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To explain and justify their conclusions, the various members of the National Municipal League's Committee on Municipal Program have coöperated in producing this volume. To each was assigned a specific subject for treatment, and to the editor the welding of them together.

This new Municipal Program is put forward with a full appreciation of the difficulties to be met with, but with a consciousness that it represents years of patient thought and hard experience on the part of those who have labored incessantly to improve conditions; and that it has had the formal approval and endorsement of the National Municipal League after three years' discussion.

Municipal Government in America has assumed a leading position among questions of government and this report is offered as a contribution to the solution of those phases of the problem having to do with its machinery. Two other volumes in the National Municipal League Series deal with other portions of this phase, the first, Woodruff's "City Government by Commission" and Toulmin's "The City Manager.” These may be regarded as preliminary to the present volume, which aims to give at once the philosophical and the practical arguments for the Committee's conclusions which are embodied in a Model City Charter and model constitutional provisions. So that the book is doubly valuable alike to the student and the charter draftsman.

There are numerous details to be filled in like those for a municipal court and the public library, but these are

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