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of the Conquest and the death of the last-named king, no less than 557 religious houses of different kinds were founded; and as there was a school of some sort in each, we may guess the influence of learning even in those darker times, as they are called. As to the Episcopal or Cathedral schools, the same authority informs us that they were “even better regulated, and consequently more useful and more famous.” One of the most remarkable schools mentioned during this period is that of St. Alban's. This I refer to, for a further reason ; for, besides the school in the Abbey, there was another in the town, “ under the government of Matthew, a physician, who had been educated at Salernum, and of his nephew, Gasinus, who excelled in the knowledge of the Civil and Canon Law. Of this academy Matthew Paris affirms, “ That there was hardly a school in all England, at that time, more fruitful or more famous, either for the number or proficiency of its scholars. This plainly intimates that there were many schools of the same kind in England; which is further evident from the last Canon of the Council of Westminster, A.D. 1138, prohibiting the scholastics of Cathedral Churches from taking money for granting licenses to the teachers of the schools in the several towns and villages '."
Schools were now becoming very general ; and although Matthew was educated at Salernum, enough were educated at home. The fact you have now stated from Henry goes entirely to corroborate what I said. The learning of religious houses was beginning to spread. If I am not mistaken, the first schools, not for the education of monks, but wherein youths were educated by the monks, were called “ Scholæ Claustrales ?."
The next step was to schools unconnected with the monasteries ; and the teachers in them were considered to have usurped an authority not their own. Du Cange states this in these words : “ Schola vero jus, seu eam tenendi in ejusmodi villis, inter jura dominica recensetur : adeo ut dominos laicos id sibi asseruisse, et Presbyteris ademisse colligatur in Charta Balduini de Raducriis in Monastico Anglic., tom. ii. p. 180.” He had stated above, “Scholas in villis et vicis habere jubentur Presbyteri apud Theodulphum in Capitul. c. 20. Et Attonem Episc. in Capitulari,
| Henry, ut supra, p. 445.
2 See Du Cange v. “Scholæ Monasticæ,” and again v. “Schola Christi,” the word “Scholasticus” in its ecclesiastical sense, he explains to be, “ Dignitas Ecclesiastica, qua qui donatus est, Ecclesiasticis præest, Gall. Ecolâtre."
ALETHES. It is curious thus to trace the little streams to their source, and to observe into what a mighty river they have now swelled. But was there not a proposition at the Council of Trent for the efficient restoration of schools in connexion with Monasteries and Cathedrals?
We will refer to it in Courayer's Translation of Fra-Paolo Sarpi's History of that Council. Those five quarto volumes, on your left hand, I purchased in 1829, by the advice of the lamented Dr. Burton. The two first are Courayer's Translation of Paolo Sarpi; the three next, L'Enfant's Account of the Councils of Pisa and Constance. A well-timed “ Book on Cathedral Institutions,” recalled it to my mind years after. But here it is; and I will read it to you.
“Quelques-uns proposèrent à l'égard des lesçons de rétablir l'usage qui subsistoit anciennement, lorsque les monastères et les chapitres n'étoient que des Écoles ; usage dont il reste encore des vestiges dans plusieurs Cathédrales, où les dignités d'Écolátre ou de Théologal, auxquelles sont annexées des Prébendes, sont demeurées sans exercise, faute d'étre conférées à des personnes qui en soient capables. Tout le monde jugea donc, que c'étoit une chose avantageuse et utile de rétablir les leçons de Théologie dans les Cathédrales et les Monastères. L'éxécution en paroissoit facile dans les Cathédrales, en en remettant le soin aux Évêques. Mais il y avoit de la difficulté par rapport aur Monastères. Car, quoiqu'il ne s'agit que des Moines, et non des Mendians, les Légats, pour empêcher qu'on ne touchât aux privilèges accordés par les Papes, s'opposoient à ce qu'on donnát aux Évêques la surintendance et l'inspection de ces sortes de leçons. Mais Sébastien Pighino, Auditeur de Rôte, trouva à cela un tempérament, qui étoit de donner cette surintendance aux Évêques comme délégués du Saint Siège,” &c.
3 Histoire du Concile de Trente, livre ii. c. lxii., vol. i. p. 305. Ed. 1736.
ALETHES. The result, I recollect, from Pallavicini; and it was well that in needier places the blessing of a Cathedral, or a Monastic School, descended on the heads of the poor around. From what we have said, Eubulus, I am inclined to collect that the recent Professorships of Ecclesiastical History, and Pastoral Theology in Oxford, are but “auld claes” made new again!
As you always speak in earnest, and with no sinister intent, there is no reason to disguise the truth. At the same time the Divinity and Hebrew Professorships were attached to Canonries at Christ Church before ; and the Chorister School has always been well looked to.
ALETHES. That I know; but in some Cathedrals the desire expressed in the “ Reformation of the Ecclesiastical Laws," was not carried out. In a word, the “ Scholastic Prebend” did not fulfil his duties.
Et dici potuisse, et non potuisse refelli !" But so it is in all things under the sun! The duties of individuals need looking to, or the good of the community suffers.
But here, too, is a fallacy. The keenest of mortal vision, omitting its own duties, pries into those of another. There is enough of the eagle glance, and the subtle wisdom of the serpent; but the censurer himself full often needs the “humble, penitent, and obedient heart."
True, true, Alethes ! But had the Clerici themselves been more zealous, there had not been such a forsaking in the midst of the land ! We have much to answer for one and all of us. However, since the spoliation of Church property, in Henry VIIIth's time and since, the lords of the soil have placed themselves in no enviable position. Till driven to it by the pressure from without, which caused compunction within, the vicar's stipend remained what it was before the increased value of property; and, as to the support of schools, and other charities, it is only till within of late years that such a thing has been thought of; and in many a parish I could name, even yet it is not thought of at all.
You would imply that those whose house is made of glass, should not be the first to throw stones!
The proverb is true enough, though I did not think of it. The fact is, I was painfully impressed with the fact that we had not done all that we might have done; and wicked as was the late spoliation of Cathedral property, I can scarce look upon it but in the light of a visitation. Since the Hanoverian Succession we have had too many political Divines; and many have been thrust into the “ Priest's office to eat a piece of bread.”
ALETHES. And yet, Eubulus, the intended application of forfeited Church property (for I can call it by no other name) is hardly more violent than the appropriation of the property of the Regular to the Secular Clergy.
EUBULUS. Had that been the only use made of the patrimony of the Church, the ground you take might have had more solidity ; but you know full well that it was miserably squandered on court sycophants and spendthrifts. Old Latimer lifted up his voice against the misapplication of the Church's revenue, as did others; and for this, if for this alone, their names should be had in honour.
Well ! Eubulus, you have the consolation to think that something has been done in the diocese of Chichester! I am told it was the intent of the late Bishop of Worcester, when Bishop of Chichester, had the “Écolátre," or " Scholasticus” Prebend fallen vacant during his Episcopacy, to have appropriated it entirely to theological teaching.
EUBULUS. Time passed on, and a Diocesan School was established at Chichester; and the name of the amiable Bishop Otter will ever be connected with it:
" Libertas quæ, sera tamen, respexit inertem !” It is the Priest's house, when all is said and done, Alethes, which is the “Domus Sapientiæ.” The Priesthood must teach the people, or they will be ill taught, and fall into all sorts of sectarian views and notions. This is well known under the Roman, or Papistic, scheme; and, to use an old expression of the Metamorphosis, in no hostile sense,
“ Fas est et ab hoste doceri !”
circumstances there is a move. The schoolmaster is abroad. Whether for good, or for ill, -as schemes shall be ripened,—the teaching system is in the ascendant. I shall be glad to see the ancient model abided by, as far as it is possible. The further we remove from it, the worse it will be for us. There is but one solid school, when rightly considered, and that is the School of the Prophets. All education to be beneficial must be in the hands of the Church. At last the truth seems unwillingly acceded to. Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek, have assented to an armistice!
I wish the present calm may not portend a heavier storm ! But I will confess the outward appearance of things is better : • God sitteth above the water flood !”
ALETHES, The question of the people's education is one on which I wish to be better informed. It is one, I know, on which you have long thought, and on which doubts of all sorts have risen up
I should like to know your more matured opinions.
EUBULUS. On another occasion. Meanwhile let us avail ourselves of the first day of spring,—the first genial day we have had! The