenter faked, for each person, the judgments of the other group members concerning the lengths

of lines.

The experimenter did this in order to deliver

unanimously wrong group judgments to each person. (See Krech, Crutchfield & Ballachey, Individual In Society at

508-9 (1962).)

The subjects were 90 men actively engaged

in a business in which leadership was a salient expected qualification. These men represented a gathering of superior individuals who could be expected to readily with

stand group pressure. A control group of 40 men were used.

The other 50 were tested as above described. The results

were startling. There was a capitulation to group pressure ranging from 30 to 79% in the situations presented.

Ibid

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Effects of Group Pressure On Judgments at 393-401 (Basic

Studies in Social Psychology 1965)

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Ibid

39-280 0-71 -

pt. 18A —

43

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Further confirmation of Parameter F was a study at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. (Kimble, Principles of General Psychology at 331-332, 352 (1956).) An economic in

centive plan gave individual workers a bonus. No increase in

production occurred. Next, six workers were selected.

They

worked under the following sequence of conditions:

(1) Control condition: Two weeks work in the regular shop

under normal conditions.

Adaptation period: Five weeks work in a special test

room with working conditions otherwise the same as in
the shop.

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Throughout the experiment the rate of production continued to

increase. The experiment was structured so that the workers were asked for their comments after each change. They felt management was interested in them. This illustrates the importance of personal contact as set forth in Parameter F.

Furthermore, the continued improvement in production, irre

spective of the nature of the change, again demonstrates the

validity of Parameter c, that behavioral change is a direct function of the number of personal contacts. (See Lewin,

Group Decision And Social Change at 427-28 (Basic Studies

In Social Psychology 1965) which also confirms Parameter F.)

13

Milgram, Some Conditions Of Obedience And Disobedience To

Authority at 243-62 (Current Studies In Social Behavior

1965). See also Gamson, The Management of Discontent 549

50 (Social Psychology 1969) for a summary. Other data from

these experiments demonstrate the great influence of the

physical presence of the experimenter, confirming again the

validity of Parameter F.

14

Moynihan, Report Of The Secretary's Advisory Committee On

Traffic Safety, at xiii, 38, 82, 101 (1968)

15

Sixty Percent Would Keep Auto Liability, (Minneapolis Tribune),

Sept. 8, 1968

16 · Pelz, Driver Motivations And Attitudes at 105, 110, 114, 116,

117 (2d Annual Traffic Safety Research Symposium 1968).

Similar conclusions were reached in a companion experiment with letters personalized to varying degrees. Those receiving

soft-sell personal letters had better subsequent traffic records.

Ibid

18

Cramton, Driver Behavior and Legal Sanctions at 186-87 (2d

Annual Traffic Safety Research Symposium 1968)

Basic Protection For The Traffic Victim at 252, 253, 255,

368, 530 (1965)

20

Morris, New Car Insurance Would Drop Liability System (New

York Times Oct 22, 1968)

21

Burnham, Psychologist Says Pressures of Big City Life Are

Transforming Americans Into Potential Assassins (New York

Times April 20, 1969)

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