The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action
A leading M.I.T. social scientist and consultant examines five professions—engineering, architecture, management, psychotherapy, and town planning—to show how professionals really go about solving problems.The best professionals, Donald Schön maintains, know more than they can put into words. To meet the challenges of their work, they rely less on formulas learned in graduate school than on the kind of improvisation learned in practice. This unarticulated, largely unexamined process is the subject of Schön's provocatively original book, an effort to show precisely how ”reflection-in-action” works and how this vital creativity might be fostered in future professionals.
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action science appreciative system become behavior building bureaucratic Chris Argyris classrooms client competence conflicting construct context cooperative inquiry critics Daedalus depends describe developer’s dilemmas Edgar Schein effects engineering epistemology of practice example experiment experimental feel function geometry Harvey Brooks hypothesis hypothesis testing Ibid idea inquiry institutional interest interpretation intuitive kind knowinginpractice malnourishment means methods model of Technical moves Nathan Glazer norms one’s onthespot organization organizational learning patient patient’s performance Petra phenomena planner planning Positivist practitioner practitioner’s problem solving problematic situation product development professional knowledge professional practice professional’s professionalclient psychiatry question Quist reflectinaction reflectioninaction reflective conversation reflective practice reflective research reframing relationship repertoire response restructuring rigor schools scientific selective inattention sense slope social strategies Supervisor teachers Technical Rationality theory of action therapy tried uncertainty understanding unique virtual world World War II