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He drew

Far from being fond of any flower for its rarity, if Such maddening draughts of beauty to the soul, I meet with any in a field which pleases me, I give As for awhile o'erwhelmed his raptured thought it a place in my garden.

Spectator. With luxury too daring. Thomson's Summer. I saw three rarities of different kinds, which But can they melt thc glowing heart,

pleased me more than any other shows of the place. Or chain the soul in speechless pleasure,

Addison. Or through each nerve the rapture dart,

It would be a rarity worth the seeing, could any one Like meeting her, our bosom's treasure ? show us such a thing as a perfectly reconciled enemy. Brerns.

South. All love, half languor, and half fire,

The dense and bright light of the circle will obLike saints that at the stake expire,

scure the rare and weak light of these dark colours And lift their raptured looks on high,

round about it, and render them almost insensible. As though it were a joy to die. Byron.

Newton's Opticks. RARE, adj. Fr. rare ; Lat. rarus.

Of raree-shows he sung, and Punch's feats. RA'REE-SHOW, n. S.

Uncommon; unfreRare'ly, adv.

This I do, not to draw any argument against them quent; scarce; excelRARE'NESS, n. s. lent; incomparable;

from the universal rest or accurately equal diffusion

of matter, but only that I may better demonstrate RA'RITY. thin; subtle : a raree

the great rarity and tenuity of their imaginary chaos. show is a rare show corruptly pronounced, and

Bentley's Sermons, therefore written: rarely corresponds with rare ; The fashions of the town affect us just like a rareeas well as rareness and rarity, which are synony- show ; we have the curiosity to peep at them, and mes.

nothing more.

Pope. This jealousy

Vanessa in her bloom, Is for a precious creature; as she's rare,

Advanced like Atalanta's star, Must it be great; and as his person's mighty

But rarely seen, and seen from far. Swift. Must it be violent. Shakspeare. Winter's Tale. I cannot talk with civet in the room, Live to be the show and gaze o' the time ;

A fine puss gentleman that's all perfume ; We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,

The sight's enough—no need to smell a beauPainted upon a pole.


Who thrusts his nose into a raree-show ? Cowper Haw rarely does it meet with this time's guise, Rare, adj. Sax. þrene; Goth. rar. UnderWhen a man was willed to love his enemies. Id.

done by the fire. Sorrow would be a rurity must be loved, If all could so become it.

Id. King Lear.

New-laid eggs, with Baucis' busy care, They are of so tender and weak a nature, as

Turned by a gentle fire, and roasted rare.

Dryden. they affect only such a rare and attenuate substance, as the spirit of living creatures.

RARE AND SCARCE Books. We are not bibTickling is most is the soles, arm-holes, and sides : liomaniacs. See the article LIBRARY: and in untne cause is the thinness of the skin, joined with the dertaking what we have there promised, to furrareness of being touched there ; for tickling is a nish the reader with a few criteria of rare and light motion of che spirits, which the thinness of the scarce, as distinguished from useful books, we skin, the suddenness and rareness of touch, doth shall not, of course, detain him long. further.


Of the date of MSS. we have already given To worthiest things, Virtue, art, beauty, fortune, now I see

the general marks in the article of that name: Rareness or use, not nature, value brings.

printed books are rare according to the date or Donne,

circumstances of their being printed; the mateBodies, under the same outward bulk, have a rial on which they are printed; the manner in greater thinness and expansion, or thickness and so

which their circulation has been interrupted by lidity, which terms, in English, do not signify fully authority or accident; whether they are on large those differences of quantity; therefore I will do it or small paper; and the manner in which they under the names of rarity and density. Digby. have been illustrated. These have been called

On which was wrought the gods and giants fight, marks of absolute rarity. Rare work, all filled with terror and delight.

Books are said to be comparatively or relatively

Cowley. rare which are of the first editions of particular For the rareness, and rare effect of that petition, I'll insert it as presented.

places; which have proceeded from the press of

Clarendon. The cattle in the fields and meadows green,

certain distinguished printers of the last three Those rare and solitary, these in flocks

centuries, as the Aldi, the Stephenses, Elzevirs, Pasturing at once, and in broad herbs upsprung.

Brindley, Baskerville, &c.; which have never Hilton.

been offered to sale or have been sold under So eagerly the fiend

different titles; and lastly which are local, or O'er bog or steep, through strait, rough, dense, or confined to particular classes of mankind in rare,

their interest; such as the topography of certain With head, hands, wings, or feet, pursues his way. places and districts, books treating of exploded


arts or sciences, the history of particular acadeHis temperance in sleep resembled that of his mists, catalogues of libraries, &c. meals ; midnight being the usual time of his going to rest, and four or five, and very rarely six, the bour books into those simply rare; books precious

Some bibliographers have further distinguished of his rising.

Fell. Abore the rest I judge one beauty rare.

but not rare; and books both rare and precious. Dryden.

The first are such as from any circumstances are Of my heart I now a present make;

difficult to be procured : their value therefore is Accept it as when early fruit we send,

often wholly adventitious, and idle clergymen and And let the rareness the small gift commend. Id. noblemen are adding to this important list every

year by printing one or two copies of an im- 855, beseeches him to lend him a copy of Cicero pression of a book on vellun ; illustrating it in de Oratore, and Quintilian's Institutions ; ‘for,' some particular way, diversifying the binding, says he, although we have parts of those books, &c. Books precious, we are told, are those which there is no complete copy of them in all France.' have been of very great expense in bringing Murat. Ant. v. iii. p. 835. The price of books out: such as splendid collections of architectu- became so high that persons of a moderate forral engravings; large collections of uniform tune could not afford to purchase them. The works on antiquities, &c., and why not Encyclo- countess of Anjou paid for a copy of the Homipædias ?

lies of Haimon, bishop of Halberstadt, 200 Books both rare and precious are those which sheep, five quarters of wheat, and the same extend to an immense number of volumes on an quantity of rye and millet. Histoire Literaire important subject, or are executed with remark- de France, par des Religieux Benedictins, tom. able care or splendor, and are therefore seldom vii. p. 3. Even so late as the year 1471, when found perfect, as the Collections of Travels pub- Louis XI. borrowed the works of Rasis, the lished by De Bry, the basis of which alone cost Arabian physician, from the faculty of medicine Mr. Grenville £240, and a copy of which was in Paris, he not only deposited in pledge a conlately purchased, as Dr. Dibdin tells us, by the siderable quantity of plate, but was obliged to duke of Devonshire for £546. Ah! it makes procure a nobleman to join with hiin as surety our heart rejoice,' says our author (and we in a deed, binding himself, under a great forfei. unite in this feeling with him, only his fear is ture, to restore it. Gabr. Naudè Addit. à l'Hisour hope), 'to think of the good old times,' toire de Loyus XI. par Comines, edit. de Fresthe golden days of the bibliomania, when colonel noy, tom. iv. p. 281. Many curious circumStanley's copy was sold; days I fear which are

stances, with respect to the extravagant price of gone, never to return : Ramusio, de Bry, Hak- books in the middle ages, are collected by that luyt, and Purchas, Caxton, De Worde, Pynson, industrious compiler, to whom I refer such of and William Faques, were then contemplated my readers as deem this small branch of literary and caressed as their beauties and merits entitle history an object of curiosity. When any person them to be!

made a present of a book to a church or a We add, as calculated to exhibit the earlier monastery, in which were the only libraries difficulties and gradual improvements in the art during several ages, it was deemed a donative of printing, the following directions for ascer- of such value that he offered it on the altar, taining editions of the fifteenth century. 1. The pro remedio animæ suæ, in order to obtain the texture and thickness of the paper is to be re- forgiveness of his sins. Murat. vol. iii. p. 836. garded : as printed books were at first imitations Hist. Liter. de France, tom vi. p. 6. `Nouv. of MSS., they were made to imitate vellum as near- Trait

. du Diplomat. par deux Benedictins, 4to. ly as possible. 2. The unequal size and general tom i. p. 481.' In these 'good old times,' to clumsiness of the type. It was, however, soon adopt Dr. Dibdin's phrase, we suppose the editor improved in these respects. 3. The absenee of of an Encyclopædia would have been at least a title pages; printer's name and abode; date when cardinal ! printed; signatures or letters marking the sheet;

RAR’EFY, v. a.& n. Fr. rarefier ; Lat. rarus and catchwords on the right hand page. Title

RAREFAC'TION. and facio. To make thin pages first began to be printed separately about

or subtle ; become thin or rare; act of doing 1470, some say 1480, but were very rare until this or becoming so: extension of the parts of a the beginning of the sixteenth century. 4. The

body. infrequency of divisions, and of capital letters at the beginning of divisions, chapters, &c. The tion resolved into wind, will force up the smoke.

The water within being rarefied, and by rarefacplan was at first to leave these to be filled up

Wotton's Architecture by illuminators who ornamented them with the

Earth rarefies to dew; expanded more gold and fine colors that enrapture our biblio- The subtile dew in air begins to soar. maniacs. 5. The little punctuation that appears,

Dryden. and particularly the omission of commas and When exhalations, shut up in the caverns of the serni-colons. Books printed about the middle of carth by rarefaction or compression, come to be the fifteenth century have no stops but periods. straitened, they strive every way to set themselves at 8. The numerous abbreviutions, as negz, quibz, liberty..

Burnet. for neque and quibus; Dns for Dominus and To the hot equator crowding fast, many others less intelligible. See Jungendre.

Where highly rarefied the yielding air

Thomson. Dissertatio de Notis Characterist. Librorum à

Admits their steam. Typograph. Incurabulo ad Ann. M. D. impres- RARITAN, a river of New Jersey, formed surum, Norimb. 1740. Dibdin's Bibliomania, by two branches, which unite about twenty Horne's Introduction to Bibliography, &c.

miles above New Brunswick. It becomes naviFinally, the reader may contrast the scarce- gable two miles above that city, at a place ness of books in the dark ages with their present called Brunswick Landing. Flowing by New abundance. Many circumstances,' says Dr. Brunswick and gradually becoming broader and Robertson (Charles V. vol. i.) * prove the scarcity deeper, it passes Amboy, and then widens into of books during these ages. Private person's Raritan Bay, which is immediately connected seldom possessed any books whatever. Even with the ocean. It is navigable for sloops of monasteries of considerable note had only one eighty tons, as far as New Brunswick, seventeen missal. Murat. Antiq. vol. ix. p. 789. Lupus, miles. The general course of the Raritan is abbot of Ferrieres, in a letter to the pope, A. D. south of east, It is intended to comect this river with the Delaware, by a canal which is to RASCIANS, or Raitzen, a numerous and ancommence between New Brunswick and Wash- cient Sclavonic tribe, inhabiting the south of ington, and join the Delaware at Croswick's Hungary. They are supposed to be the deCreek. The distance is twenty-nine miles. scendants of Christians who fled from the district

RAS EL Kuy Ma, the chief town of the Pi- of Rascia, in Servia and Bosnia, when they were rates on the Persian Gulf. There is a suburb of invaded by the Turks. They came into Hungary tamboo huts. Here are several castles, one the early in the fifteenth century, and received partiresidence of the chief, and another for laval cular privileges. Some time after their arrival stores. In 1809 the depredations of the pirates they were driven by the Turks farther north. induced the British authorities to fit out an ex- They are found at present in considerable numpedition against them. On the 13th of Novem- bers in the Bannat, in Sclavonia, and other parts ber Ras el Khyma was taken by storm, the ships of the south of Hungary. In Croatia they forin burned, and the guns spiked : the British loss a third of the population. They live in great consisted of only one killed, and four wounded. simplicity, partly employed in agricultural and In the course, however, of a few years, the pastoral occupations, and partly in woollen and enemy had repaired the place and its defences, linen manufactures. Early marriage is customary and had again become so formidable that a new among them, and their increase consequently conexpedition was sent against them, which effected siderable; but they have never exhibited, during its object with the same success. Long. 55° 30' three centuries, Mr. Malthus's fearful propensity E., lat. 25° 49' N.

to multiply. The Uscocks and Morlachians apRAS'CAL, n. s. Sax, rascal. “A lean pear to be of the same descent, but are behind RASCAL'LION, beast,' says Johnson: pro- the Rascians in civilisation. Each of these tribes RASCAL'ITY, RAS'CALLY, udi Perly a lean deer. See the calls itself by the name of Srbi, or Servians, and

fine instance of its use so all speak dialects of the Illyrian language. late as in Shakspeare, and the equivoque of Fal- RASE, v. a. ? Fr. raser, .of Lat. rasus. 'I staff which can only be thus understood. A Ra'sure, n. s. I would write rase,' says Johnmean fellow; a scoundrel: rascallion is synony- son, 'when it signifies to strike slightly, permous : rascality and rascally correspond. stringere; and raze, when it signifies to ruin,

For the rascal commons, lesi he cared. Spenser. delere.' To skim; strike on the surface; blot

And when him list the rascal routs appal, out; overthrow: rasure is the mark made by Men into stones therewith he could transmew. Id. blotting or rubbing out.

A liule berd of England's humorous deer, Mazed with the yelping kennels of French curs !

lle certifies your lordship that this night

He dreamt the boar had rused off his helm.
If we be English deer be then in blood,
Not rascul-like, to fall down with a pinch;

Shakspeare. But rather moody-mad and desperate stags,

Though of their names in heav'nly records now

Milton. Turn on the bloody hounds with heads of steel,

Be no memorial, blotted out and rased.

Was he not in the nearest neighbourhood to And make the cowards aloof at bay.

Shakspeure. Henry VI.
death ? and might not the bullet, that rased his

South. The rascal people, thirsting after prey,

cheek, have gone into his head ? Join with the traitor.

Such a writing ought to be free from any vituperaDol.—You inuddy rascal is that all the comfort tion of rasure.

Ayliffe's Parergon. you give me?

RASH, udj. Belg. and Teut. rasch; FAL.-You make fat rascals mistress Doll.

Rasi’ly, adv. Swed. and Dan. rask.

ld. Henry IV. Rash'NESS, n. s. Hasty; violent; precipiWould'st thou not be glad to have the niggardly tate : the adverb and noun substantive corresrascully sheep biter come by some notable shame?


That proud dame

Be not tash wito thy mouth, and let not thine Used him so like a base rascalion,

heart be hasty to utter any thing before God; for That old Pig—what d' ye call him-maliou,

God is in heaven, and thou upon earth ; therefore That cut his mistress out of stone,

let thy words be few.

Eccles. Had not so hard a hearted one. Hudibras. This is to be bold without shame, rash without

Ascham. Pretended philosophers judge as ignorantly in their skill, full of words without wit. way, as the ruscality in theirs.

Glanville. Who seeth not what sentence it shall enforce us Did I not see you, rascal, did I not,

to give against all churches in the world ; inasmuch When you lay snug to snap young Damon's goat ? as there is not one, but hath had many things esta

Dryden. blished in it, which though the scripture did never I bave sense, to serve my turn, in store,

command, yet

for us to condemn were rashness. And he's a rascal who pretends to more. Id.

Hooker. scoundrels are insolent to their superiors; but it Blast her pride, O ye blest gods ! so will you does not become a man of honour to contest with wish on me, when the rash mood is on me. mean rascals. L'Estrange.

Shakspeare. Jeroboam having procured his people gods, the next This expedition was by York and Talbot thing was to provide priests ; bereupon, to the Too rashly plotted.

Id. Henry VI. calves he adds a commission, for the approving, try- Men are not rashly to take that for done which is ing, and admitting the rascality and lowest of the not done.

Bacon. people to minister in that service.

South. Nature to youth hot rashness doth dispense, The poor girl provoked told him he lyed like a But with cold prudence age doth recompence. rascal. Swift.

Denham. Our rascally porter is fallen fast asleep with the

Her rash hand in evil hour, black cloth and sconces, or we might have been Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat. tacking up by this time.




gnaw iron.

The vain Morat by his own rashness wronght, he strenuously defended. He died in 1536. Too soon discovered his ambitious thought, Rastall was a zealous Papist. He wrote, 1. NaBelieved me his, because I spoke him fair. Dryden. tura Naturata. Pits calls it an ingenious comedy,

He that doth any thing rashly, must do it will. describing Europe, Asia, and Africa, with cuts. ingly; for he was free to deliberate or not.

2. The Pastyme of the People; the Cronycles

Declare the secret villain,

of diverse Realmys, and most especially of the The wretch so meanly base to injure Phædra,

realm of England, fol. 3. Ecclesia Johannis So rashly brave to dare the sword of Theseus. Rastal, 1542; one of the prohibited books in the

Smith. reign of Henry VIII. 4. Legum Anglicanarum In so speaking, we offend indeed against truth; vocabula explicata. French and Latin. Lonyet we offend not properly by falsehood, which is a don 1567, 8vo. speaking against our thoughts ; but by rashness, RAT, n. s. Sax. sæt; Fr. rat; Belg. ratte ; which is an atfirming or denying, before we have suf. Swed. and Span. ratta; raton. An animal of the ficiently informed ourselves.


mouse kind that infests houses and ships: to RASH'ER, n. s. Lat. rasura. A thin slice of smell a rat' is to suspect; be on the watch. bacon.

Our natures do pursue If we grow all to be pork ea ters, we shall not

Like rats that ravin down their


banc. shortly have a rasher on the coals for money.

Shakspeare. Shakspeare. Merchant of Venice.

I have seen the time, with my long sword I would White and black was all her homely cheer,

have made you four tall fellows skip like rats. Id. And rashers of singed bacon on the coals.

Quoth Hudibras, I smell a rat,

Ralpho, thou dost prevaricate. Hudibras. Quenches his thirst with ale in nut-brown bowls,

Thus horses will knable at walls, and rats will And takes the hasty rasher from the coals. King.

Browne's Vulgar Errours. RASP,v. a.& n.s.) Fr. rasper ; Ital.raspure ;

If in despair he goes out of the way like a rat with

a dose of arsenick, why he dies nobly. Dennis. RASP'ATORY, n. s. S Span. raspar. To rub to powder with a rough file; the file used : a sur

Rat, in zoology. See Mus. geon's rasp.

RATAFIA is prepared from the kernels, &c.

Ratafia of Having prepared hard woods and ivory for the of several other kinds of fruits. lathe with rasping, they pitch it between the pikes.

cherries is prepared by bruising the cherries, and

Moxon. putting them into a vessel, wherein brandy has Case-hardening is used by file-cutters, when they been long kept; then adding to them the kernels make coarse files, and generally most rasps have of cherries with strawberries, sugar, cinnamon, formerly been made of iron and case-hardened. white pepper, nutmeg, cloves ; and to 20 lbs.

Moron's Mechanical Exercises. of cherries ten quarts of brandy. The vessel is Some authors have advised the rasping of these left open ten or twelve days, and then stopped bonez; but in this case it is needless. Wiseman.

close for two months before it be tapped. Ratafia I put into his mouth a raspatory, and pulled away of apricots is prepared two ways, viz., either by the corrupt flesh, and with cauteries burnt it to a boiling the apricots in white wine, adding to the crust.

Id. Surgery. liquor an equal brandy, with sugar, cinnamon, Rasp, n

n. s. i Ital.ruspo. A delicious berry mace, and the kernels of apricots ; infusing the Rasp'BERRY. I that grows on a species of the whole for eight or ten days; then straining the bramble; a raspberry.

liquor, and putting it up for use : or else by inSet sorrel amongst rasps, and the rasps will be the fusing the apricots, cut in pieces, for a day or smaller.


two, passing it through a straining bag, and then Raspberries are of three sorts; the common wild putting in the usual ingredients. one, the large red garden raspberry, which is one of

RATE, n. s., v.a.&v.n. Old Fr. rate ; Lat. the pleasantest fruits, and the white, which is little

RA'TABLE, adj. S ratus. Price fixed, or inferior to the red. Mortimer's Husbandry. Now will the corinths, now the rasps supply

allowance settled; tax; degree; value; princiDelicious draughts, when prest to vines. Philips.

ple of value; quantity; manner: to value at a RASPBERRY-TREE. See Rubus.

price; make an estimate. RASTADT, a town of Baden, the capital of

His allowance was a continual allowance, a daily the district of Murg, and the seat of one of the

ate for every day

2 Kings xxv. 30.

I am a spirit of no common rate ; four grand courts of the duchy. Here is an ex

The summer still doth tend upon my state. cellent manufacture of fire arms; but the town

Shakspeare. is chiefly noted as having been, in 1714 and In goodly form comes on the enemy; 1798, the seat of diplomatic conferences. On And, by the ground they hide, I judge their number this last occasion two of the French negociators, Upon or near the rate of thirty thousand. on their journey to Strasburg, were assassinated I freely told you all the wealth I had in a manner never fully explained, but supposed Ran in my veins, I was a gentleman; to have been the act of common robbers. In

And yet, dear lady, the campaign of 1796 the French obtained here Rating myself as nothing, you shall see an advantage over the Austrians. Twenty miles

How much I was a braggart.

Id. N. N. E. of Strasburg.

Many times there is no proportion of shot anu RASTALL (John), a printer and miscellaneous powder allowed ratably by that quantity of the great


Raleigh. writer, born in London about the end of the

The Danes brought in a reckoning of money by fifteenth century, and educated at Oxford. He

ores, per oras; I collect out of the abbey-book of Bur. married the sister of Sir Thomas More, with

ton, that twenty oræ were ratable to two marks of whom he was very intimate, and whose writings silver.

Comden's Remains.


Many of the horse could not march at that rute, You are come to me in a happy time, BOT come up soon enough.

Clarendon. The rather for I have some sport in hand. We may there be instructed how to name and rate

Shakspeare. all goods, by those that will concentre into felicity. Rath ripe are some, and some of later kind, Boyle. Of golden some, and some of purple rind.

May. In rating, when things are thus little and frivolons, Bring the rath primrose that forsaken dies, we must not judge by our own pride and passions. The tufted crow-toe and pale jessamine. Milton. which count nothing little, but aggrandize every af. He sought through the world, but sought in vain, front and injury that is done to ourselves.

And, no where finding, rather feared her slain.

Dryden. You seem not nigh enough your joys to rute, 'Tis rather to be thought that an her had no such You stand indebted a vast sum to fate,

right by divine institution, than that God should And should large thanks for the great blessings pay. give such right, but yet leave it undeterminate who Dryden. such heir is.

Locke. How many things do we value, because they come 'Tis with reluctancy he is provoked by our impeniat dear rates from Japan and China, which, if they tence to apply the discipline of severity; he had were our own manufacture, common to be had, and rather mankind should adore him as their patron and for a little money, would be neglected! Locke. benefactor.

Rogers. The price of land has never changed, the several

RATIFY, v.a. Lat, ratum facio. To conchanges have been made in the rate of interest by law; nor now that the rate of interest is by law the RAT'IFIER, n. s. firm; settle : he who settles same, is the price of land every where the same.

RATIFICATION.S or confirms: confirmation.

Id. We have ratified unto them the borders of Judæa. , To which relation whatsoever is done agreeably,

1 Mac. is morally and essentially good; and whatsoever is There must be zeal and fervency in him which done otherwise is at the same rate morally evil. proposeth for the rest those suits and supplications,

South. which they by their joyful acclamations must ratify. They obliged themselves to remit after the rate of

Hooker. twelve hundred thousand pounds sterling per annum, They cry, 'chuse we Laertes for our king :' divided into so many monthly payments. Addison. The ratifiers and props of every word,

Tom hinting his dislike of some trifle his mistress Caps, hands, and tongues applaud it to the clouds. had said, she asked him how he would talk to her

Shakspeare. after marriage, if he talked at this rate before? Id. By the help of these, with him above They paid the church and parish rate,

To ratify the work, we may again And took, but read not, the receipt. Prior. Give to our tables meat, sleep to our nights. Id. In this did his holiness and godliness appear above Tell me, my friend, from whence hadst thou the the rate and pitch of other men's, in that he was so

skill, infinitely merciful.

Calamy. So nicely to distinguish good from ill ? A virtuous heathen is, at this rate, as happy as a And what thou art to follow, what to fly, virtuous Christian.

Atterbury. This to condemn, and that to ratify? Dryden. Rate, v. a. Isl. and Goth. reita. To chide

God ratified their prayers by the judgment brought hastily and vehemently.

down upon the head of him whom they prayed against. Go rale thy minions, proud insulting boy;

South. Becomes it thee to be thus bold in terms

RATIO, n. s. Lat. ratio. Proportion. Before thy sovereign? Shakspeare. Henry VI. Whatever inclination the rays have to the plane

If words are sometimes to be used, they ought to of incidence, the sine of the angle of incidence of be grave, kind, and sober, representing the ill or un- every ray, considered apart, shall have to the sine becomingness of the faults, rather than a hasty rating of the angle of refraction a constant ratio. Cheyne. of the child for it.


Ratio, in arithmetic and geometry, is that RATH, n. s. Goth. and Swed. rad. A hill. relation of homogeneous things which determines Out of use.

the quantity of one from the quantity of another, There is a great use among the Irish, to make without the intervention of a third. Two numgreat assemblies upon a rath or hill, there to parly bers, lines, or quantities, A and B, being proposed, about matters and wrongs between townships or pri- their relation one to another may be considered vate persons.


under one of these two heads :- 1. How much A Rath, adj. Sax. nað, soon. Early ; be- exceeds B, or B exceeds A? And this is found

Ratuer, adv. fore the usual time: rather, by taking A from B, or B from A, and is called the comparative of Sax. nað, meaning sooner, is arithmetic ratio. 2. Or how many times, and more willingly; with better liking.

parts of a time, A contains B, or B contains A? This is he that I seide of, after me is comun a And this is called geometric reason or ratio man, which was made bifore me, for he was rather (or, as Euclid defines it

, it is the mutual habitude than I.

Wiclif. Jon i.

or aspect of two magnitudes of the same kind, Almighty God desireth not the death of a sinner, according to quantity ; that is, as to how often but rather that he should turn from his wickedness the one contains, or is contained in, the other), and live.

Common Prayer.

and is found by dividing A by B, or B by A. Thus is my summer worn away and wasted, Thus is my harvest hastened all to rathe,

And here note, that that quantity wbich is referred The ear, that budded fair, is burnt and blasted,

to another quantity is called the antecedent of the

ratio; and that to which the other is referred is And all my hoped gain is turned to scathe.


called the consequent of the ratio; as, in the ratio This is an art,

of A to B, A is the antecedent, and B the conWhich does mend nature, change it rather, but sequent. Therefore any quantity, as antecedent, The art itself is nature. Shakspeare. Winter's Tale. divided by any quantity is a consequent, gives the

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