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... it is their right, it becomes their duty, to disclaim and renounce all allegiance to such government.”

"Such have been our patient sufferings, and such is now the necessity which constrains us to renounce all allegiance to Congress, or to the governments lately established by their direction.”

The history of Congress is a history of continued weakness, inconsistency, violation of the most sacred obligations of all public faith and honor, and of usurpation

-all having in direct object the production of anarchy, civil feuds and violent injustice, which have rendered us miserable, and must soon establish tyranny over us and our country.”

"To prove this let parts be submitted to the candid world :"


* * II. “Availing themselves of our zeal and unanimity to oppose the claims of the British Parliament, and of our unsuspecting confidence in their solemn professions and declarations, they have forbidden us to listen to, or accept, any terms of peace until their assent should be obtained.")

III. “They have refused to accept of, or even to receive, proposals and terms of accommodation, though they know the terms offered exceeded what the colonies in America had unanimously declared would be satisfactory unless the crown would relinquish a right inestimable to it and to the whole empire, and formidable to Congress only.”

IV. “They have excited and directed the people to alter or annul their ancient constitutions, under which they and their ancestors had been happy for many ages, for the sole purpose of promoting their measures.”

V. “They have by mobs and riots awed representative houses into compliance with their resolutions, though destructive of the peace, liberty and safety of the people.” * * * * *

* VIII. "They have corrupted all, the sources of justice and equity by this Tender Law, by which they destroyed the legal force of all civil contracts, wronged the honest creditor and deserving salary man of his just dues, stripped the helpless orphan of his patrimony, and the disconsolate widow of her dower.”

XII. “They have ruined our trade and destroyed our credit with all parts of the world.

XIII. “They have forced us to receive their paper for goods, merchandise and for money due us, equal to silver and gold, and then by a breach of public faith in not redeeming the same, and by the most infamous bankruptcy, have left it on our hands to the total ruin of multitudes and to the injury of all.”

XIV. “They have driven many of our people beyond sea into exile, and have confiscated their estates and the estates of others who were beyond sea before the war, or the existence of Congress, on pretence of offenses and under the sanction of mock trial to which the person condemned was neither cited nor present.”

XV. “They have abolished the true system of the English Constitution and laws in 13 of the American provinces, and have established therein a weak and factious democracy, and have attempted to use them as introducing the same misrule and disorder into all the colonies on the continent.”

XVI. “They have recommended the abolition of our charters.” . . .

XVII. “They have destroyed, all good order and government by plunging us in the factions of demo


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* * XIX. “They have, without consent and knowledge of the legislature, invited over an army of foreign mercenaries to support them and their faction.” ...

XX. “They have fined, imprisoned, banished and put to death some of our fellow-citizens for no other cause but attachment to the (ancient) laws and constitution.”


XXII. “They first attempted to gain the savage and merciless Indians to their side, but failing in making


gress of" in with our fello "The unstatations.

them the presents promised and expected, have occasioned an indistinguishable destruction to ages, sexes and conditions on our frontiers.”

XXIV. “They have wantonly violated our public faith ... and have not blushed to act in direct contradiction to their most solemn declarations.”

XXV. . . . “The unsuspecting confidence which we, with our fellow-citizens, reposed in the Congress of 1974; the unanimous applause with which their patriotism and firmness were crowned for having stood forth as the champions of our rights, founded on the English Constitution; at the same time while it gave to Congress the unanimous support of the whole continent, inspired their successors with very different ideas, and emboldened them by degrees to pass measures directly the reverse of those before adopted.” . . . “Congress in 1774, reprobated every idea of separation from Great Britain. ... They declared that the repeal of certain acts would restore our ancient peace and harmony; that they asked but for peace, liberty and safety; that they wished not for a diminution of the royal prero gative. And they pledged themselves in the presence of Almighty God that they will ever carefully and zealously endeavor to support and maintain the royal authority.”

XXVI. “The acts complained of have been repealed, yet how have Congress given the lie to these their most solemn professions!”... “We find them contending for liberty of speech, and at the same time controlling the press by means of a mob, and persecuting everyone who ventures to hint his disapprobation of their proceedings.”

XXVII. "We find them declaring in September, 1779, that to pay off their paper money at less than its nominal value would be an unpardonable sin, an execrable deed; that a faithless bankrupt republic would be a novelty in the political world, and appear like a common prostitute among chaste and reputable matrons ; would be 'a reproach and a byword among the nations, etc. We find the same Congress in March liquidating their paper debt at 27/2 per cent., or sixpence in the pound.”

XXVIII. “We have sufficiently shown that a government thus marked and distinguished from every other ... by the enormity of its excesses and infamy is unfit to rule a free people.”

XXIX. “We, therefore, natives and citizens of America, appealing to the impartial world to judge of the justice of our cause, but above all to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do renounce and disclaim all allegiance, duty or submission to the Congress, or to any government under them, and declare that the United Colonies, or States so-called, neither are, nor of right ought to be independent of the crown of Great Britain, or unconnected with that empire... and in the support of this declaration with a firm reliance on the support of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other and to the Crown and Empire . . . our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honour."

This Second Declaration of Independence, this time from the “Continental Congress," needs no comment as the publication of the first is the justification of the second.

That the Continental Congress in which a radical majority had overruled the voice of a wise minority was unconstitutional may be seen by reading the Articles of the “Minute Men," which organization supplied the real force of resistance to the unconstitutional procedure of the English Parliament in the colonies. These Articles are :

Articles of the Minute Men. I. "To defend to the utmost of our power His Majesty King George III., his person, crown and dignity.”

II. "At the same time to the utmost of our power and ability to defend all of our chartered rights, liberties and privileges.”

III. "And at all times and in all places to obey our officers, chosen by us, and our superior officers, in ordering and disciplining us when and where said officers shall think proper."

The King a Factor of the Charters. It may be seen by these Articles that the only unconstitutional acts complained of were those acts of the English Parliament which infringed the chartered rights of the colonies. The Colonial Charters acknowledged the King as their suzerain and the Continental Congress had sworn to maintain the rights of the Colonial Charters. This oath was their mandium to the colonists in fulfill ment of which only could they expect their allegiance.

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