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as curious evidences of the state of literary and social feeling that prevailed at that agitated epoch.
The only other names that need be cited among the dramatists of this period are those of Shadwell and Lillo. THOMAS SHADWELL (1640– 1692) wrote seventeen plays, but is now chiefly known by Dryden's satire as the hero of Mac-Flecknoe, and the Og of Absalom and Achitophel. On the Revolution, he succeeded Dryden as Poet Laureate. GEORGE LILLO (1693-1739) is in many respects a remarkable and singular literary figure. He was a jeweller in London, and appears to have been a prudent and industrious tradesman, and to have accumulated a fair competence. His dramatic works, which were probably composed as an amusement, consist of a peculiar species of what may be called tragedies of domestic life, in some respects resembling those drames which are at present so popular in France. The principal of them are George Barnwell, the Fatal Curiosity, and Arden of Feversham. Lillo composed sometimes in verse and sometimes in prose; he based his pieces upon remarkable examples of crime, generally in the middle ranks of society, and worked up the interest to a high pitch of intensity. In George Barnwell is traced the career of a London shopman - a real person - who is lured by the artifices of an abandoned woman and the force of his own passion first into embezzlement, and then into the murder of an uncle. The hero of the play, like his prototype in actual life, expiates his offences on the scaffold. The subject of the Fatal Curiosity, Lillo's most powerful work, is far more dramatic in its interest. A couple, reduced by circumstances, and by the absence of their son, to the lowest depths of distress, receive into their house a stranger, who is evidently in possession of a large sum; while he is asleep, they determine to assassinate him for the purpose of plunder, and afterwards discover in their victim their long-lost son, It will be remembered that the tragic story of Arden of Feversham, a tissue of conjugal infidelity and murder, was an event that really took place in the reign of Elizabeth, and had furnished materials for a very popular drama, attributed, but on insufficient evidence, to Shakspeare among other playwrights of the time. It was again revived by Lillo, and treated in his characteristic manner – a manner singularly intense in spirit, though prosaic in form. Indeed, the very absence of imagination in this writer may have contributed to the effect he produced, by augmenting the air of reality in his conceptions. He has something of the gloom and sombre directness which we see in Webster or Tourneur, but he is entirely devoid of the wild, fantastic fancy which distinguishes that great writer. He is real, but with the reality, not of Walter Scott, but of Defoe.
$ 13. From the time of Dryden to about the end of the first quarter of the eighteenth century English poetry exhibits a character equally removed from the splendid brilliancy of the epoch of Elizabeth and the picturesque intensity of the new Romantic school. Correctness and good sense were the qualities chiefly aimed at; and if the writers avoid the abuse of ingenious allusion which disfigures the productions of
Cowley, Donne, and Quarles, they are equally devoid of the passionate and intense spirit which afterwards animated our poetry. It is remarkable how many of the writers of this time were men of rank and fashion : their literary efforts were regarded as the elegant accomplishment of amateurs; and, though their more ambitious productions are generally didactic and critical, and their lighter works graceful and harmonious songs, they must be regarded less as the deliberate results of literary labor than as the pastime of fashionable dilettanti. EARL OF RoscomMON (1634-1685), the nephew of the famous Strafford, produced a poetical Essay on Translated Verse and a version of the Art of Poetry from Horace, which were received by the public and the men of letters with an extravagance of praise attributable to the respect then entertained for any intellectual accomplishment in a nobleman. EARL OF ROCHESTER (1647-1680), so celebrated for his insané debaucheries and the witty eccentricities which made him one of the most prominent figures in the profligate court of Charles II., produced a number of poems, chiefly songs and fugitive lyrics, which proved how great were the natural talents he had wasted in the most insane extravagance: his death-bed conversion and repentance produced by the arguments of Bishop Burnet, who has left an interesting and edifying account of his penitent's last moments, show that, amid all his vices, Rochester's mind retained the capacity for better things. Many of his productions are unfortunately stained with such profanity and indecency, that they deserve the oblivion into which they are now fallen.
SIR CHARLES SEDLEY (1639-1701) was another glittering star in the court firmament; he was a most accomplished gentleman, and his life was far more regular, as well as more tranquil, than that of Rochester: his comedy, the Mulberry Garden, is not devoid of gayety and wit, and contains several songs of merit. Many other slight lyrics prove that Sedley possessed the grace, airiness, and ingenuity, which are the principal requisites of this species of writing.
To the same category may be ascribed the DUKE of BUCKINGHAM (Sheffield) (1649-1720) and Earl of DORSET (1637–1705), perfect specimens of the aristocratic literary dilettante of those days. The former is best known by his Essay on Poetry, written in the heroic couplet; the latter by his charming, playful song~ To all you ladies now on land, said to have been written at sea on the eve of an engagement with the Dutch fleet under Opdam. It is addressed by the courtly volunteer to the ladies of Whitehall, and breathes the gay and gallant spirit that animates the chanson militaire, in which the French so much excel.
$ 14. The only poets of any comparative importance, not belonging to the higher classes of society, were Philips and Pomfret, both belonging to the end of the seventeenth century. JOHN PHILIPS (1676-1708) is the author of a half-descriptive, half-didactic poem on the manufacture of Cider, written upon the plan of the Georgics of Virgil; but he is now known to the general reader by his Splendid Shilling, a pleasant jeu d'esprit, in which the learned and pompous style of Milton
is agreeably parodied, by being applied to the most trivial subject. Such parodies are common, and by no means difficult of execution; but among them there will always be some which, either from their originality as first attempts in a particular style, or from the peculiar felicity of the imitation, will excite and retain a higher popularity than generally rewards trifles of this nature. Such has been the peculiar good fortune of Philips. JOHN POMFRET (1667-1703) was a clergyman, and the only work by which he is now remembered is his poem of The Choice, giving a sketch of such a life of rural and literary retirement as has been the hoc erat in votis of so many. The images and ideas are of that nature that will always come home to the heart and fancy of the reader; and it is to this naturalness and accordance with universal sympathy, rather than to anything very original either in its conception or its execution, that the poem owes the hold it has so long retained upon the attention.
THE SECOND REVOLUTION.
§ 1. JOHN LOCKE: his life. § 2. His works. Letters on Toleration, Treatise on
Cicil Government. $ 3. Essay on the Human Understanding. § 4. Essay on Education. On the Reasonableness of Christianity. On the Conduct of the Understanding. $5. ISAAC BARROW: his life and attainments. His Sermons. $ 6. Characteristics of the Anglican divines. JOHN PEARSON. $ 7. ARCH. BISHOP TILLOTSON. $ 8. ROBERT SOUTH. EDWARD STILLINGFLEET. THOMAS SPRAT. WILLIAM SHERLOCK. $9. Progress of the physical sciences towards the end of the seventeenth century. Origin of the Royal Society. DR. JOHN WILKINS. § 10. Scientific writers. § 11. SIR ISAAC NEWTON. § 12. JOHN RAY. ROBERT BOYLE. THOMAS BURNET. $ 13. BISHOP BURNET. His History of the Reformation, and other works.
$ 1. THE period of the great and beneficent revolution of 1688 was characterized by the establishment of constitutional freedom in the state, and no less by a powerful outburst of practical progress in science and philosophy. It was this period that produced Newton in physical and Locke in intellectual science. The latter, in his character and career, offers the most perfect type of the good man, the patriotic citizen, and the philosophical investigator. JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) was born in 1632, educated at Westminster School and Christ-Church, Oxford, where he particularly devoted himself to the study of the physical sciences, and especially of medicine. He undoubtedly intended to practise the latter profession, but was prevented from doing so by the weakness of his constitution, and a tendency to asthma, which in after life obliged him to retire from those public employments for which his integrity and talents so well fitted him. The direction of his studies at Oxford must have tended to inspire him with distaste and contempt for that adherence to the scholastic method which still prevailed in the University, and to excite in him a strong hostility to that stationary or rather retrograde spirit which sheltered itself under the venerable and much-abused name of Aristotle. There is no question that Locke's investigations during the thirteen years of his residence at Oxford had been much turned to metaphysical subjects, and that he had seen the necessity of applying to this branch of knowledge that experimental or inductive method of which his great master Bacon was the apostle. In 1664 he accompanied Sir Walter Vane, as his secretary, on a diplomatic mission to Brandenburg, and returning to Oxford in the following year, refused a flattering offer made him by the Duke of Ormond of considerable preferment in the Irish Church. His reasons for declining to take orders were equally honorable to Locke's good sense and to his high conscientious feeling. He declined the favor on the ground of his not experiencing that internal vocation without which no man should enter the priestly profession. In 1666 Locke became acquainted with Lord Ashley, afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury, and subsequently so celebrated for his political talents and for his unprincipled and factious conduct when Chancellor and the head of the parliamentary opposition. He is said to have rendered himself useful to this statesman by his medical skill, and unquestionably secured his intimacy and respect by the charms of his conversation and the virtues of his character. He attached himself intimately both to the domestic circle and to the political fortunes of this statesman, in whose house he resided several years, having undertaken the education first of the Chancellor's son and afterwards of his grandson, the latter of whom has left no unworthy name as an elegant, philosophical, and moral essayist. Locke's acquaintance with Shaftesbury brought him into daily and intimate contact with many of the most distinguished politicians and men of letters of the day, among whom I may mention the all-accomplished Halifax, Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire, and many others. Locke fully shared in the frequent and violent vicissitudes of Shaftesbury's agitated career. He was nominated, on his patron becoming Chancellor in 1672, Secretary of the Presentations, with which he combined another appointment; but these he lost in the following year on the first fall of his patron. In 1675 he visited France for his health, and his journals and letters are not only valuable for the accurate but very unfavorable account they give of the then state of French society, but are exceedingly amusing, animated, and gay. In 1679 Locke returned to England and rejoined Shaftesbury on his second accession to power during that stormy period when he was at the head of the furious agitation in favor of the Exclusion-Bill depriving the Duke of York, afterwards James II., and then Heir-Apparent, of the right of succeeding to the throne, on the ground of his notorious sympathies with the Roman Catholic religion. The Chancellor again fell from power, was arraigned for High Treason, and though the bill of indictment was ignored by a patriotic jury, fled to Holland, where he died in 1683.
During the evil days of tyranny and persecution which followed this event, Locke found a safe and tranquil retreat in Holland, a country which had so long been the asylum of all who were brought, by the profession of free opinions on politics or religion, under the frown of power; and he enjoyed the friendship and society of Le Clerc and many other illustrious exiles for conscience' sake. During this time Locke, whose bold expression of constitutional opinions and whose ardent attachment to free investigation must have made him peculiarly obnoxious to the bigotry of Oxford, was deprived of his Studentship at Christ-Church, and denounced as a factious and rebellious agitator, and as a dangerous heresiarch in philosophy. The Revolution of 1688 was the triumph of those free principles of which Locke had been the preacher and the martyr; and he returned to England in the same fleet which conveyed Queen Mary from Holland to the country whose crown she had been called to share. From this period his career was eminently useful, active, and even brilliant. He was appointed a member