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relation to her husband, but still more so with regard to her only son, was uncomfortable and unhappy. The latter was a man whose talents were considerable, but whose vices and eccentricities were such as to justify the supposition of madness, and his career was one of the most extraordinary adventure and singularity. Lady Mary, however, was of a cold and unimpressionable nature, and seems to have borne her private misfortunes with philosophical equanimity. She was perhaps in some degree indemnified for the pain her son's conduct gave her, by the affection of her daughter, for whom she probably felt as much tenderness as she had to bestow, and to whom some of her liveliest and most amusing letters are addressed. Admirable common sense, observation, vivacity, extensive reading without a trace of pedantry, and a pleasant tinge of half-playful sarcasm, are the qualities which distinguish her correspondence. The style is perfection : the simplicity and natural elegance of the high-born and high-bred lady combined with the ease of the thorough woman of the world. The moral tone, indeed, is far from being high, for neither the character nor the career of Lady Mary had been such as to cherish a very scrupulous delicacy. But she had seen so much, and had been brought into contact with so many remarkable persons, and in a way that gave her unusual means of judging of them, that she is always sensible and amusing. I have compared her to Madame de Sévigné, but the differences between the two charming writers are no less striking than the resemblances. In Lady Mary there is no trace of that intense and even morbid maternal affection which breathes through every line of the letters addressed to Madame de Grignan; nor is there any of that fetish-like worship of the court which seems to pervade everything written in the chilling and tinsel atmosphere that surrounded Louis XIV. In wit, animation, and the power of hitting off, by a few felicitous touches, a character or a scene, it is difficult to assign the palm of superiority. Lady Mary was unquestionably a woman of far higher intellectual calibre, and of a much wider literary development. She can reason and draw inferences where Madame de Sévigné can only gossip, though it must be allowed that her gossip is the most delicious in the world. The successful introduction of inoculation for the smallpox is mainly to be attributed to the intelligence and courage of Lady Mary Montagu, who not only had the courage to try the experiment upon her own child, but with admirable constancy resisted the furious opposition of bigotry and ignorance against the bold innovation. She was at one time the intimate friend of Pope, and the object of his most ardent adulation; but a violent quarrel occurred between them, supposed to have originated in a rather warm outburst of admiration on the part of the poet, received by the great lady, as might indeed have been expected when we consider Pope's personal peculiarities, with a contemptuous ridicule which transformed his admiration into the bitterest and most persevering malignity. She was the author of a small miscellaneous collection of poems, exhibiting the ease, regularity, and fluency which

generally inarked the lighter verses of that day, and also a rather lax and epicurean tone of philosophy, which is sometimes expressed with inimitable felicity. Nothing can more strongly mark the wide difference between the social condition of England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than a comparison between the tone and the topics of the admirable Memoirs of Lucy Hutchinson, and the gay, worldly, satirical letters of Lady Mary Montagu. Both the one and the other are types of the female character as modified by the respective influences of the two so strongly-contrasted epochs.



| their arguments was published by Sir William

Temple in 1692, in his Essay on Ancient and ModEUSTACE BUDGELL (1685-1736), a friend of Ad-ern Learning, written in elegant language, but condison, who obtained for him many important posts taining much puerile matter, and exhibiting great under Government. He contributed to the Specta-credulity. Not content with pointing out the untor all the papers marked with the letter X. Hav- doubted merits of the great writers of antiquity, he ing lost almost his whole fortune in the South Sea undervalued the labors and discoveries of the mod. scheme, and large sums of money in unsuccessful ems, and passed over Shakspeare, Milton, end attempts to obtain a seat in Parliament, he became Newton without even mentioning their names. A a ruined man. He was accused of having forged in far abler and an impartial estimate of the controhis favor Tindal's Will, a charge to which Pope versy was made by Wotton in his Reflections uron alludes in the lines,

Ancient and Modern Learning, published in 1991. “Let Budgell charge low Grub Street on my quill,

WILLIAM WOTTON (1666-1726) had been a boy of And write whate'er he please - except my will."

astonishing precocity, and was admitted in his

tenth year to Catherine Hall, Cambridge. When Budgell was supposed to have assisted Tindal in his

he took his degree, at the age of thirteen, he was infidel works. His circumstances having become

acquainted with twelve languages. In his “ Reflecdesperate, Budgell committed suicide, by leaping

tions" he discusses the subject with great imparfrom a boat into the Thames. In his house was

tiality and learning; and, while assigning to the found a slip of paper, on which he had written

ancients their real merits, he points out the superi“What Cato did, and Addison approved, ority of the moderns in physical science. Cannot be wrong."

Sir William Temple, in his Essay, among other Budgell published a weekly periodical called the arguments for the decay of humor, wit, and learnBee.

ing, had maintained that the oldest books extant JOIN HUGNIES (1677-1720) contributed some were still the best in their kind;" and in proof of papers to the Spectator, Tatler, and Guardian. Ile this assertion had cited the Fables of Æsop and the also published some miscellaneous poems, a tragedy | Epistles of Phalaris. This led to the publication of called the Siege of Damascus, several translations a new edition of the Epistles of Phalaris by the from the French, and an edition of Spenser's scholars of Christ-Church, Oxford (1695). The Works.

nominal editor was Charles Boyle, brother of the TOM BROWN (d. 1704) and TOM D'URFEY (d. Earl of Orrery, who, in his Preface, inserted a bitter 1723), two facetious but immoral writers, frequently reflection upon RICHARD BENTLEY (1662-1742), mentioned in the lighter literature of the period. the King's Librarian, on account of the supposed D'URFEY wrote several plays of a licentious char- refusal of the latter to grant him the loan of a MS. acter. In No. 67 of the Guardian Addison solicits in the King's Library. Bentley, who appears to his readers to attend a play for D'Urfey's benefit. have been unjustly blamed in this matter, soon had

an opportunity of retaliation. In the second edition B.-BOYLE AND BENTLEY CONTRO

of Wotton's Reflections, published in 1097, Bentley VERSY.

added a dissertation, in the form of letters to his This celebrated controversy, which has been friend, in which he proved that the author of the alluded to more than once in the preceding chap- Epistles of Phalaris was not the Sicilian ty ters, arose out of another upon the comparative some sophist of a later age. Sir William Temple, merits of the ancient and modern writers. The dis- who had been greatly annoyed at Wotton's Reflecpute had its origin in France, where Fontenelle and tions, was still more incensed at Bentley's DissertaPerrault claimed for the moderns a general supe-| tion; and Swift, who then resided in Temple's riority over the writers of antiquity. A reply to l house, made his first attack upon Bentley in the Battle of the Books, in which he ridiculed the great against the devoted critic." - (Monk's Life of Bentscholar in the most ludicrous manner; though the ley, i. p. 108.) work was not printed till some years after.

| Among the many other attacks made upon BentAt Christ Church the indignation was, if possible, ley at this period, the only one which continues to even greater. Bentley's attack was considered an be known is Swift's Battle of the Books, in which affront to the whole College, and it was resolved to he pours forth upon Bentley all the embittered vehecrush, at once and forever, the audacious assailant. mence of his satire. All the strength of Christ Church was enlisted in In the midst of this outcry Bentley remained the contest; but the chief task of the reply was un- unmoved. Conscious of his own learning, he could dertaken by Atterbury. He was assisted by George afford to despise the ignorant malice of his enemies; Smalridge, Robert Friend, afterwards head-master and he set himself resolutely to work to prepare an. of Westminster School, his brother John Friend, answer, which should not only silence his oppoand Anthony Alsop. “In point of classical learn- nents, but establish his reputation as one of the ing," observes the biographer of Bentley, “the joint greatest scholars that ever lived. His work appeared stock of the confederacy bore no proportion to that in 1699, under the title of A Dissertation upon the of Bentley; their acquaintance with several of the Epistles of Phalaris : with an Answer to the Objecbooks upon which they comment appears only to tions of the Hon. Robert Boyle, by Richard Benthave begun upon that occasion, and sometimes they ley, D. D.; but it is frequently called Bentley are indebted for their knowledge of them to their against Boyle. “The appearance of this work is to adversary; compared with his boundless erudition, be considered an epoch not only in the life of Benttheir learning was that of school-boys, and not ley, but in the history of literature. The victory always sufficient to preserve them from distressing obtained over his opponents, although the most mistakes. It may be doubtful whether Busby him- complete that can be imagined, constitutes but a self, by whom every one of the confederate band had small part of the merits of this performance. Such been educated, possessed knowledge which could is the author's address, that, while every page is have qualified him to enter the lists in such a con- professedly controversial, there is embodied in the troversy." But their deficiency in learning they work a quantity of accurate information relative to made up by wit and raillery; and when the book history, chronology, antiquities, philology, and appeared, in 1698, it was received with extravagant criticism, which it would be difficult to match in applause. It was entitled Dr. Bentley's Disserta- any other volume. The cavils of the Boyleans had tions on the Epistles of Phalaris and the Fables of fortunately touched upon so many topics, as to draw Esop, examined by the Honorable Charles Boyle, from their adversary a inas3 of learning, none of Esq. It is usually known by the familiar title of which is misplaced or superfluous: he contrives, Boyle against Bentley; though Boyle, whose name with admirable judgment, to give the reader all the it bears, had no share in the composition of the work. information which can be desired upon each qucsIt was generally supposed that Bentley was silenced | tion, while he never loses sight of his main object. and crushed. “All accounts agrec in stating the Profound and various as are the sources of his lcarnapplause which the book met with to have been ing, everything is so weil arranged, and placed in loud and universal; and the general interest excited so clear a view, that the student who is only in the by this controversy, properly a business of dry elementary parts of classical literature may peruse learning, appears to us almost incredible. This the book with profit and pleasure, while the most state of public feeling is attributable in some degree learned reader cannot fail to find his knowledge to the vein of wit and satire which pervades the enlarged. Nor is this merely the language of those Christ Church performance, but still more to ex- who are partial to the author; the eminently learned traneous causes. The numbers and ability of the Dodwell, who had no peculiar motive to be pleased members of that distinguished society, who appear with a work by which he was himself a considerable to have felt as one man in this common cause, had sufferer, and who as a nonjuror was prejudiced & powerful influence over public opinion. Again, against Bentley's party, is recorded to have avowed the extreme popularity of Sir W. Temple, who was 'that he had never learned so much from any book represented as rudely attacked, and the interest in his life.' This learned volume owes much of its excited in behalf of Mr. Boyle, a young scholar of attraction to the strain of humor, which makes the noble birth, who appeared in the field of controversy | perusal highly entertaining. The advocates of as the champion of an accomplished veteran, dis- | Phalaris, having chosen to rely upon wit and railposed people at all hazards to favor his cause. lery, were now made to feel in their turn the conAdded to this, an opinion which had been indus- sequences of the warfare which they had adopted. triously circulated of Bentley's incivility, and a cer- So well sustained is the learning, the wit, and the tain haughty carriage which undoubtedly belonged spirit of this production, that it is not possible to to him, gave a violent prejudice to the public mind. select particular parts as objects of admiration, Severe and accurate erudition being rare in those without committing a sort of injustice to the rest. days, people were so far deluded as to believe that And the book itself will long continue to be in the on most, if not all points, Boyle was successful: we hands of all educated persons, as long as literature learn from Bentley himself, that the book was at maintains its hold in society." — (Monk's Life of first generally regarded as unanswerable; and this Bentley, i. pp. 120-123.) even among his own friends. Nobody suspected With this dissertation the controversy came to an that he would renture to reply; still less that he end, for Bentley's reply was so complete and crushcould ever again hold up his head in the republic ing that it was hopeless to attempt a rejoinder. Sir of learning: the blow was thought to be fatal; and William Temple died a few weeks before the publimany persons, as usual, cagerly joined the cry i cation of Bentley's work, and was thus spared the

mortification of witnessing the utter discomfiture of after it had been given up by Swift. She was the his friends.

daughter of Sir Roger Manley, governor of Guern


JOIN STRYPE (1643–1737), son of a refugee from SIR ANDREW FLETCHER OF SALTOUN (1653- Brabant, was brought up at Cambridge, and entered 1716) was a member of Parliament in the reign of the Church. He was an extensive historian and Charles II., and afterwards engaged in the various biographer. He wrote lives of Cranmer, 1694, Grinpolitical events of the reigns of James II., William dal, 1710, Parker, 1711, and other archbishops; and Mary, and Anne. His writings were chiefly in Annals of the Reformation, 1709-31; and was editor the form of political tracts. He is the author of the of the “Survey of London," by Stow, besides other saying, “If a man were permitted to make all the works of historical and antiquarian interest. He ballads, he need not care who should make the laws died at Hackney, aged 94. of a nation."

LAWRENCE EOHARD (1671-1730). An extensive Mrs. MANLEY (1724), in the reign of Anne, was compiler and careful annalist. His histories of a dramatist, novelist, and political writer, popular, | England, Rome, the Church, &c., were valuablo but of no very good character as regards either her collections in their day. Several editions of the life or her writings. She was the author of Atalan- Ecclesiastical History have been published. tis, a political satire of some force, published about He was educated at Cambridge, and became 1709. She conducted the Examiner for some time I Archdeacon of Stowe and prebend of Lincoln.



$ 1. History of Prose Fiction. The Romance and the Novel. § 2. DANIEL

DEFOE. His life and political career. $ 3. Robinson Crusoe. $ 4. Defoe's other works. $ 5. SAMUEL RICHARDSON. Pamela, Clarissa Harlowe, and Sir Charles Grandison. $ 6. HENRY FIELDING. His life and publications. $ 7. Characteristics of his writings. Joseph Andrews, Jonathan Wild, Tom Jones, and Amelia. $ 8. TOBIAS SMOLLETT. His life and publications. $ 9. Characteristics of his novels. Compared with Fielding. § 10. LAWRENCE STERNE. Tristram Shandy and the Sentimental Journey. § 11. OLIVER GOLDSMITH. His life and publications. § 12. Criticism of his works. The Traveller and The Deserted Village. The Vicar of Wakefield. The Good Natured Man and She Stoops to Conquer.

§ 1. Most departments of literature were cultivated earlier in England than that of Prose Fiction. We have, it is true, the romantic form of this kind of writing in the Arcadia of Sidney, and the philosophical form in the Utopia and the Atlantis; but the exclusive employment of prose narrative in the delineation of the passions, characters, and incidents of real life was first carried to perfection by a constellation of great writers in the eighteenth century, among whom the names of Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Goldsmith, are the most brilliant luminaries. Originally appearing, as do all types of literature, in a poetical form, the rhymed narratives of chivalry, poured forth with such inexhaustible fertility by the Trouvères of the Middle Ages, were in course of time remodelled and clothed in prose, and in their turn gave birth to the long, pompous, and unnatural romances of the time of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV., which formed the principal light reading of the higher classes. In the Grand Cyrus, the Astrée, and the Princesse de Cleves, a class of writers of whom D'Urfé, Scudéri, Calprenède, and Madame de la Fayette, may be considered the types, imitated in descriptions of the adventures of classically-named heroes, the lofty, heroic, stilted language and sentiments which they borrowed from the Castilian writers. The absurdities and exaggerations of this kind of story naturally produced a reaction; and Spain and France gave birth to the Comic Romance originally intended as a kind of parody of the superhuman elevation and hair-splitting amorous casuistry of the popular fictions. Don Quixote was in this way as much a caricature of Montemayor as the Roman Comique of Scarron of the Clélie, or Grand Cyrus. In England, where the genius of the nation is eminently practical, and where the immense development of free institutions has tended to encourage individuality of character, and to give importance to private and domestic life, the literature of Fiction speedily divided into two great but correlative branches, to which our language alone has

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