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cylidis 1, distinguished the paragraphs-I looked in Leland: an unpleasant book of mere hints 2-Lichfield school ten pounds, and five pounds from the hospital 3.

Wednesday, 10th August.-At Lloyd's, of Maesmynnan; a good house, and a very large walled garden-I read Windus's Account of his Journey to Mequinez, and of Stewart's Embassy 4-I had read in the morning Wasse's Greek Trochaics to Bentley; they appear inelegant, and made with difficulty-The Latin elegy contains only common-place, hastily expressed, so far as I have read, for it is long-They seem to be the verses of a scholar, who has no practice of writing-The Greek I did not always fully understand-I am in doubt about the sixth and last paragraphs; perhaps they are not printed right, for TOXOV perhaps [Thursday, 18th August.-We left LleOTOX. q-The following days [11th, weney8, and went forwards on our journey 12th, and 18th], I read here and there--We came to Abergeley, a mean town, in The Bibliotheca Literaria was so little which little but Welsh is spoken, and divine supplied with papers that could interest service is seldom performed in Englishcuriosity, that it could not hope for long Our way then lay to the seaside, at the continuance Wasse, the chief contributor, foot of a mountain, called Penmaen Rhôs— was an unpolished scholar, who, with much Here the way was so steep, that we walked literature, had no art or elegance of diction, on the lower edge of the hill, to meet the at least in English. coach, that went upon a road higher on the hill-Our walk was not long, nor unpleasant: the longer I walk, the less I feel its inconvenience-As I grow warm, my breath mends, and I think my limbs grow pliable.

Sunday, 14th August.-At Bodfari I heard the second lesson read, and the sermon preached in Welsh. The text was pronounced both in Welsh and English The sound of the Welsh, in a continued discourse, is not unpleasant-Вs — zza. 6-The letter of Chrysostom, against transubstantiation-Erasmus to the Nuns full of mystic notions and allegories. Monday, 15th August.-Kad.—Imbecillitas genuum non sine aliquantulo doloris inter ambulandum, quem a prandio magis sensi 7.

Tuesday, 16th August.-[On this day he wrote to Mr. Levett.]

which, it is presumed, may be told of all great captains-ED.]

[The title of the poem is Пínu var. DUPPA.]

[Leland's Itinerary, published by Thoma. Hearne, in nine very thin octavo volumes, 1710. -DUPPA.]

[An extract from Leland.-ED.] [This book is entitled "A Journey to Mequinez, the Residence of the present Emperor of Fez and Morocco, on the Occasion of Commodore Stewart's Embassy thither, for the Redemption of the British Captives, in the year 1721." 8vo.-DUPFA.]

[The Bibliotheca Literaria was published in London, 1722-4, in quarto numbers, but only extended to ten numbers-DUPPA.] [Sie, probably for goss aporne. See ante, 17th July, and 6th August.-ED.]

["A weakness of the knees, not without some pain in walking, which I feel increased after I have dined."-Duppa.]


"Lleweney, in Denbighshire, 16th Aug. 1774. "DEAR SIR,-Mr. Thrale's affairs have kept him here a great while, nor do I know exactly when we shall come hence. I have sent you a bill upon Mr. Strahan.

"I have made nothing of the ipecacuanha, but have taken abundance of pills, and hope that they have done me good.

"Wales, so far as I have yet seen of it, is a very beautiful and rich country, all enclosed and planted. Denbigh is not a mean town. Make my compliments to all my friends, and tell Frank I hope he remembers my advice. When his money is out, let him have more. I am, sir, your humble servant, "SAM. JOHNSON."

We then came to Conway Ferry, and passed in small boats, with some passengers from the stage coach, among whom were an Irish gentlewoman, with two maids, and three little children, of which the youngest was only a few months old. The tide did not serve the large ferry-boat, and therefore our coach could not very soon follow us-We were, therefore, to stay at the inn. It is now the day of the race at Conway, and the town was so full of company, that were not very readily supplied with cold no money could purchase lodgings. We dinner. We would have staid at Conway if we could have found entertainment, for we were afraid of passing Penmaen Mawr, over which lay our way to Bangor, but by bright daylight, and the delay of our coach made our departure necessarily late. There was, however, no stay on any other terms, than of sitting up all night. The poor Irish lady was still more distressed-Her children wanted rest-She would have been contented with one bed, but for a time, none could be had-Mrs. Thrale gave her what help she could-At last two gentlemen were persuaded to yield up their room, with two beds, for which she gave half a guinea.


[In Mr. Duppa's edition, the departure from Lleweny is erroneously (as appears from what follows) dated the 16th.-ED.]

Our coach was at last brought, and we | set out with some anxiety, but we came to Penmaen Mawr by daylight; and found a way, lately made, very easy, and very safel -It was cut smooth, and enclosed between parallel walls; the outer of which secures the passenger from the precipice, which is deep and dreadful-This wall is here and there broken by mischievous wantonnessThe inner wall preserves the road from the loose stones, which the shattered steep above it would pour down-That side of the mountain seems to have a surface of loose stones, which every accident may crumble -The old road was higher, and must have been very formidable-The sea beats at the bottom of the way.

At evening the moon shone eminently bright; and our thoughts of danger being now past, the rest of our journey was very pleasant. At an hour somewhat late, we came to Bangor, where we found a very mean inn, and had some difficulty to obtain lodging-I lay in a room, where the other bed had two men.

Friday, 19th August.-We obtained boats to convey us to Anglesey, and saw Lord Bulkeley's house, and Beaumaris Castle.

There is likewise a chapel entire, built upon an arch, as I suppose, and beautifully arched with a stone roof, which is yet unbroken-The entrance into the chapel is about eight or nine feet high, and was, I suppose, higher, when there was no rubbish in the area-This castle corresponds with all the representations of romancing narra tives-Here is not wanting the private passage, the dark cavity, the deep dungeon, or the lofty tower-We did not discover the well-This is the most complete view that I have yet had of an old castle-It had a moat-The towers-We went to Bangor.



[Penmaen Mawr is a huge rocky promontory, rising nearly 1550 feet perpendicular above the Along a shelf of this precipice is formed an excellent road, well guarded, toward the sea, by a strong wall, supported in many parts by arches turned underneath it. Before this wall was built, travellers sometimes fell down the precipices.— DUPPA.]

I was accosted by Mr. Lloyd, the schoolmaster of Beaumaris, who had seen me at University College; and he, with Mr. Roberts, the register of Bangor, whose boat we borrowed, accompanied us. Lord Bulkeley's house is very mean, but his garden is spacious and shady, with large trees and smaller interspersed-The walks are straight, and cross each other, with no variety of plan; but they have a pleasing coolness and solemn gloom, and extend to a great length 2. The castle is a mighty pile; the outward wall has fifteen round towers, besides square towers at the angles-There is then a void space between the wall and the castle, which has an area enclosed with a wall, which again has towers, larger-The town has by degrees, I suppose, than those of the outer wall-The towers been brought nearer to the sea-side-We of the inner castle are, I think, eight-received an invitation to Dr. Worthington -We then went to dinner at Sir Thomas Wynne's,-the dinner mean, Sir Thomas civil, his lady nothing 5-Paoli civil-We

Sunday, 21st August.-[at Caernarvon]. -We were at church; the service in the town is always English; at the parishchurch at a small distance, always Welsh

2 [Baron Hill is the name of Lord Bulkeley's house, which is situated just above the town of Beaumaris, at the distance of three quarters of a mile, commanding so fine a view of the sea, and the coast of Caernarvon, that it has been sometimes compared to Mount Edgecombe, in Devonshire. Lord Lyttelton, speaking of the house and gardens, says, "The house is a bad one, but the gardens are made in a very fine taste."-DUPPA.]

Saturday, 20th August.-We went by water from Bangor to Caernarvon, where we met Paoli and Sir Thomas Wynne-Meeting by chance with one Troughton, an intelligent and loquacious wanderer, Mr. Thrale invited him to dinner-He attended us to the castle, an edifice of stupendous magnitude and strength; it has in it all that we observed at Beaumaris, and much greater dimensions: many of the smaller rooms floored with stone are entire; of the larger rooms, the beams and planks are all left: this is the state of all buildings left to time-We mounted the eagle tower by one hundred and sixty-nine steps, each of ten inches-We did not find the well; nor did I trace the moat; but moats there were, I believe, to all castles on the plain, which not only hindered access, but prevented mines-We saw but a very small part of this mighty ruin, and in all these old buildings, the subterraneous works are concealed by the rubbish-To survey this place would take much time: I did not think there had been such buildings; it surpassed my ideas.

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supped with Colonel Wynne's lady, who lives in one of the towers of the castle-I have not been very well.

Monday, 22d August.-We went to visit
Bodville, the place where Mrs. Thrale
was born, and the churches called Tydweil-
ling and Llangwinodyl, which she holds by
impropriation-We had an invitation to
the house of Mr. Griffiths of Bryn o dol,
where we found a small neat new-built
house, with square rooms: the walls are of
unhewn stone, and therefore thick; for the
stones not fitting with exactness, are not
strong without great thickness-He had
planted a great deal of young wood in walks
-Fruit trees do not thrive; but having
grown a few years, reach some barren stra-
tum and wither-We found Mr. Griffiths
not at home; but the provisions were good.
[Tuesday, 23d August.]-Mr. Griffiths
came home the next day-He married a la- Friday, 26th August.-We visited, with
dy who has a house and estate at [Llan- Mrs.5 Wynne, Llyn Badarn and Llyn Be-
ver, over against Anglesea, and near Caer- ris, two lakes, joined by a narrow strait-
narvon, where she is more delighted, as it They are formed by the waters which fall
seems, to reside than at Bryn o dol-I read from Snowdon, and the opposite mountains
Lloyd's account of Mona, which he proves-On the side of Snowdon are the remains
to be Anglesea-In our way to Bryn o dol, of a large fort6, to which we climbed with
we saw at Llanerk a church built crosswise, great labour-I was breathless and harassed
very spacious and magnificent for this -The lakes have no great breadth, so that
country-We could not see the parson, and the boat is always near one bank or the
could get no intelligence about it.
other.-Note. Queeny's goats, one hundred
and forty-nine, I think 7.

have no rails-One of them has a breach in
the roof-On the desk, I think, of each lay
a folio Welsh Lible of the black letter, which
the curate cannot easily read-Mr. Thrale
purposes to beautify the churches, and if he
prospers, will probably restore the tithes-
The two parishes are, Llangwinodyl and
Tydweilliog 3-The methodists are here
very prevalent-A better church will im-
press the people with more reverence of
public worship-Mrs. Thrale visited a house
where she had been used to drink milk,
which was left, with an estate of two hun-
dred pounds a year, by one Lloyd 4, to a
married woman who lived with him-We
went to Pwllheli, a mean old town, at the
extremity of the country-Here we bought
something, to remember the place.

Thursday, 25th August.-We returned to
Caernarvon, where we ate with Mrs. Wynne.

Wednesday, 24th August.-We went to
see Bodville-Mrs. Thrale remembered the
rooms, and wandered over them with recol-
lection of her childhood-This species of
pleasure is always melancholy-The walk
was cut down, and the pond was dryed
Nothing was better. We surveyed the
churches, which are mean, and neglected to
a degree scarcely imaginable-They have
no pavement, and the earth is full of holes
-The seats are rude benches; the altars

Lady of whom Mrs. Piozzi relates, that "for a
lady of quality, since dead, who received us at
her husband's seat in Wales with less attention
than he had long been accustomed to, he had a
rougher denunciation: That woman,' cried John-
son, is like sour small beer, the beverage of her
table, and produce of the wretched country she
lives in like that, she could never have been a
good thing, and even that bad thing is spoiled.'"
And it is probably of her too that another anec-
dote is told: ** We had been visiting at a lady's
bouse, whom, as we returned, some of the com-
pany ridiculed for her ignorance: She is not
ignorant,' said he, 'I believe, of any thing she
has been taught, or of any thing she is desirous to
know; and I suppose if one wanted a little run
tea, she might be a proper person enough to
ply to." Mrs. Piozzi says, in her MS. Letters,
that Lady Catherine comes off well in the diary.
He said many severe things of her, which he did
not commit to paper." She died in 1782.-ED.]
["Situated among the mountains of Caernar-
vonshire."-Piozzi MS.]
↑ [Piozzi MS.]

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3 [These two parishes are perpetual curacies, endowed with the small tithes, which, in 1809, amounted to six pounds sixteen shillings and sixpence in each parish; but these sums are increas

by Queen Anne's bounty; and, in 1809, the whole income for Llangwinodyl, including surplice fees, amounted to forty-six pounds two shillings and twopence, and for Tydweilliog, forty-three pounds nineteen shillings and tenpence; so that it does not appear that Mr. Thrale carried into effect his good intention.-DUPPA.]

4 [Mr. Lloyd was a very good-natured man ; and when Mrs. Thrale was a little child, he was used to treat her with sweetmeats and milk; but what was now remarkable was, that she should recollect the house, which she had not seen since she was five years old.-DUPPA.

5 ["Miss Thrale was amused with our rowing on Lake Llyn Beris, and Mrs. Glynn Wynne, wife of Lord Newburgh's brother, who accompanied us and acted as our guide, sang Welsh songs to the harp."-Piozzi MS.]

6 ["Dolbadarne was the name of the fort."Piozzi MS.]

7 [Mr. Thrale was near-sighted, and could not see the goats browsing on Snowdon, and he promised his daughter, who was a child of ten ap-years old, a penny for every goat she would show him, and Dr. Johnson kept the account; so that it appears her father was in debt to her one hundred and forty-nine pence. Queeny was an epithet, which had its origin in the nursery, by which [in allusion to Queen Esther], Miss Thrale (whose name was Esther) was always distinguished by Johnson.-DUPPA.]

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Saturday, 27th August.-We returned | We came to the house of Mr. Myddelton to Bangor, where Mr. Thrale was lodged (on Monday), where we staid to September at Mr. Roberts's, the register. 6, and were very kindly entertained-How we spent our time, I am not very able to tell 2-We saw the wood, which is diversified and romantic.

Sunday, 28th August.-We went to worship at the cathedral-The quire is mean; the service was not well read.

Monday, 29th August.-We came to Mr. Myddelton's, of Gwaynynog, to the first place, as my Mistress observed, where we have been welcome 1.

(Note. On the day when we visited Bodville [Monday, 22d August], we turned to the house of Mr. Griffiths, of Kefnamwycllh, a gentleman of large fortune, remarkable for having made great and sudden improvements in his seat and estate He has enclosed a large garden with a brick wall-He is considered as a man of great accomplishments-He was educated in literature at the university, and served some time in the army, then quitted his commission, and retired to his lands. He is accounted a good man, and endeavours to bring the people to church.)

In our way from Bangor to Conway, we passed again the new road upon the edge of Penmaen Mawr, which would be very tremendous, but that the wall shuts out the idea of danger-In the wall are several breaches, made, as Mr. Thrale very reasonably conjectures, by fragments of rocks which roll down the mountain, broken perhaps by frost, or worn through by rain. We then viewed Conway-To spare the horrors at Penmaen Rhôs between Conway and St. Asaph, we sent the coach over the road cross the mountain with Mrs. Thrale, who had been tired with a walk some time before; and I, with Mr. Thrale and Miss, walked along the edge, where the path is very narrow, and much encumbered by little loose stones, which had fallen down, as we thought, upon the way since we passed it before. At Conway we took a short survey of the castle, which afforded us nothing new-It is larger than that of Beaumaris, and less than that of Caernarvon-It is built upon a rock so high and steep, that it is even now very difficult of access-We found a round pit, which was called the Well; it is now almost filled, and therefore dry-We

found the Well in no other castle-There are some remains of leaden pipes at Caernarvon, which, I suppose, only conveyed water from one part of the building to another-Had the garrison had no other supply, the Welsh, who must know where the pipes were laid, could easily have cut them.

1 ["It is very likely I did say so. My relations were not quite as forward as I thought they might have been to welcome a long distant kinswoman. The Myddeltons were more cordial. The old colonel had been a fellow collegian with Mr. Thrale and Lord Sandys, of Ombersley."— Piozzi MS.]

Sunday, 4th September.-We dined with Mr. Myddelton3, the clergyman, at Denbigh, where I saw the harvest men very decently dressed, after the afternoon service, standing to be hired-On other days, they stand at about four in the morning-They are hired from day to day.

Monday, 5th September.-We lay at Wrexham; a busy, extensive, and well built town-It has a very large and magnificent church. It has a famous fair1.

[However this may have been, he was both happy and amused, during his stay at Gwayny. nog, and Mr. Myddelton was flattered by the tion of it, he (to use Mr. Boswell's words) erected honour of his visit. To perpetuate the recollec

an urn on the banks of a rivulet, in the park, where Johnson delighted to stand and recite verses; on which is this inscription:

This spot was often dignified by the presence of SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. Whose Moral Writings, exactly conformable to the Precepts of Christianity,

Gave ardour to Virtue, and confidence to Truth.

In 1777, it would appear from a letter by JohnMr. Myddelton meditated this honoar, which son to Mrs. Thrale, that he was informed that seemed to be but little to his taste: "Mr. Myddelton's erection of an urn looks like an intention to bury me alive: I would as willingly see my friend, however benevolent and hospitable, quietly inurned. Let him think, for the present, of some more acceptable memorial."-DUPPA.]

3 ["Rector of Denbigh, was second brother to the owner of Gwaynynog. He had, I suppose, been in the army, for we used to call him colonel.”—Piozzi MS.]

4 [It was probably on the 6th Sept. in the way from Wrexham to Chirk, that they passed through Ruabon, where the following occurrence took place: "A Welsh parson of mean abilities, though a good heart, struck with reverence at the sight of Dr. Johnson, whom he had heard of as the greatest man living, could not find any words to answer his inquiries concerning a motto round somebody's arms which adorned a tombstone in Ruabon churchyard. If I remember right, the words were,

Heb Dw, Heb Dym, Dw o' diggon*.

And though of no very difficult construction, the gentleman seemed wholly confounded, and unable to explain them; till Mr. Johnson, having picked out the meaning by little and little, said to the man, Heb is a preposition, I believe, sir, is it not? My countryman recovering some spirits upon the sudden question, cried out, So I humbly presume, sir,' very comically."—Anecdotes.ED.]



[It is the Myddelton motto, and means, Without God-without all!

God is all-sufficient!-Piozzi MS. p. 184.]

Wednesday, 7th September.-We came | of Chester-The town is large, and has mato Chirk Castle. ny gentlemen's houses, but the streets are narrow-I saw Taylor's library-We walked in the Quarry; a very pleasant walk by the river-Our inn was not bad.

Sunday, 11th September.-We were at St. Chads, a very large and luminous church -We were on the Castle Hill.

Thursday, 8th September.-We came to the house of Dr. Worthington, at Llanrhaiadr Our entertainment was poor, though the house was not bad. The situa tion is very pleasant, by the side of a small river, of which the bank rises high on the other side, shaded by gradual rows of trees -The gloom, the stream, and the silence, generate thoughtfulness. The town is old, and very mean, but has, I think, a market -In this town, the Welsh translation of the Old Testament was made-The Welsh singing psalms were written by Archdeacon Price-They are not considered as elegant, but as very literal, and accurateWe came to Llanrhaiadr through Oswestry; a town not very little, nor very mean -The church, which I saw only at a distance, seems to be an edifice much too good for the present state of the place.

Friday, 9th September.-We visited the waterfall, which is very high, and in rainy weather very copious-There is a reservoir made to supply it-In its fall, it has perforated a rock-There is a room built for entertainment-There was some difficulty in climbing to a near view-Lord Lyttelton3 came near it, and turned back-When we came back, we took some cold meat, and notwithstanding Doctor [Worthington's] importunities, went that day to Shrewsbury.

Saturday, 10th September.-I sent for Gwynn, and he showed us the town-The walls are broken, and narrower than those

[Dr. William Worthington, a man of distinguished learning, and an authour of many works on religious subjects. He enjoyed considerable preferment in the church, and lived at Llanrhaiadr; of which parish he was the rector. He died October 6, 1778, aged seventy-five.-DUPPA. Dr. Johnson thus notices his death in a letter to Mrs. Thrale: "My clerical friend Worthington is dead. I have known him long-and to die is dreadful. I believe he was a very good man."-Letters, v. i. p. 26.-ED.]

* [Llanrhaiadr, being translated into English, is The Village of the Fountain, and takes its name from a spring, about a quarter of a mile from the church.-DUPPA. Mr. Duppa was misinformed. Rhaiadr signifies a waterfall, and not a spring; and a waterfall was, as we shall see presently, the chief feature of the vicinity.-ED.] [Thomas, the second Lord Lyttelton. DUPPA.]

[Mr. Gwynn was an architect of considerable celebrity. He was a native of Shrewsbury, and was at this time completing a bridge across the Severn, called the English Bridge. Besides this bridge, he built one at Atcham, over the Severn, near to Shrewsbury; and the bridges at Worcester, Oxford, and Henley, are all built by him. DUFFA. See ante, p. 234, and post, 19th March, 1776.-ED.]

Monday, 12th September.-We called on Dr. Adams 5, and travelled towards Worcester, through Wenlock; a very mean place, though a borough-At noon, we came to Bridgenorth, and walked about the town, of which one part stands on a high rock, and part very low, by the river-There is an old tower, which, being crooked, leans so much, that it is frightful to pass by itIn the afternoon we came through Kinver, a town in Staffordshire, neat and closely built-I believe it has only one street-The road was so steep and miry, that we were forced to stop at Hartlebury, where we had a very neat inn, though it made a very poor appearance.

Tuesday, 13th September.-We came to lord Sandys's, at Ombersley, where we were treated with great civility 7-The house is large-The hall is a very noble room.

Thursday, 15th September.-We went to Worcester, a very splendid city-The cathedral is very noble, with many remarkable monuments-The library is in the chapter-house-On the table lay the Nuremberg Chronicle, I think, of the first editions. We went to the china warehouse-The cathedral has a cloister-The long aiste is, in my opinion, neither so wide nor so high as that of Lichfield.

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